Barangay

A barangay or baranggay (/bɑːrɑːŋˈɡaɪ/ (abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.)), formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In metropolitan areas, the term often refers to an inner city neighbourhood, a suburb or a suburban neighborhood.[1] The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines.[2]

Municipalities and cities in the Philippines are subdivided into barangays, with the exception of the municipalities of Adams in Ilocos Norte and Kalayaan, Palawan which each contain only one barangay. The barangay itself is sometimes informally subdivided into smaller areas called purok (English: "zone"), barangay zones consisting of a cluster of houses, and sitios, which are territorial enclaves—usually rural—far from the barangay center. As of May 2019, there were 42,045 barangays throughout the Philippines.[3]

Barangay
Seal of the Barangay
Number of barangays per province
Number of barangays per province of the Philippines.

History

When the first Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, they found well-organized independent villages called barangays. The name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning "sailboat".[2]

The first barangays started as relatively small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communities. The encomienda of 1604 shows that many affluent and powerful coastal barangays in Sulu, Butuan, Panay,[4] Leyte and Cebu, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasig, Laguna, and Cagayan River were flourishing trading centers. Some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants; in Leyte (Baybay), 15,000 inhabitants; in Cebu, 3,500 residents; in Vitis (Pampanga), 7,000 inhabitants; Pangasinan, 4,000 residents. There were smaller barangays with fewer number of people. But these were generally inland communities; or if they were coastal, they were not located in areas which were good for business pursuits.[5] These smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons. According to Legazpi, he founded communities with only twenty to thirty people.

Traditionally,[6] the original “barangays” were coastal settlements of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian people (who came to the archipelago) from other places in Southeast Asia (see chiefdom). Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine in nature. This is because most of the people were relying on fishing for their supply of protein and for their livelihood. They also traveled mostly by water up and down rivers, and along the coasts. Trails always followed river systems, which were also a major source of water for bathing, washing, and drinking.

The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners. These were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other countries also meant contact with other cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan, Han Chinese, Indian people, and Arab people.[7] These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures (sovereign principalities), ruled by established royalties and nobilities.

During the Spanish rule, through a resettlement policy called the Reducción, smaller scattered barangays were consolidated (and thus, "reduced") to form compact towns.[8][9] Each barangay was headed by the cabeza de barangay (barangay chief), who formed part of the Principalía - the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines. This position was inherited from the first datus, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who also collected taxes (called tribute) from the residents for the Spanish Crown.

When the Americans arrived, "slight changes in the structure of local government was effected".[10] Later, Rural Councils with four councilors were created to assist, now renamed Barrio Lieutenant; it was later renamed Barrio Council, and then Barangay Council.[10]

The Spanish term barrio (abbv. "Bo.") was used for much of the 20th century until 1974, when President Ferdinand Marcos ordered their renaming to barangays.[11] The name survived the 1986 EDSA Revolution, though older people would still use the term barrio. The Municipal Council was abolished upon transfer of powers to the barangay system. Marcos used to call the barangay part of Philippine participatory democracy, and most of his writings involving the New Society praised the role of baranganic democracy in nation-building.[12]

After the 1986 EDSA Revolution and the drafting of the 1987 Constitution, the Municipal Council was restored, making the barangay the smallest unit of Philippine government. The first barangay elections held under the new constitution was held on March 28, 1989, under Republic Act number 6679.[13][14]

The last barangay elections were held in October 2013.[15] Barangay elections scheduled in October 2017 were postponed following the signing of Republic Act number 10952.[16] The postponement has been criticized by election watchdogs and in both the Philippine Congress and Senate.[17] The Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting considers the postponement a move that would "only deny the people their rights to choose their leaders."[18]

Organization

Maybo Barangay Hall
Maybo Barangay Hall in Boac, Marinduque
Sulop Barangay Hall
Sulop Barangay Hall
Mariki Barangay Hall
Mariki Barangay Hall in Zamboanga City

The modern barangay is headed by elected officials, the topmost being the Punong Barangay or the Barangay Chairperson (addressed as Kapitan; also known as the Barangay Captain). The Kapitan is aided by the Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Council) whose members, called Barangay Kagawad ("Councilors"), are also elected.

The council is considered to be a Local Government Unit (LGU), similar to the Provincial and the Municipal Government. The officials that make up the council are the Punong Barangay, seven Barangay Councilors, and the chairman of Youth Council or Sangguniang Kabataan (SK). Thus, there are eight (8) members of the Legislative Council in a barangay.[19]

The council if in session for a new solution or a resolution of a bill votes, and if the counsels and the SK are at tie decision, the Captain uses his/her vote. This only happens when the SK which is sometimes stopped and continued. In absence of an SK, the council votes for a nominated Barrio Council President, this president is not like the League of the Barangay Councilors which composes of barangay Captains of a municipality.

The Barangay Justice System or Katarungang Pambarangay is composed of members commonly known as Lupon Tagapamayapa (Justice of the peace). Their function is to conciliate and mediate disputes at the Barangay level so as to avoid legal action and relieve the courts of docket congestion.[20]

Barangay elections are non-partisan and are typically hotly contested. Barangay Captain are elected by first-past-the-post plurality (no runoff voting). Councilors are elected by plurality-at-large voting with the entire barangay as a single at-large district. Each voter can vote up to seven candidates for councilor, with the winners being the seven candidates with the most votes. Typically, a ticket usually consists of one candidate for Barangay Captain and seven candidates for the Councilors. Elections for the post of Punong Barangay and barangay kagawads are usually held every three years starting from 2007.

The barangay is often governed from its seat of local government, the barangay hall.

A tanod, or barangay police officer, is an unarmed watchman who fulfills policing functions within the barangay. The number of barangay tanods differ from one barangay to another; they help maintain law and order in the neighborhoods throughout the Philippines.

Funding for the barangay comes from their share of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) with a portion of the allotment set aside for the Sangguniang Kabataan. The exact amount of money is determined by a formula combining the barangay's population and land area.

Philippine local government
Local government hierarchy. The dashed lines emanating from the president means that the President only exercises general supervision on local government.

Barangays per locality

For the total number of barangays per province, see Provinces of the Philippines#List of provinces.

See also

Bibliography

  • Constantino, Renato. (1975) The Philippines: A Past Revisited (volume 1). ISBN 971-8958-00-2
  • Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975.

Notes

  1. ^ "barangay". Oxford Dictionaries. June 25, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Zaide, Sonia M. (1999), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing, pp. 62, 420, ISBN 971-642-071-4, citing Plasencia, Fray Juan de (1589), Customs of the Tagalogs, Nagcarlan, Laguna, archived from the original on 2009-01-23, retrieved 2009-01-14
    ^ Junker, Laura Lee (2000), Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms, Ateneo de Manila University Press, pp. 74, 130, ISBN 978-971-550-347-1 ISBN 971-550-347-0, ISBN 978-971-550-347-1.
  3. ^ a b "Philippine Standard Geographic Codes as of March 31, 2019". Philippine Statistics Authority. May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  4. ^ During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines the Spanish Augustinian Friar, Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A., describes Iloilo and Panay as one of the most populated islands in the archipelago and the most fertile of all the islands of the Philippines. He also talks about Iloilo, particularly the ancient settlement of Halaur, as site of a progressive trading post and a court of illustrious nobilities. The friar says: Es la isla de Panay muy parecida a la de Sicilia, así por su forma triangular come por su fertilidad y abundancia de bastimentos... Es la isla más poblada, después de Manila y Mindanao, y una de las mayores, por bojear más de cien leguas. En fertilidad y abundancia es en todas la primera... El otro corre al oeste con el nombre de Alaguer [Halaur], desembocando en el mar a dos leguas de distancia de Dumangas...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla...Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565-1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975, pp. 374-376.
  5. ^ Cf. F. Landa Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage (1998), pp. 157-158, 164
  6. ^ Cf. Maragtas (book)
  7. ^ Hisona, Harold (2010-07-14). "The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan". Philippinealmanac.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
  8. ^ Constantino, Renato; Constantino, Letizia R. (1975). "Chapter V - The Colonial Landscape". The Philippines: A Past Revisited (Vol. I) (Sixteenth Printing (January 1998) ed.). Manila, Philippines: Renato Constantino. pp. 60–61. ISBN 971-895-800-2. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  9. ^ Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). "New States and Reorientations 1368-1764". State and Society in the Philippines. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 53, 55. ISBN 0742510247. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  10. ^ a b Zamora, Mario D. (1966). "Political Change and Tradition: The Case of Village Asia". In Karigoudar Ishwaran (ed.). International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology: Politics and Social Change. Leiden, the Netherlands: E.J. Brill. pp. 247–253. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  11. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 557; Declaring All Barrios in the Philippines as Barangays, and for Other Purposes". The LawPhil Project. Malacañang, Manila, Philippines. 21 September 1974. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  12. ^ Marcos, Ferdinand. 1973. "Notes on the New Society of the Philippines."
  13. ^ "Looking back: The first barangay polls in PH". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  14. ^ Team, COMELEC Web Development. "Official COMELEC Website :: Commission on Elections". COMELEC. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  15. ^ News, Ron Gagalac, ABS-CBN. "Barangay, SK polls to push through on May 14". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  16. ^ "Republic Act No. 10952 | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  17. ^ News, RG Cruz, ABS-CBN. "Duterte told: Get druggies, but don't halt barangay polls". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  18. ^ "PPCRV opposes another postponement of barangay SK polls | UNTV News". www.untvweb.com. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  19. ^ "The Barangay". Local Government Code of the Philippines. Chan Robles Law Library.
  20. ^ "Barangay Justice System (BJS), Philippines". ACCESS Facility. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.

External links

2018 Philippine barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan elections

Barangay elections in the Philippines were held on May 14, 2018. The election shall elect the Punong Barangay, more commonly known as barangay captains, and members of the Sangguniang Barangay, or barangay council, in 41,948 barangays (villages) throughout the country whose terms start in June 30, 2018. Barangays are the smallest local government unit in the Philippines.

Elections for the reformed Sangguniang Kabataan (SK; youth councils) will also be held at the same time. This shall be the first SK elections since 2010.

Originally scheduled for October 2016, these elections supposedly concluded the 2016 election cycle that started in May with the election of the Philippine president, the members of Philippine Congress and provincial, city and municipal officials. It was then postponed to October 2017, then was postponed further to May 2018. There were attempts to postpone it further, but Congress ran out of time to pass a law to postpone the elections further.

Upon their election, barangay captains shall elect their cities' or municipalities' League of Barangays of the Philippines chairman, also known as the Association of Barangay Captains or ABC Chairman, who will also sit on their respective local municipal or city council. The provincial ABC chairman will also sit on the provincial board. The provincial and some city ABC chairmen shall elect among themselves the national leadership of the League. The SK chairpersons shall do the same among their ranks. The SK national president shall become a member of the National Youth Commission.

The winning officials shall serve until June 30, 2020.

Bacolod

Bacolod , officially City of Bacolod (Hiligaynon: Dakbanwa/Syudad sang Bacolod) and often referred to as Bacolod City, is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Negros Occidental where it is geographically situated but governed administratively independent from it.

Having a total of 561,875 inhabitants as of the 2015 census, it is the most populous city in Western Visayas and the second most populous city in the Visayas after Cebu City. It is the center of the Bacolod Metropolitan Area, which also includes the cities of Silay and Talisay with a total population of 791,019 inhabitants, along with a total area of 578.65 km2 (223.42 sq mi).

It is notable for its MassKara Festival held during the third week of October and is known for being a relatively friendly city, as it bears the nickname "The City of Smiles". The city is also famous for its local delicacies piaya and chicken inasal.In 2008, Bacolod topped a survey by MoneySense Magazine as the "Best Place to Live in the Philippines". The city has also been declared by the Department of Science and Technology as a "center of excellence" for information technology and business process management operations. In 2017, Bacolod was awarded as the "Top Philippine Model City" by The Manila Times.

Barangay Ginebra San Miguel

The Barangay Ginebra San Miguel is a professional basketball team in the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA). It is the most popular PBA team and has eleven PBA titles. The team is owned by Ginebra San Miguel, Inc. (formerly, La Tondeña Distillers, Inc.), a subsidiary of the San Miguel Corporation (SMC). The team is one of three PBA ball clubs currently owned by the SMC group of companies, along with the Magnolia Hotshots and the San Miguel Beermen.

La Tondeña, Inc. (renamed, La Tondeña Distillers, Inc., after SMC acquired majority control in 1987) joined the PBA in 1979 as an expansion team. After some rough times during their first few seasons, their fortunes changed when veterans Robert Jaworski and Francis Arnaiz arrived in 1984, following the disbandment of the famed Toyota Tamaraws. With new players like Jaworski being veterans of the game from ages 30–35, Jaworski would also be given the role as head coach of the young Ginebra team. As player-coach, Jaworski steered the franchise to four PBA titles between 1986 and 1997. After the retirement of Coach Jaworski at the age of 52, Jong Uichico, Siot Tanquingcen and Tim Cone would be coaching the players led by the legendary "Fast and The Furious", MVPs Jayjay Helterbrand and Mark Caguioa. The most memorable players in Ginebra history would carry Ginebra to six championships.

Barangay Kagawad

A Barangay Kagawad, abbreviated as Kgwd., known in English as a Barangay Councilor and in Filipino as a konsehal ng barangay, is an elected government official who is a member of the Sangguniang Barangay, or Barangay Council, of a particular barangay. The barangay is the smallest political unit in the Philippines and the council serves as the legislature of the barangay and is headed by the barangay captain or Punong Barangay.

Barangay councils in the Philippines

The Sangguniang Barangay known commonly as the Barangay Council, and formerly as the Rural Council and then the Barrio Council, is the legislative body of a barangay, the lowest elected government in the Philippines.

The term is coined from the Tagalog words "sanggunian" and "baranggay" which means "barangay advisory council".

Each Sanggunian is headed by a Barangay Captain (the village's chief executive), and comprises seven members all titled kagawad (English: Barangay Councillor), and the Chairman of the Sangguniang Kabataan, the barangay's youth council, for a total of eight members.

As a collegiate body, a Sanggunian primarily passes ordinances and resolutions for the effective administration of the barangay. Its powers and functions are defined by the Local Government Code of 1991.

Cagayan de Oro

Cagayan de Oro, officially the City of Cagayan de Oro (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Cagayan de Oro; Hiligaynon: Dakbanwa sang Cagayan de Oro; Waray: Syudad han Cagayan de Oro; Maranao: Inged a Cagayan de Oro; Subanen: Gembagel G'benwa Cagayan de Oro/Bagbenwa Cagayan de Oro; Bukid and Higaonon: Banuwa ta Cagayan de Oro) or simply referred to as CDO, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 675,950 people.It is a chartered city and capital of the province of Misamis Oriental where governance is independent and separate from the province. It also serves as the regional center and business hub of Northern Mindanao (Region X), and part of the growing Metropolitan Cagayan de Oro area, which includes the city of El Salvador, the towns of Opol, Alubijid, Laguindingan, Gitagum at the western side, and the towns of Tagoloan, Villanueva, Jasaan, Claveria at the eastern side.

The City of Cagayan de Oro is located along the north central coast of Mindanao island facing Macajalar Bay and is bordered by the municipalities of Opol to the west, Tagoloan to the east, and the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte to the south of the city. According to the 2015 census, the city has a population of 675,950, making it the 10th most populous city in the Philippines.Cagayan de Oro is also famous for its white water rafting or kayaking adventures, one of the tourism activities being promoted along the Cagayan de Oro River.

Calamba, Laguna

Calamba, officially the City of Calamba, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Calamba), or known simply as Calamba City is a 1st class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 454,486 people.It is the regional center of the Calabarzon region. It is situated 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of Manila, the city is known as the "Resort Capital of the Philippines" because of its numerous hot spring resorts, which are mostly located in Barangay Pansol, Bucal and Bagong Kalsada.

According to the 2015 census, the city has a population of 454,486 people, making it the most populous local government unit in Laguna. It is the 5th densest city in the province with more than 2,600 people per square kilometer after San Pedro, Biñan, Cabuyao and Santa Rosa. Based on the overall rankings of the 2014 Cities and Municipalities Index, the city ranked 18th in the overall competitiveness (cities ranking) and 1st among cities in the Calabarzon region. The city is known to be the Calabarzon's richest city, followed by Cabuyao City, because of its numerous factories according to the Region 4-A Calabarzon.The City of Calamba is the hometown of the Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal.

Caloocan

Caloocan, officially the City of Caloocan, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Caloocan), or simply known as Caloocan City, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 1,583,978 people making it the fourth-most populous city in the Philippines.

It is divided into two geographical locations with a total combined area of 5,333.40 hectares. It was formerly part of the Province of Rizal of the Philippines' Southern Luzon Region. The city's name is colloquially spelled as Kalookan. It comprises what is known as the CAMANAVA area along with cities Malabon, Navotas and Valenzuela.

The word caloocan comes from the Tagalog root word lo-ok; kalook-lookan (or kaloob-looban) means "innermost area". South Caloocan is bordered by Manila, Quezon City, Malabon, Navotas and Valenzuela. North Caloocan shares its border with Quezon City, Valenzuela and Marilao, Meycauayan and San Jose del Monte in the province of Bulacan.

Carmona, Cavite

Carmona, officially the Municipality of Carmona, (Tagalog: Bayan ng Carmona), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 97,557 people.

Cavite City

Cavite City, officially the City of Cavite, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Kabite, Chavacano: Ciudad de Cavite), is a 4th class city in the province of Cavite, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 102,806 people.The city was the capital of Cavite province from the latter's establishment in 1614 until 1954, when it was transferred to the newly created city of Trece Martires near the center of the province. It started as the small port town of Cavite Puerto that prospered during the early Spanish colonial period when it became the main seaport of Manila hosting the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade and the port used for other heavy and larger sea-bound ships. Thereafter, San Roque and La Caridad, two former independent towns of Cavite province, were later added to form one municipality. The present larger Cavite City now includes the communities of San Antonio (includes Cañacao and Sangley Point), the southern districts of Santa Cruz and Dalahican, and the outlying islands of the province, including the historic Corregidor Island.

DWLS

DWLS, branded as Barangay LS 97.1, is a commercial radio station which broadcasts 24 hours a day (except during the Paschal Triduum of the Holy Week annually), featuring Contemporary MOR and OPM format. It serves as the flagship FM station of RGMA (Radio GMA Network, Inc.), a subsidiary of GMA Network Inc. in the Philippines under the Barangay FM brand. The station's studio is located at the GMA Network Center Complex, EDSA corner Timog Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, with transmitter located at GMA Tower of Power Barangay Culiat, Tandang Sora, Quezon City, Philippines.

Barangay LS 97.1 was recognized as the #1 FM radio station in Mega Manila, according to the Nielsen Radio Audience Measurement survey conducted in the month of May, 2017.

Elections in the Philippines

Philippine elections are of several types. The president, vice-president, and the senators are elected for a six-year term, while the members of the House of Representatives, governors, vice-governors, members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (provincial board members), mayors, vice-mayors, members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod/members of the Sangguniang Bayan (city/municipal councilors), barangay officials, and the members of the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth councilors) are elected to serve for a three-year term.

The Congress or Kongreso has two chambers. The House of Representatives or Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan has 292 seats as of 2013, of which 80% are contested in single seat electoral districts and 20% are allotted to party-lists according to a modified Hare quota with remainders disregarded and a three-seat cap. These party list seats are only accessible to marginalized and under-represented groups and parties, local parties, and sectoral wings of major parties that represent the marginalized. The Constitution of the Philippines allows the House of Representatives to have more than 250 members by statute without a need for a constitutional amendment. The Senate or Senado has 24 members which are elected on a nationwide at-large basis; they do not represent any geographical district. Half of the Senate is renewed every three years.

The Philippines has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form a coalition government. The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) is responsible for running the elections.

Under the Constitution, elections for the members of Congress and local positions (except barangay officials) occur every second Monday of May every third year after May 1992, and presidential and vice presidential elections occur every second Monday of May every sixth year after May 1992. All elected officials, except those at the barangay level, start (and end) their terms of office on June 30 of the election year.

Katarungang Pambarangay

Katarungang Pambarangay, or the Barangay Justice System is a local justice system in the Philippines. It is operated by the smallest of the local government units, the barangay, and is overseen by the barangay captain, the highest elected official of the barangay and its executive. The barangay captain sits on the Lupon Tagapamayapa along with other barangay residents, which is the committee that decides disputes and other matters. They do not constitute a court as they do not have judicial powers.The system exists to help decongest the regular courts and works mostly as "alternative, community-based mechanism for dispute resolution of conflicts," also described as a "compulsory mediation process at the village level."Throughout the Philippines the Barangay Justice Systems handles thousands of cases a year. Since officials have more flexibility in decision-making, including from complex evidence rules, and receive some resources from government, the courts are more numerous and accessible than other courts and therefore the courts are able to hear more cases and to respond more immediately.The Katarungang Pambarangay share characteristics with similar traditional, hybrid courts in other countries such as the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Nigeria and South Africa, among others. Such courts emerged during colonial periods as Western imperial powers introduced western legal systems. The Western legal systems were usually applied to westerners while the local dispute resolution systems were integrated into the Western system in a variety of ways including incorporation of local decision makers into the government in some way. After independence, many states faced the same problems as their former rulers, especially "limited geographical reach of state institutions, Western-modeled institutions often divorced from community structures and expectations, and resource constraints in the justice sector." Hybrid courts became a "middle ground for supporting community decision-making while simultaneously expanding the authority and reach of the state."Besides "hybrid courts", other authors have described the system as a "Non-State Justice System".

Laoag

Laoag, officially the City of Laoag (Ilokano: Siudad ti Laoag), is a 3rd class component city and capital of the province of Ilocos Norte, Philippines.

It is the province's political, commercial, and industrial hub and the location of the Ilocos Region's busiest commercial airport.

The municipalities of San Nicolas, Paoay, Sarrat, Vintar, and Bacarra form its boundaries. The foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain range to the east, and the West Philippine Sea to the west are its physical boundaries.

Laoag experiences the prevailing monsoon climate of Northern Luzon, characterized by a dry season from November to April and a wet season from May to October, occasionally visited by powerful typhoons.

Local government in the Philippines

Officially local government in the Philippines, often called local government units or LGUs, are divided into three levels – provinces and independent cities; component cities and municipalities; and barangays. In one area, above provinces and independent cities, is an autonomous region, the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. Below barangays in some cities and municipalities are sitios and puroks. All of these, with the exception of sitios and puroks, elect their own executives and legislatures. Sitios and puroks are often led by elected barangay councilors.

Provinces and independent cities are organized into national government regions but those are administrative regions and not separately governed areas with their own elected governments.

According to the Constitution of the Philippines, the local governments "shall enjoy local autonomy", and in which the Philippine president exercises "general supervision". Congress enacted the Local Government Code of the Philippines in 1991 to "provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal, term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of local units."

Lucena, Philippines

Lucena, officially the City of Lucena, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Lucena), known simply as Lucena City, is a 2nd class and only highly urbanized city in Calabarzon region. It is the capital city of the province of Quezon where it is geographically situated but, in terms of government and administration, Lucena is politically independent from the province. For statistical and geographical purposes, Lucena is grouped with the province of Quezon. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 266,248 people..

Poblacion

Poblacion or población (literally "town" or "settlement" in Spanish; Tagalog pronunciation: [pobläˈʃo̞n]) is the common term used for the central, downtown, old town or central business district area of a Philippine city or municipality, which may take up the area of a single barangay or multiple barangays. It is sometimes shortened to Pob.

Purok

Purok (English: District), also known as zone, is a political subdivision of a barangay. It is the smallest unit of governance in the Philippines led by an appointed barangay councilor. It is not, however, officially considered a local government unit. The barangay is the smallest political unit officially.A purok is typically composed of twenty to fifty or more households, depending on the particular geographical location and cluster of houses. If created and given a mandate by an ordinance of the barangay, municipality, or city, a purok could perform government functions under the coordination and supervision of their local officials.

Sitio

A sitio in the Philippines is a territorial enclave that forms part of a barangay. Typically rural, a sitio's location is usually far from the center of the barangay itself and could be its own barangay if its population were high enough. Sitios are similar to puroks, but the latter are more urban and closer to the center of the barangay, especially the barangay hall. The term is derived from the Spanish word sitio meaning 'place'.

During the Spanish colonial period the colonial government employed the reducción policy, allowing the remapping of various settlements. Several far-flung hamlets were identified, named, and organized into "sitios" so that municipalities and cities could more easily be governed through the barangay system, then known as the barrio system. The sitio does not have an independent administration; it is established purely for organisational purposes.

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