Barakat Ahmad

Barakat Ahmad (died 1988) was a scholar and Indian diplomat. He had a doctorate in Arab history from the American University of Beirut and a doctorate in literature from the University of Tehran.[1][2] Ahmad was also the First Secretary of the Indian High Commission in Australia, High Commissioner to the West Indies, and an adviser to the Indian delegation to the United Nations. He also served as rapporteur to the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid [3] and was a fellow of the Indian Council of Historical Research.[2][4] Ahmad died in 1988 as a result of bladder cancer.[2]

Hypothesis regarding Muhammad and the Jews of Medina

Ahmad says that to the best of his knowledge, he is the first Muslim scholar to deal with the Jews of Yathrib in the spirit of independent study and research.[1] In Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-examination, he questions the validity of the accepted accounts of Muhammad's expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa and execution of Banu Qurayza.

The earliest surviving biography of Muhammad are recension of Ibn Ishaq's (d. 768) "Life of the Apostle of God". Ahmad argues that Muslim historians and Orientalists have failed to take into account that Ibn Ishaq's book, written some 120 to 130 years after Muhammad's death during the Abbasid Caliphate, was strongly influenced by the environment in which it was written. Ahmad accepts Ibn Ishaq as a sincere historian, but states that "a historian is very much part of his time. He cannot isolate himself from the climate of opinion in which he breathes" and argues that "Ibn Ishaq's view regarding Muhammad's relation with the Jews were strongly influenced by his own reaction to Jewish life under the Abbasids".[5]

Ahmad further argues that the account given by Ibn Ishaq cannot possibly be accurate,[5] as, for example, states that the beheading and burial of 600-900 men would have been physically too colossal an undertaking for a small city like Medina,. He also writes that the corpses would have constituted an obvious menace to public health.[1]

To support his thesis, Ahmad also points to Jewish sources' silence about the alleged atrocity.[5]

Harold Kasimow, in a 1982 review for the Journal of the American Academy of Religion wrote:

Dr. Ahmad has carefully considered all the early Islamic sources and the Jewish writings dealing with the period...Although I was not totally convinced by the evidence presented, there were moments during my reading when Dr. Ahmad did create doubt in my mind about the accuracy of the traditional history of the time. And that, after all, was his intent.[5]

Bibliography

  • Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-examination. New Delhi: Vikas, 1979.
    • also published in Arabic as: محمد واليهود : نظرة جديدة (Muḥammad wa-al-Yahūd : naẓrah jadīdah) by [al-Qāhirah] : al-Hayʼah al-Miṣrīyah al-ʻĀmmah lil-Kitāb, 1996.
  • Introduction to Qur'anic Script. London: Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-7007-1069-8 Google Books
  • “Conversion from Islam”, in The Islamic World from Classical to Modern Times: Essays in Honor of Bernard Lewis ed. Clifford Edmund Bosworth; Bernard Lewis Princeton, 1989 ISBN 0-87850-066-9.
  • “India and Palestine 1896. 1947

Reviews of his thesis

  • Lasker, Daniel J., review: Muhammad and the Jews: A Reexamination, Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 19:4 (Fall, 1982): 826.
  • M.J. Kister, “The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza: A Re-examination of a Tradition” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 8 (1986):61-96.
  • Leon Nemoy, Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews", The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Ser., Vol. 72, No. 4. (Apr., 1982), pp. 324–326.
  • Harold Kasimow, Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-Examination, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 50, No. 1. (Mar., 1982), pp. 157–158.

References

  1. ^ a b c Leon Nemoy, Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews", The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Ser., Vol. 72, No. 4. (Apr., 1982), pp. 324-326.
  2. ^ a b c Mirza Tahir Ahmad, "Murder in the Name of Allah", Introduction
  3. ^ Rice University Archived September 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ National Library of Australia
  5. ^ a b c d Harold Kasimow, Muhammad and the Jews: A Re-Examination, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 50, No. 1. (Mar., 1982), pp. 157-158.
Al-Mahdi Ahmad bin al-Husayn

Al-Mahdi Ahmad bin al-Husayn (1231-1258) was an imam of the Zaidi state in Yemen who ruled in the period 1248-1258. He was considered by some a sacred figure on account of his violent end in battle.

Banu Qurayza

The Banu Qurayza (Arabic: بنو قريظة‎, Hebrew: בני קוריט'ה‬; alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina), until the 7th century, when their conflict with Muhammad led to their massacre.

Jewish tribes reportedly arrived in Hijaz in the wake of the Jewish-Roman wars and introduced agriculture, putting them in a culturally, economically and politically dominant position. However, in the 5th century, the Banu Aws and the Banu Khazraj, two Arab tribes that had arrived from Yemen, gained dominance. When these two tribes became embroiled in conflict with each other, the Jewish tribes, now clients or allies of the Arabs, fought on different sides, the Qurayza siding with the Aws.In 622, the Islamic prophet Muhammad arrived at Yathrib from Mecca and reportedly established a pact between the conflicting parties. While the city found itself at war with Muhammad's native Meccan tribe of the Quraysh, tensions between the growing numbers of Muslims and the Jewish communities mounted.In 627, when the Quraysh and their allies besieged the city in the Battle of the Trench, the Qurayza initially tried to remain neutral but eventually entered into negotiations with the besieging army, violating the pact they had agreed to years earlier. Subsequently, the tribe was charged with treason and besieged by the Muslims commanded by Muhammad. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered and their men were beheaded. The spoils of battle, including the enslaved women and children of the tribe, were divided up among the Islamic warriors that had participated in the siege and among the emigrees from Mecca (who had hitherto depended on the help of the Muslims native to Medina.The historicity of this incident has been questioned by some Islamic scholars and the Revisionist School of Islamic Studies.

Criticism of Muhammad

Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century, when Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, and by the Jewish tribes of Arabia for his unwarranted appropriation of Biblical narratives and figures, vituperation of the Jewish faith, and proclaiming himself as "the last prophet" without performing any miracle nor showing any personal requirement demanded in the Hebrew Bible to distinguish a true prophet chosen by the God of Israel from a false claimant; for these reasons, they gave him the derogatory nickname ha-Meshuggah (Hebrew: מְשֻׁגָּע‬‎, "the Madman" or "the Possessed"). During the Middle Ages various Western and Byzantine Christian thinkers considered Muhammad to be a perverted, deplorable man, a false prophet, and even the Antichrist, as he was frequently seen in Christendom as a heretic or possessed by the demons. Some of them, like Thomas Aquinas, criticised Muhammad's promises of carnal pleasure in the afterlife.Modern religious and secular criticism of Islam has concerned Muhammad's sincerity in claiming to be a prophet, his morality, his ownership of slaves, his treatment of enemies, his marriages, his treatment of doctrinal matters, and his psychological condition. Muhammad has been accused of sadism and mercilessness— including the invasion of the Banu Qurayza tribe in Medina—sexual relationships with slaves, and his marriage to Aisha when she was six years old, which according to most estimates was consummated when she was nine.

Fencing at the 2011 Pan Arab Games

At the 2011 Pan Arab Games, the fencing events were held at Aspire Zone in Doha, Qatar from 18–23 December. A total of 12 events were contested.

Ghulam Ali Okarvi

Shaikh ul Quran Ghulam Ali Okarvi (Urdu: غلام علی اوکاڑوی‬‎) (11 June 1919 CE or 20 Ramadan 1337 AH – 16 May 2000 CE or 11 Safar 1421 AH) was an Islamic scholar, orator, jurist, muhadis, mufasir, linguistician, in Pakistan. He carried out the duty of teaching Qur'aan and Ahadeeth for more than 50 years, and made thousands of individuals into scholars called "Sheikh-ul-Islaam wal Muslimeen". Even the Ulama of Egypt, Syria and Iraq have sought permission from him to teach Hadeeth and Tafseer. Naqeebul Ashraaf, Saiyyid Peer Tahir Allauddin Al-Qadri Al-Gillani used to refer to him with the title of "Ustaazu Asaatiza tina" (Teacher of our teachers).

Ibn al-Mustawfi

Mubarak Bin Ahmad Sharaf-Aldin Abu al-Barakat Ibn al-Mustawfi (1169-1239), a famous Kurdish historian of Erbil, who was born in the ancient citadel of Erbil. He has written in several areas, history, literature and language. His masterpiece is a four volumes book of (History of Erbil).Ibn Khallikan said about him in his book "Wafayat al-Ayan": He was a dignified person, he had great humility, broad generosity, every virtuous person visited Arbil hastened to visit him, he had great virtues, Knowledgeable of many arts.

List of Ahmadis

This is an incomplete list of notable or famous Ahmadi Muslims, members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community – a movement within Islam.

List of distinguished Ahmadis notable as religious figures, royalty, politicians, United Nations executives, artists, military personnel, businessmen, economists, scientists and sportspersons.

Muhammad

Muhammad (Arabic: مُحمّد‎, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. He was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib's wife Fatimah bint Asad. In later years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer. When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, and receiving his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God is the right course of action (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

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