Bar (music)

In musical notation, a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines. Dividing music into bars provides regular reference points to pinpoint locations within a musical composition. It also makes written music easier to follow, since each bar of staff symbols can be read and played as a batch.[1] Typically, a piece consists of several bars of the same length, and in modern musical notation the number of beats in each bar is specified at the beginning of the score by the time signature. In simple time, (such as 3
4
), the top figure indicates the number of beats per bar, while the bottom number indicates the note value of the beat (the beat has a quarter note value in the 3
4
example).

The word bar is more common in British English, and the word measure is more common in American English, although musicians generally understand both usages. In American English, although the words bar and measure are often used interchangeably, the correct use of the word 'bar' refers only to the vertical line itself, while the word 'measure' refers to the beats contained between bars.[2] In international usage, it is equally correct to speak of bar numbers and measure numbers, e.g. ‘bars 9–16’ or ‘mm. 9–16’. Along the same lines, it is wise to reserve the abbreviated form ‘bb. 3–4’ etc. for beats only; bars should be referred to by name in full.

The first metrically complete bar within a piece of music is called ‘bar 1’ or ‘m. 1’. When the piece begins with an anacrusis (an incomplete bar at the head of a piece of music), ‘bar 1’ or ‘m. 1’ is the following bar.

Barlines
Types of bar lines
15 bars multirest
Fifteen bar multirest

Bar

Originally, the word bar came from the vertical lines drawn through the staff to mark off metrical units and not the bar-like (i.e., rectangular) dimensions of a typical measure of music. In British English, these vertical lines are called bar, too, but often the term bar line is used in order to make the distinction clear. A double bar line (or double bar) can consist of two single bar lines drawn close together, separating two sections within a piece, or a bar line followed by a thicker bar line, indicating the end of a piece or movement. Note that double bar refers not to a type of bar (i.e., measure), but to a type of bar line. Another term for the bar line denoting the end of a piece of music is music end.[3]

A repeat sign (or, repeat bar line[4]) looks like the music end, but it has two dots, one above the other, indicating that the section of music that is before is to be repeated. The beginning of the repeated passage can be marked by a begin-repeat sign; if this is absent the repeat is understood to be from the beginning of the piece or movement. This begin-repeat sign, if appearing at the beginning of a staff, does not act as a bar line because no bar is before it; its only function is to indicate the beginning of the passage to be repeated.

In music with a regular meter, bars function to indicate a periodic accent in the music, regardless of its duration. In music employing mixed meters, bar lines are instead used to indicate the beginning of rhythmic note groups, but this is subject to wide variation: some composers use dashed bar lines, others (including Hugo Distler) have placed bar lines at different places in the different parts to indicate varied groupings from part to part.

Igor Stravinsky said of bar lines:

The bar line is much, much more than a mere accent, and I don't believe that it can be simulated by an accent, at least not in my music.[5]

Bars and bar lines also indicate grouping: rhythmically of beats within and between bars, within and between phrases, and on higher levels such as meter.

History

The earliest barlines, used in keyboard and vihuela music in the 15th and 16th centuries, didn't reflect a regular meter at all but were only section divisions, or in some cases marked off every beat.

Barlines began to be introduced into ensemble music in the late 16th century but continued to be used irregularly for a time. Not until the mid-17th century were barlines used in the modern style with every measure being the same length, and they began to be associated with time signatures.[6]

Modern editions of early music that was originally notated without barlines sometimes use a mensurstrich as a compromise.

Hypermeasure

Hypermeter
Hypermeter: 4 beat measure, 4 measure hypermeasure, and 4 hypermeasure verses. Hyperbeats in red.

A hypermeasure, large-scale or high-level measure, or measure-group is a metric unit in which, generally, each regular measure is one beat (actually hyperbeat) of a larger meter. Thus a beat is to a measure as a measure/hyperbeat is to a hypermeasure. Hypermeasures must be larger than a notated bar, perceived as a unit, consist of a pattern of strong and weak beats, and along with adjacent hypermeasures, which must be of the same length, create a sense of hypermeter. The term was coined by Edward T. Cone in Musical Form and Musical Performance (New York: Norton, 1968),[7] and is similar to the less formal notion of a phrase.

See also

References

  1. ^ ChordWizard Software. "www.howmusicworks.org". Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  2. ^ Read, Gardner. (1979) Music Notation: A Manual of Modern Practice, 2nd ed., New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, p.183.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) − Chart of Musical Symbols
  4. ^ Nickol, Peter (2008). Learning to Read Music, p.105. ISBN 1-84528-278-7.
  5. ^ Winold, Allen (1975). "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music", Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Wittlich, Gary (ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice–Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  6. ^ Harvard Dictionary of Music, Second ed. (1972), "Barline"
  7. ^ Stein, Deborah (2005). Engaging Music: Essays in Music Analysis, p.18-19 and "Glossary", p.329. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517010-5.

Further reading

  • Cone, Edward T. (1968). Musical Form and Musical Performance. ISBN 0-393-09767-6.
Babylon (David Gray song)

"Babylon" is a song by the British singer-songwriter David Gray. Originally released on 12 July 1999 as the second single from his fourth album, White Ladder, it was re-released as the fourth single on 12 June 2000. It is his highest-selling single to date, peaking at number five on the UK Singles Chart in June 2000 and receiving a Gold certification in November 2017. The single also performed well in the United States, peaking at number 57 on the Billboard Hot 100, number one on the Billboard Adult Alternative Songs chart, and number eight on the Billboard Adult Top 40 chart. Elsewhere, the song reached number 31 in both Ireland and New Zealand while becoming a minor hit in Australia, Germany and the Netherlands.

A remix titled "Babylon II" appears exclusively on the US version of the album. The B-side "Over My Head" also appears on the Japanese pressing of the album as a bonus track. Remixes by Flightcrank were also commissioned in 2000, appearing on promo-only releases.

Baiyoke Tower II

Baiyoke Tower II (Thai: ใบหยก 2; RTGS: Bai Yok Song) is an 88-storey, 309 m (1,014 ft) skyscraper hotel at 222 Ratchaprarop Road in the Ratchathewi District of Bangkok, Thailand. It is the second tallest building in the city after MahaNakhon, and comprises the Baiyoke Sky Hotel, the tallest hotel in Southeast Asia and the seventh-tallest all-hotel structure in the world.With the antenna included, the building's height is 328.4 m (1,077 ft), and features a public observatory on the 77th floor, a bar called "Roof Top Bar & Music Lounge" on the 83rd floor, a 360-degree revolving roof deck on the 84th floor and the hotel offers 673 guest rooms. Construction on the building ended in 1997, with the antenna being added two years later. The Baiyoke Sky Hotel website notes the height without the antenna as 309 m (1,014 ft), but the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), Emporis and SkyscraperPage note it as 304 m (997 ft).

Blue Monk (Portland, Oregon)

The Blue Monk was a bar, music venue, and restaurant in southeast Portland, Oregon, in the United States. Upstairs featured a restaurant with an open kitchen serving mostly Italian cuisine, while downstairs hosted music performances in a variety of genres, but mostly jazz. The business closed in April 2014 after its lease was bought out by an undisclosed party.

Buddha Bar compilation albums

The Buddha Bar compilation albums are a widely acclaimed series of compilation albums issued by the Buddha Bar bar, restaurant, and hotel franchise created by restaurateur Raymond Visan and DJ and interior designer Claude Challe in Paris, France. Following its establishment, the Buddha Bar "became a reference among foreign yuppies and wealthy tourists visiting the city", and "has spawned numerous imitators", becoming popular in part because of the DJ's choice of eclectic, avant-garde music. It became known internationally for issuing popular compilations of lounge, chill-out music and world music, also under the Buddha Bar brand, released by George V Records. Buddha Bar began issuing compilations in 1999, and has since "made a name for itself with its Zen lounge music CDs and remains a hit – especially with tourists".In 2001, a Billboard Magazine critic placed the compilation in his "top ten" musical events of the year, stating of proprietor Claude Challe that "[t]he legendary master of pop and dance music in France has aroused the attention of the global chill-out community with this series of mixed compilations", and concluding that "Buddha Bar is not only a good restaurant in France but also one of the best music experiments to come out of France in the past few years". On a more critical note, the Oxford Handbook of Music Revival describes the music of the Buddha Bar collection as "close to muzak-like mixtures with neither recognizable original components nor clearly identifiable new structures". Another commentator wrote:

Challe quit his partnership in 1993 and returned to Paris where he subsequently opened the internationally acclaimed Buddha Bar. ... Similarly to Café del Mar, Buddha Bar also released CD compilations featuring "lounge", "world" music, a successful enterprise that suggests the striking inequalities associated with the commodification of Third-World art: whereas cassette tapes of Pakistani singer Nusrat Ali Khan are sold in India for about US$1, the same songs remixed within a deluxe Buddha Bar CD are priced in the West at about US$50.

Challe compiled and produced the first two Buddha Bar albums. The series thereafter continued with different DJs, including DJ Ravin, Sam Popat, and David Visan (son of Buddha Bar founder Raymond Visan). The Buddha Bar has also released some original music for its albums, specifically the songs "Buddha Bar Nature" and "Buddha-Bar Ocean", composed and produced by Arno Elias, the composer of "Amor Amor" from Buddha Bar 2, and Amanaska. This release included a DVD of nature and ocean footage directed by Allain Bougrain-Dubourg.

Club Quilox

Club Quilox is a luxurious style nightclub in Victoria Island, Lagos owned by Shina Peller. Housed in a massive building, Club Quilox also operates a restaurant and bar. It opened in 2013, as one of the biggest and most expensive nightclubs in Nigeria.

Hollywood Athletic Club

The Hollywood Athletic Club is an office building and event space in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.

Since it was built in 1924, it has had a varied history as a health club, bar, music venue and billiard room.

It is located on Sunset Boulevard.

Index of music articles

This page is an alphabetized index of articles about music.

Kerbdog

Kerbdog are an alternative metal band from Kilkenny, Ireland who formed in 1991. Following two major-label albums released on Mercury Records, the band split up in 1998. Since 2005 the band has reformed for a series of occasional one-off performances in Ireland and England. In 2012, a live album was recorded entitled Congregation and was released in October 2014.

Korova (Liverpool)

Korova was a bar, music venue and restaurant located at

32 Hope Street, Liverpool, England. Before moving to its current premises, it was located on Fleet Street close to Concert Square. Its name referenced the Korova Milk Bar from A Clockwork Orange.. It has since been relaunched as "Frederick's".

Live painting

Live painting is a form of visual performance art, in which artists complete a visual art piece in a public performance, often at a bar, music concert, wedding reception, or public event, accompanied by a DJ or live music. The artwork which is created live may be planned or improvisational. This live art form is often contrasted with more studied fine art compositions from the same artists, which are generally executed in an artist studio or other private space.

Artists in a number of genres have performed live painting, including famously LeRoy Neiman creating a painting during the 1976 Summer Olympics. In the 1990s and 2000s, live painting became a hallmark of street art and graffiti artists.

Live painting has evolved beyond painting in situ by the impressionists, to incorporating the general public and arenas' of Modern Times. One of Australias famous exponents of 'Live Painting' performance art, Robert K Gammage has introduced the physical participation by spectators/hosts and or guests of adding imagery and colour in situ in the public domain during the event. Caitlin Beidler, an American artist of Redemption Art uses her live paintings to restore people, relationships, and communities through art. Redemption Art aims to be an effective tool in the restoration process by first creating trusting relationships through art, regardless of race, age, culture, or socioeconomic status. From these relationships, Redemption Art seeks to help bring about restoration and then transformation.

The Live Artist teams from Haven Art Studio are examples of Live Artists who collaborate on works of art during Live Art Performances. These artist teams were started in 2005 by the eight members of the Randolph family, based in Redding, California. They paint thematic works that echo world events with a positive redemption message.

Logan Marshall-Green

Logan Marshall-Green (born November 1, 1976) is an American actor. He is known for his roles in the television series 24, The O.C., Traveler, Dark Blue and Quarry, as well as his roles in the films Prometheus, Spider-Man: Homecoming and Upgrade.

Minghua (ship)

Minghua, formerly MV Ancerville, is a 1962 French passenger ship. Now landlocked, it is the centerpiece of the Sea World development in Shekou, Shenzhen, China.

Pizza Hut

Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise which was founded in 1958 by Dan and Frank Carney. The company is known for its Italian-American cuisine menu, including pizza and pasta, as well as side dishes and desserts. Pizza Hut has 18,431 restaurants worldwide as of December 31, 2018, making it the world's largest pizza chain in terms of locations. It is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., one of the world's largest restaurant companies.

Project Arts Centre

Project Arts Centre is a multidisciplinary arts centre based in Temple Bar, Dublin, which hosts visual arts, theatre, dance, music, and performance.

Salsa (dance)

Salsa is a popular form of social dance originating from Cuban folk dances. The movements of Salsa are a combination of the Afro-Cuban dances Son, cha-cha-cha, Mambo, Rumba, and the Danzón. The dance, along with salsa music, saw major development in the mid-1970s in New York. Different regions of Latin America and the United States have distinct salsa styles of their own, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Cali Colombia, L.A. and New York styles. Salsa dance socials are commonly held in night clubs, bars, ballrooms, restaurants, and outside, especially when part of an outdoor festival.

In many styles of salsa dancing, as a dancer shifts their weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Weight shifts cause the hips to move. Arm and shoulder movements are also incorporated. Salsa generally uses music ranging from about 150 bpm (beats per minute) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160–220 bpm. The basic Salsa dance rhythm consists of taking three steps for every four beats of music. The odd number of steps creates the syncopation inherent to Salsa dancing and ensures that it takes 8 beats of music to loop back to a new sequence of steps.

Syncopation

In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected, making part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat. More simply, syncopation is "a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm": a "placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur". It is the correlation of at least two sets of time intervals.Syncopation is used in many musical styles, especially dance music: "All dance music makes use of syncopation, and it's often a vital element that helps tie the whole track together". In the form of a back beat, syncopation is used in virtually all contemporary popular music.Syncopation can also occur when a strong harmony is placed on a weak beat, for instance, when a 7th-chord is placed on the second beat of 34 measure or a dominant chord is placed at the fourth beat of a 44 measure. The latter frequently occurs in tonal cadences in 18th- and early-19th-century music and is the usual conclusion of any section.

A hemiola can also be seen as one straight measure in three with one long chord and one short chord and a syncope in the measure thereafter, with one short chord and one long chord. Usually, the last chord in a hemiola is a (bi-)dominant, and as such a strong harmony on a weak beat, hence a syncope.

Tacet

Tacet is Latin which translates literally into English as "(it) is silent" (pronounced: , , or ). It is a musical term to indicate that an instrument or voice does not sound, also known as a rest. In vocal polyphony and in orchestral scores, it usually indicates a long period of time, typically an entire movement. In more modern music such as jazz, tacet tends to mark considerably shorter breaks. Multirests, or multiple-measure rests, are rests which last multiple measures (or multiple rests, each of which lasts an entire measure).

Tacet. (Lat.) A word by which the performer is to understand that the instrument with the name of which it is conjoined is to be silent: a Violino Tacet; the violin is not to play: Oboe Tacet; the oboe is silent.

It was common for early symphonies to leave out the brass or percussion in certain movements, especially in slow (second) movements, and this is the instruction given in the parts for the player to wait until the end of the movement.

It is also commonly used in accompaniment music to indicate that the instrument does not play on a certain run through a portion of the music, i.e., "Tacet 1st time." The phrase tacet al fine is used to indicate that the performer should remain silent for the remainder of the piece (or portion thereof), and need not, for example, count rests.

Tacet may be appropriate when a particular instrument/voice/section, "is to rest for an entire section, movement, or composition." "Partial rests, of course, in every case must be written in. Even though it means 'silent,' the term tacet...is not a wise substitution for a lengthy rest within a movement...The term tacet, therefore, should be used only to indicate that a player rests throughout an entire movement. In printed music this would be indicated:"

"N.C." ("no chord") is often used in guitar tablature or chord charts to indicate tacets, rests, or caesuras in the accompaniment.

Triple Rock Social Club

The Triple Rock Social Club was a bar, music venue, and restaurant in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, co-owned by Gretchen Funk and Erik Funk of the punk band Dillinger Four.The club is mentioned in the Motion City Soundtrack song "Better Open the Door", as the "T-Rock" in the Doomtree song "Bangarang", and in the Limbeck song "Home Is Where The Van Is." The Bomb the Music Industry! four-part song "King of Minneapolis" is based on a night spent at the club by vocalist/guitarist Jeff Rosenstock. It is featured in the song "Seeing Double At The Triple Rock" by Fat Wreck Chords labelmates NOFX; the video for the song was shot at the club.

The bar first opened in 1998. It sells foreign and independently brewed beers and offers vegetarian/vegan dishes in addition to standard bar fare. The venue portion of the club opened in June 2003, with Lifter Puller reuniting for the first show. The Triple Rock is a common venue for local and up-and-coming bands to play. Nationally known bands have also played at the club.

The name of the club is taken from the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. The Triple Rock Baptist Church (whose pastor is James Brown) is the site where the brothers receive their "mission from God".

On October 16, 2017, the club announced it will be closing its doors on November 22, 2017. November 21, 2017, the final show at the Triple Rock occurred, headlined by Negative Approach and Dillinger Four.

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Sheet music
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