Banu may refer to:
BANU may refer to:
Banu (Persian: بنو, also Romanized as Banū) is a village in Siyahu Rural District, Fin District, Bandar Abbas County, Hormozgan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah
Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: بني أسد/ بنو أسد) is an Arab tribe. They are Adnanite Arabs, powerful and one of the most famous tribes. They are widely respected by many Arab tribes, respected by Shia Muslims because they have buried the body of Husayn ibn Ali, his family (Ahl al-Bayt) and companions with the help of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the son of Husayn, and many martyrs from the Battle of Karbala are from the tribe. Today, many members of the tribe live in the Iraqi cities of Basra, Najaf, Kufa, Karbala, Nasiriyah, Amarah, Kut, Hillah, Diyala and Baghdad. There is a branch from the Banu Assad in Northern Sudan called Banu Kahil who have migrated from the Hijaz to Sudan. There are also members of Bani Assad tribe in Ahvaz in the Khuzestan of Iran located with neighboring tribes of Banu Tamim, Bani Malik, Banu Kaab and other notable Arab tribes.Banu Aws
The Banū Aws (Arabic: بنو أوس pronounced [ˈbanuː ʔaws], "Sons of Aws") or simply Aws (Arabic: أوس, also romanised as Aus) was one of the main Arab tribes of Medina. The other was Khazraj, and the two, constituted the Ansar ("helpers [of Muhammad]") after the Hijra.Aws and Khazraj are descendants of Azd tribe and were known as Banū Qayla (بنو قيلة [ˈbænuː ˈqɑjlæ]) in pre-Islamic era.Banu Hashim
Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe. The Islamic prophet, Muhammad was a member of this Arab tribe; his great-grandfather was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to as Hashemites. Descendants of Muhammed usually carry the titles Sayyid, Syed, Hashmi, Sayed and Sharif, or the Ashraf clan (synonymous to Ahl al-Bayt).Banu Hilal
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century. Masters of the vast plateaux of Najd, they enjoyed a somewhat infamous reputation, possibly owing to their relatively late (for the Arabian tribes) conversion to Islam and accounts of their campaigns in the borderlands between Iraq and Syria. With the revolutionary movement of the Qarmatians in Bahrain and Oman, they participated in the pillage of Mecca in 930 in their fight against the Fatimid Caliphate. When the latter became masters of Egypt and the founders of Cairo in 969, they hastened to confine the unruly Bedouin in the south before sending them to the Maghreb.Banu Ifran
The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabic: بنو يفرن, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa. In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria with Tlemcen as its capital.
The Banu Ifran resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad invaders. In the eighth century they mobilized around the dogma of sufri, revolting against the Arab Umayyads and Abbasids.
In the 10th century they founded a dynasty opposed to the Fatimids, the Zirids, the Umayyads, the Hammadids and the Maghraoua. The Banu Ifran were defeated by the Almoravids and the invading Arabs (the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym) to the end of the 11th century.
The Ifranid dynasty was recognized as the only dynasty that has defended the indigenous people of the Maghreb, by the Romans referred to as the Africani.
In 11th century Iberia, the Ifrenid founded a Taifa of Ronda since 1039 at Ronda in Andalusia and governed from Cordoba for several centuries.Banu Khazraj
The Banu al-Khazraj (Arabic: بنو الخزرج Arabic pronunciation: [ˈbɛ.nʊl.ˈxɑz.ɾɑd͡ʒ]) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era. The Banu al-Khazraj are renowned for their generosity and hospitality.Aws and Khazraj are descendants of Azd tribe and were known as Banū Qayla (بنو قيلة [ˈbɛ.nuː ˈqɑj.lɛh]) in pre-Islamic era.Banu Nadir
The Banu Nadir (Arabic: بنو النضير, Hebrew: בני נצ'יר) were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina. The tribe challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina, planned along with allied nomads to attack Muhammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banu Nadir then planned the battle of the Trench together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.Banu Qaynuqa
The Banu Qaynuqa (Arabic: بنو قينقاع; Hebrew: בני קינקאע; also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Banu Qaynuqa) was one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. In 624,
the great-grandfather of Banu Qaynuqa tribe is Qaynuqa ibn Amchel ibn Munshi ibn Yohanan ibn Benjamin ibn Saron ibn Naphtali ibn Hayy ibn Moses and they are descendant of Manasseh ibn Joseph ibn Jacob ibn Isaac son of Abraham. They were expelled during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa, after breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina.Banu Qurayza
The Banu Qurayza (Arabic: بنو قريظة, Hebrew: בני קוריט'ה; alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina), until the 7th century, when their conflict with Muhammad led to their massacre.
Jewish tribes reportedly arrived in Hijaz in the wake of the Jewish-Roman wars and introduced agriculture, putting them in a culturally, economically and politically dominant position. However, in the 5th century, the Banu Aws and the Banu Khazraj, two Arab tribes that had arrived from Yemen, gained dominance. When these two tribes became embroiled in conflict with each other, the Jewish tribes, now clients or allies of the Arabs, fought on different sides, the Qurayza siding with the Aws.In 622, the Islamic prophet Muhammad arrived at Yathrib from Mecca and reportedly established a pact between the conflicting parties. While the city found itself at war with Muhammad's native Meccan tribe of the Quraysh, tensions between the growing numbers of Muslims and the Jewish communities mounted.In 627, when the Quraysh and their allies besieged the city in the Battle of the Trench, the Qurayza initially tried to remain neutral but eventually entered into negotiations with the besieging army, violating the pact they had agreed to years earlier. Subsequently, the tribe was charged with treason and besieged by the Muslims commanded by Muhammad. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered and their men were beheaded. The spoils of battle, including the enslaved women and children of the tribe, were divided up among the Islamic warriors that had participated in the siege and among the emigrees from Mecca (who had hitherto depended on the help of the Muslims native to Medina.The historicity of this incident has been questioned by some Islamic scholars and the Revisionist School of Islamic Studies.Banu Sulaym
The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era. They maintained close ties with the Quraysh of Mecca and the inhabitants of Medina, and fought in a number of battles against the Islamic prophet Muhammad before ultimately converting to Islam before his demise in 632. They took part in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, and established themselves in Upper Mesopotamia, whilst part of the tribe remained in the Hejaz. During the early Muslim era, the tribe produced noted generals such as Safwan ibn Mu'attal, Abu'l-A'war and Umayr ibn al-Hubab. Those who remained in Arabia were largely absorbed by the Banu Harb of Yemen beginning in the 9th century, while those in Syria, Mesopotamia were expelled to Upper Egypt by the Fatimid Caliphs in the late 10th century for assisting the Qarmatians. In the mid-11th century, a prolonged famine in Egypt prompted the tribe to migrate westward with the Banu Hilal into Libya. The Sulaym and its sub-tribes established themselves mainly in Cyrenaica,Libya, where until the present day, many of the Arab tribes of that region trace their descent to the Sulaym.Banu Tamim
The tribe of Banu Tamim (Arabic: بنو تميم) is one of the tribes of Arabia.
Today, descendants from the tribe live in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates.
The word Tamim in Arabic means strong and solid. It can also mean perfect.Before the advent of Wahhabism there was very little history of Islamic education amongst Banu Tamim.Banuband-e Patil
Banuband-e Patil (Persian: بنوبندپاتل, also Romanized as Banūband-e Pātīl and Banū Band-e Pātīl; also known as Pātal-e Banū Band, Pātal-e Posht-e Banūband, Pātal Posht Benūband, and Pātīl Posht-e Banū Band) is a village in Tazian Rural District, in the Central District of Bandar Abbas County, Hormozgan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 706, in 146 families.Banū Mūsā
The Banū Mūsā brothers ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century) and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century), were three 9th-century Persian scholars who lived and worked in Baghdad. They are known for their Book of Ingenious Devices on automata (automatic machines) and mechanical devices. Another important work of theirs is the Book on the Measurement of Plane and Spherical Figures, a foundational work on geometry that was frequently quoted by both Islamic and European mathematicians.The Banu Musa worked in astronomical observatories established in Baghdad by the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun as well as doing research in the House of Wisdom. They also participated in a 9th-century expedition to make geodesic measurements to determine the length of a degree.Battle of the Trench
The Battle of the Trench (Arabic: غزوة الخندق, translit. Ghazwat al-Khandaq), also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزاب, translit. Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000.
The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco.
The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution.
The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal ([mumˈt̪aːz mɛˈɦɛl]; meaning "the Exalted One of the palace"; Arjumand Banu; 27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631) was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World, was commissioned to act as her final resting place.Mumtaz Mahal was born Arjumand Banu Begum in Agra to a family of Persian nobility. She was the daughter of Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan, a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire, and the niece of Empress Nur Jahan, the chief wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor. She was married at the age of 19 on 30 April 1612 to Prince Khurram, later known by his regnal name Shah Jahan, who conferred upon her the title "Mumtaz Mahal". Although betrothed to Shah Jahan since 1607, she ultimately became his second wife in 1612. Mumtaz and her husband had fourteen children, including Jahanara Begum (Shah Jahan's favourite daughter), and the Crown prince Dara Shikoh, the heir-apparent, anointed by his father, who temporarily succeeded him, until deposed by Mumtaz Mahal's sixth child, Aurangzeb, who ultimately succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor in 1658.Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631 in Burhanpur, Deccan (present-day Madhya Pradesh), during the birth of her fourteenth child, a daughter named Gauhar Ara Begum. Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for her, which is considered to be a monument of undying love.Quraysh
The Quraysh (Arabic: قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh staunchly opposed Muhammad until converting to Islam en masse in 630 AD. Afterward, leadership of the Muslim community traditionally passed to a member of the Quraysh as was the case with the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphs.Saira Banu
Saira Banu (born 23 August 1944), also known as Saira Bano, is an Indian film actress and the wife of the film actor Dilip Kumar. She acted in many hit Bollywood films between 1961 and 1988.Tribes of Arabia
The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.Umayyad dynasty
The Banu Umayya (Arabic: بَنُو أُمَيَّة, translit. Banū Umayya, lit. 'Sons of Umayya') or Umayyads (الأمويون), were the ruling family of the caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Islamic Spain between 750 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in 632. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in 644–656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I, won the First Muslim Civil War in 661 and established the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus, Syria. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.
The Sufyanid line founded by Mu'awiya failed in 683 and Umayyad authority was challenged in the Second Muslim Civil War, but the dynasty ultimately prevailed under Marwan I, who founded the Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. The Umayyads drove on the early Muslim conquests, including North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, and Sindh, but the constant warfare exhausted the state's military resources, while Alid revolts and tribal rivalries weakened the regime from within. Finally, in 750 the Abbasid Revolution overthrew Caliph Marwan II and massacred most of the family. One of the survivors, Abd al-Rahman, a grandson of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, escaped to Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), where he founded the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba, which Abd al-Rahman III elevated to the status of a caliphate in 929. After a brief golden era, the Caliphate of Córdoba disintegrated into several independent taifa kingdoms in 1031, thus marking a definitive end to the Umayyad dynasty.