Banner (country subdivision)

Banner is a type of administrative division, and may more specifically refer to:



  • A Bandon (Byzantine Empire) was the lowest Byzantine administrative-cum-military unit. "Bandon" means "banner".[3]
  • Sanjak, literally "a banner, flag", was the original first level subdivision of the Ottoman Empire.

Arab world

  • Liwa, an Arabic term meaning "banner" as a type of administrative division.

See also

  • Banner (disambiguation)

Notes and references

  1. ^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-8135-0627-2.
  2. ^ Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu way: the eight banners and ethnic identity in late imperial China. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7.
  3. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). "Bandon". The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
Liwa (Arabic)

Liwa, or Liwā’ (Arabic: لواء‎), is an Arabic term meaning ensign, or banner. The word has developed various other meanings in Arabic:

a banner, in all senses (flag, advertising banner, election publicity banner, etc.)

a district; see also: banner (country subdivision)

a level of military unit with its own ensign, now used as the equivalent to brigade

an officer commanding a number of liwa units, now equivalent to a major generalLiwa was used interchangeably with the Turkish term "Sanjak" in the time of the Ottoman Empire. After the fall of the empire, the term was used in the Arab countries formerly under Ottoman rule. It was gradually replaced by other terms like qadaa and mintaqa and is now defunct. It is only used occasionally in Syria to refer to the Hatay Province, ceded by the French mandate of Syria to Turkey in 1939, at which time was known as Liwa' Iskenderun.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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