Banded mongoose

The banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) is a mongoose commonly found in the central and eastern parts of Africa. It lives in savannas, open forests and grasslands and feeds primarily on beetles and millipedes. Mongooses use various types of dens for shelter including termite mounds. While most mongoose species live solitary lives, the banded mongoose live in colonies with a complex social structure.

Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)
Etosha National Park, Namibia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Herpestidae
Genus: Mungos
Species:
M. mungo
Binomial name
Mungos mungo
Gmelin, 1788
Banded Mongoose area
Banded mongoose range

Physical characteristics

The banded mongoose is a sturdy mongoose with a large head, small ears, short, muscular limbs and a long tail, almost as long as the rest of the body. Animals of wetter areas are larger and darker colored than animals of dryer regions. The abdominal part of the body is higher and rounder than the breast area. The rough fur is grayish brown and black, and there are several dark brown to black horizontal bars across the back. The limbs and snout are darker, while the underparts are lighter than the rest of the body. Banded mongooses have long strong claws that allow them to dig in the soil.

An adult animal can reach a length of 30 to 45 cm and a weight of 1.5 to 2.25 kg. The tail is 15 to 30 cm long.

Subspecies

  • Adail Banded Mongoose (M. m. adailensis) (Heuglin, 1861)
  • Boror Banded Mongoose (M. m. bororensis) (Roberts, 1929)
  • North-west Banded Mongoose (M. m. caurinus) (Thomas, 1926)
  • East African Banded Mongoose (M. m. colonus) (Heller, 1911)
  • M. m. fasciatus (Desmarest, 1823)
  • Namibia Banded Mongoose (M. m. grisonax) (Thomas, 1926)
  • Schwarz's Banded Mongoose (M. m. mandjarum) (Schwarz, 1915)
  • M. m. marcrurus (Thomas, 1907)
  • West African Banded Mongoose (M. m. mungo) (Gmelin, 1788)
  • Botswana Banded Mongoose (M. m. ngamiensis) (Roberts, 1932)
  • M. m. pallidipes (Roberts, 1929)
  • M. m. rossi (Roberts, 1929)
  • M. m. senescens (Thomas & Wroughton, 1907)
  • M. m. somalicus (Thomas, 1895)
  • Talbot's Banded Mongoose (M. m. talboti) (Thomas & Wroughton, 1907)
  • M. m. zebra (Rüppell, 1835)
  • M. m. zebroides (Lönnberg, 1908)

Range and ecology

The banded mongoose is found in a large part of East, Southeast and South-Central Africa. There are also populations in the northern savannas of West Africa. The banded mongoose lives in savannas, open forests and grassland, especially near water, but also in dry, thorny bushland but not deserts. The species uses various types of dens for shelter, most commonly termite mounds.[2] They will also live in rock shelters, thickets, gullies, and warrens under bushes. Mongooses prefer multi-entranced termitaria with open thicket, averaging 4 m from the nearest shelter, located in semi-closed woodland.[3] In contrast to the den of the dwarf mongoose, banded mongoose dens are less dependent on vegetation cover and have more entrances.[3] Banded mongooses live in larger groups than dwarf mongooses and thus more entrances means more members have access to the den and ventilation.[3] The development of agriculture in the continent has had a positive influence on the number of banded mongooses. The crops of the farmland serve as an extra food source.

Banded Mangoose Mungos mungo in Tanzania 3455 Nevit
Mongoose looking out a burrow entrance

Food and foraging

Banded mongoose feed primarily on insects, myriapods, small reptiles, and birds. Millipedes and beetles make up most of their diet,[2] but they also commonly eat ants, crickets, termites, grasshoppers, caterpillars and earwigs.[4][5] Other prey items of the mongoose includes frogs, lizards, small snakes, ground birds and the eggs of both birds and reptiles. On some occasions, mongooses will drink water from rain pools and lake shores.[4]

Banded mongoose forage in groups but each member searches for food alone.[4] They forage in the morning for several hours and then rest in the shade. They will usually forage again in the late afternoon. Mongooses use their sense of smell to locate their prey and dig them out with their long claws, both in holes in the ground and holes in trees. Mongoose will also frequent near the dung of large herbivores since they attract beetles.[4] Low grunts are produced every few seconds for communication. Mongoose also feed individually and are not cooperative feeders. When hunting prey that secrete toxins, mongooses will roll them on the ground. Durable prey is thrown on hard surfaces.[6]

Social behavior

Banded mongooses live in mixed-sex groups of 7–40 individuals (average around 20).[7] Groups sleep together at night in underground dens, often abandoned termite mounds, and change dens frequently (every 2–3 days). When no refuge is available and hard-pressed by predators such as wild dogs, the group will form a compact arrangement in which they lie on each other with heads facing outwards and upwards.

Banded mongoose arp
Banded mongoose Mungos mungo

There is generally no strict hierarchy in mongoose groups and aggression is low. Sometimes, mongoose may squabble over food. However, typically, the one who claims the food first wins. Most aggression and hierarchical behavior occurs between males when females are in oestrus. Female are usually not aggressive but do live in hierarchies based on age. The older females have earlier estrous periods and have larger litters.[7] When groups get too large, some females are forced out of the group by either older females or males. These females may form new groups with subordinate males.[8]

Relations between groups are highly aggressive and mongooses are sometimes killed and injured during intergroup encounters. Nevertheless, breeding females will often mate with males from a rival groups during fights.[9] Mongooses establish their territories with scent markings that may also serve as communication between those in the same group.[10] In the society of the banded mongoose there is a clear separation between mating rivals and territorial rivals. Individuals within groups are rivals for mates while those from neighboring groups are competitors for food and resources.[10]

Reproduction

Unlike most other social mongoose species, all females in a banded mongoose group can breed.[7] They all enter oestrus around 10 days after giving birth, and are guarded and mated by 1–3 dominant males.[7] The dominant males monitor the females and aggressively defend them from subordinates. While these males do most of the mating, the females often try to escape from them and mate with other males in the group. A dominant male will spend 2–3 days guarding each female.[7] A guarding male will snap at, lunge at or pounce on any males that come near.[7] A non-guarding male may follow a guarding male and his female and may face this aggression. Non-guarding males mate in a more secretive way.[7] This kind of "sneaking" behavior is similar to what subordinate males of the fish species Neolamprologus pulcher do; they also try to mate with females that are guarded by the dominant males.

Gestation is 60–70 days. In most breeding attempts, all females give birth either on the same day[7][11] or within a few days. Litters range 2–6 pups and average 4. For the first four weeks of life, pups stay in the dens where they form an exclusive relationship with a single helper or escort, whose genetic relationship with the pups is unknown. These helpers are generally young nonbreeding males or breeding females who have contributed to the current litter and they help to minimize competition over food allocation among pups.[12] During this time they are guarded by these helpers while the other group member go on their foraging trips.[13] After four weeks, the pups are able to go foraging themselves. Each pup is cared for by a single adult "escort" who helps the pup to find food and protects it from danger.[14] Pups become nutritionally independent at three months of age.

Inbreeding issues

Banded mongoose Skeleton
Banded mongoose skeleton (Museum of Osteology)

Few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals but banded mongooses are an exception.[15]

Inbreeding depression is largely caused by the homozygous expression of deleterious recessive alleles.[16] Inbreeding depression appears to occur in banded mongooses as indicated by a decline in progeny body mass with increasing inbreeding coefficient.[17] This finding suggests that avoiding breeding with close relatives would be beneficial. Successfully breeding pairs were found to be less related than expected under random mating.[17]

Interspecies relations

In some locations (e.g., Kenya) banded mongooses have been found in close relationship with baboons. They forage together and probably enjoy greater security as a large group because of more eyes on the lookout for predators. The mongooses are handled by baboons of all ages and show no fear of such contact.

Banded mongooses have been observed removing ticks and other parasites from warthogs in Kenya[18] and Uganda.[19] The mongooses get food, while the warthogs get cleaned.

Status and abundance

Banded mongooses lives in many of Africa's protected areas.[1] The Serengeti of Tanzania, has a density of around 3 mongooses per km2.[20] In southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, mongoose numbers are at a similar density at 2.4 km2.[21] Queen Elizabeth National Park has much higher mongoose densities at 18/km 2.[22] Overall the banded mongoose tends to be more abundant in the eastern and south-eastern areas of its range than in more western areas.

References

  1. ^ a b Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Mungos mungo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  2. ^ a b Neal, E (1970). "The banded mongoose, Mungos mungo Gmelin". East African Wildlife Journal. 8: 63–71. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1970.tb00831.x.
  3. ^ a b c Hiscocks, K.; Perrin, M. R. (1991). "Den selection and use by dwarf mongooses and banded mongooses in South Africa". South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 21 (4): 119–122.
  4. ^ a b c d Rood, J. P. (1975). "Population dynamics and food habits of the banded mongoose". East African Wildlife Journal. 13 (2): 89–111. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1975.tb00125.x.
  5. ^ Smithers, R.H.N (1971) The mammals of Botswana, National Museums of Rhodesia. 4:1-340.
  6. ^ Simpson, C.D. (1964). "Notes on the banded mongoose, Mungos mungo (Gmelin)". Arnoldia, Rhodesia. 1 (19): 1–8.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Cant, M.A. (2000). "Social control of reproduction in banded mongooses". Animal Behaviour. 59 (1): 147–158. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1279. PMID 10640376.
  8. ^ Cant, M.A.; Otali, E.; Mwanguhya, F. (2001). "Eviction and dispersal in cooperatively breeding banded mongooses". Journal of Zoology. 254 (2): 155–162. doi:10.1017/s0952836901000668.
  9. ^ Cant, M.A.; Otali, E.; Mwanguhya, F. (2002). "Fighting and mating between groups in cooperatively breeding banded mongooses". Ethology. 108 (6): 541–555. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2002.00795.x.
  10. ^ a b Jordan, N.R.; Mwanguhya, F.; Kyabulima, S.; Ruedi, P.; Cant, M.A. (2010). "Scent marking within and between groups in banded mongooses" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 280: 72–83. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00646.x.
  11. ^ Gilchrist, J.S. (2006). "Female eviction, abortion and infanticide in the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)". Behavioral Ecology. 17 (4): 664–669. doi:10.1093/beheco/ark012.
  12. ^ Bell, Mathew (2007). "Cooperative Begging in Banded Mongoose Pups". Current Biology. 17 (8): 717–721. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.03.015. PMID 17412587.
  13. ^ Cant, M.A. (2003). "Patterns of helping effort in cooperatively breeding banded mongooses". Journal of Zoology. 259 (2): 115–119. doi:10.1017/s0952836902003011.
  14. ^ Gilchrist, J.S. (2004). "Pup escorting in the communal breeding banded mongoose: behavior benefits and maintenance". Behavioral Ecology. 15 (6): 952–960. doi:10.1093/beheco/arh071.
  15. ^ Nichols, H. J.; Cant, M. A.; Hoffman, J. I.; Sanderson, J. L. (16 February 2017). "Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal". Biology Letters. 10 (12): 20140898. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0898. PMC 4298196. PMID 25540153.
  16. ^ Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nature Reviews Genetics. 10 (11): 783–96. doi:10.1038/nrg2664. PMID 19834483.
  17. ^ a b Sanderson JL, Wang J, Vitikainen EI, Cant MA, Nichols HJ (2015). "Banded mongooses avoid inbreeding when mating with members of the same natal group". Molecular Ecology. 24 (14): 3738–51. doi:10.1111/mec.13253. PMC 5008155. PMID 26095171.
  18. ^ Warthog Archived 5 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine at Wildwatch.com
  19. ^ Banded Brothers episode 1 at bbc.co.uk
  20. ^ Waser, PM, LF Elliott, and SR Creel. 1995. "Habitat variation and viverrid demography". In ARE Sinclair and P Arcese (eds.) Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 421-447.
  21. ^ Maddock. A. H. (1988). Resource partitioning in a viverrid assemblage (PhD thesis). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal.
  22. ^ Gilchrist, Jason; Otali, E (2002). "The effects of refuse-feeding on home-range use, group size, and intergroup encounters in the banded mongoose". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 80 (10): 1795–1802. doi:10.1139/z02-113.

External links

Banded Brothers

Banded Brothers (also known as Banded Brothers: The Mongoose Mob) is a British television program airing on BBC2 on Sundays during February and March 2010. Filmed and presented in the style of Meerkat Manor, it follows the regular lives and activities of a family of banded mongooses being monitored by the Banded Mongoose Research Project of the University of Exeter, in Uganda's Queen Elizabeth National Park.

Be the Creature

Be the Creature is a creation of the Kratt Brothers (Chris and Martin). A wildlife series designed to immerse both the brothers and the viewers in the world of animals, unlike the brothers' previous works, Kratts' Creatures and Zoboomafoo, Be the Creature is oriented towards a teen or adult audience. The brothers place themselves in the thick of the animal world, sometimes in high-intensity or dangerous situations. The series also features some graphic footage in an effort to portray life in the wild truthfully.

A second season entitled, Be the Creature 2, began in 2005. The show is airing on National Geographic Wild.

A third season entitled, " Be The Creature 3", began in 2007.

Bengal mongoose

The Bengal mongoose (Herpestes javanicus palustris) is a subspecies of the small Asian mongoose. It is also known as the marsh mongoose, not to be confused with Atilax paludinosus, which is also called the marsh mongoose. Other synonyms include Indian marsh mongoose and Bengali water mongoose.

Bluff Nature Reserve

Bluff Nature Reserve is a 45 hectare protected pan and forest in the suburb of The Bluff, Durban, South Africa. The park was proclaimed in 1974, making it Durban's oldest nature reserve, and is managed by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife.The nature reserve has bird watching facilities which overlook the pan. There is a self-guided trail throughout the reserve.

Borås Djurpark

Borås Djurpark is a 40-hectare (99-acre) zoo in the northern part of central Borås, Sweden. It has about 500 animals of 80 different species. The zoo was founded in 1962 by Sigvard Berggren, who was manager until 1969.

Borås Djurpark is a member of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). It is the only zoo in Sweden that has African bush elephant.

Harold Johnson Nature Reserve

The Harold Johnson Nature Reserve is a small nature reserve (100 hectares (250 acres)) on the KwaZulu-Natal north coast. The reserve is administered by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife and is on the southern bank of the Tugela River and 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the river's mouth.Wildlife species include zebra, bushbuck, impala, blue, red duiker and grey duiker, vervet monkey, slender mongoose, white-tailed mongoose, banded mongoose and porcupine. Over 190 bird species have been observed in the reserve. One hundred and fourteen butterflies species have been recorded.

Two national monuments are located within the boundaries: Fort Pearson and the Ultimatum Tree. In 1879 the British presented an ultimatum to the Zulu nation at the Ultimatum Tree on the banks of the Tugela River; this ultimatum precipitated the Anglo Zulu War.

Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve

Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve is a 253 hectare protected area in the suburb of Yellowwood Park, Durban, South Africa. The park was proclaimed in 1963, after land was donated by Mr Kenneth Stainbank for its purpose. The reserve is managed by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife.

Liberian mongoose

The Liberian mongoose (Liberiictis kuhni) is a small carnivoran belonging to the mongoose family (Herpestidae). It is the only member of the genus Liberiictis. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the Liberian mongoose is closely related other small, social mongooses and that the banded mongoose is its closest relative.It was discovered in Liberia in 1958. Little was known about the animal, except what local natives related. They typically forage in packs consisting of 3-8 individuals, but larger groups have been observed. Their diet consists of earthworms and various insects. The exact distribution is unknown, but may extend from Sierra Leone to Côte d'Ivoire. Confirmed sightings are restricted to forests in Liberia and the Tai National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. Human activity such as mining, agriculture, hunting and logging has displaced the Liberian mongoose from its previous range. A live specimen was exhibited at the Toronto Zoo, but civil war in Liberia has prevented further study. Due to its limited range and the fact that it is heavily hunted, the Liberian mongoose is considered endangered.

The Liberian mongoose has a primarily dark brown body, with a darker stripe on the neck and shoulders. This stripe is bordered by smaller stripes that are white. Compared with other mongoose species, the Liberian mongoose has rather long claws and an elongated snout with small teeth relative to the size of the skull. It has a bushy tapering tail, that is less than half of the length of the head and body. This is likely and adaptation of their specialized diet of earthworms. One of the few specimens ever seen alive was found in a burrow close to a termite nest. The animal's physical characteristics, and its preferred locality to insects, has led experts to suggest that the Liberian mongoose is primarily insectivorous. The few observers that have witnessed this species in the wild have reported that the animal lives primarily in the trunks of trees. Indeed, some of the better-known mongoose species live in tree during the rainy season and occupy burrows only during hotter weather. The collection of juveniles at the end of July and a lactating female at the beginning of August suggests that breeding coincides with the rainy season, when there is an increase in food availability.This species is extremely rare, and has been listed by the IUCN as endangered. Human destruction of their habitat and human hunting are the primary threats to Liberian mongooses. Owing to their rarity, they were not described until 1958, with the first complete specimens discovered as recently as 1974. An attempt to study them in 1988 yielded only one animal, which had already been killed by a hunter. The specimen that lived at the Toronto Zoo has since died. This rarity also limited what is understood about the Liberian mongoose's interaction with other aspects of the ecosystem. Recent work has shown that they may act as an ecosystem engineer by maintaining the heterogeneity of the forest floor. Through field observations and radio-tracking, a group of mongooses was followed for a period of three months, with a record of their foraging traces being kept. As they forage, they disturb the leaf litter and soil, with an estimate that they may be able to overturn the entire forest floor in a period of 8 months. This altering of the litter environment indirectly effects seed predation and germination. The Liberian mongoose is also host to a species of Mallophaga (chewing louse) known as Felicola liberiae. Political unrest in the areas in which they live has made further studies difficult in recent years.

(Nowak, 1999; Taylor, 1992)

List of animals by number of neurons

This is a list of representative animals by the number of neurons in their whole nervous system and the number of neurons in their brain (for those with a brain). These numbers are estimates derived by multiplying the density of neurons in a particular animal by the average volume of the animal's brain.

The whole human brain contains 86 billion neurons and roughly 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex.

List of fauna of Sudan and South Sudan

Fauna of Sudan and South Sudan include:

Aardvark

Aardwolf

African buffalo

African bush elephant

African civet

African golden wolf

African leopard

Ball Python

Banded mongoose

Lion

Barbary sheep

Black-backed jackal

Blue duiker

Bohor reedbuck

Bongo

Bushbuck

Cape hyrax

Common duiker

Common genet

Congo lion

Dama gazelle

Dorcas gazelle

Dugong

Gemsbok

Giant eland

Giant forest hog

Grant's gazelle

Grant's zebra

Greater kudu

Grevy's zebra

Hartebeest

Hippopotamus

Klipspringer

Kob

Maneless zebra

Marsh mongoose

Nile lechwe

North African ostrich

Northern white rhinoceros

Nubian giraffe

Nubian wild ass

Okapi

Oribi

Pale fox

Plains zebra

Red fox

Red river hog

Roan antelope

Rothschild's giraffe

Rueppell's fox

Side-striped jackal

Sitatunga

Somali wild ass

Somali wild dog

Spotted hyena

Striped hyena

Sudan cheetah

Temminck's pangolin

Thomson's gazelle

Warthog

Waterbuck

Yellow-backed duiker

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mabula Game Reserve

Mabula Game Reserve is a private game reserve situated in the Limpopo province of South Africa. It is about 12,000 hectares (30,000 acres) in area and is about 47 km from Bela Bela (Warmbaths). The current owner of Mabula Game Reserve is the Indian businessman baron Vijay Mallya.

Mongoose

Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species (all African) in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, and the species Suricata suricatta, commonly called meerkat in English.

Six species in the family Eupleridae are endemic to the island of Madagascar. These are called "mongoose" and were originally classified as a genus within the family Herpestidae, but genetic evidence has since shown that they are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; they have been classified in the subfamily Galidiinae within Eupleridae since 2006.

Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena, and Viverridae families.

Nasty neighbour effect

In ethology, the nasty neighbour effect describes the phenomenon whereby territory-holding animals behave more strongly toward familiar conspecific neighbours than to unfamiliar conspecifics. This phenomenon may be generally advantageous to an animal because the heightened response reduces the likelihood of a nearby intruder entering the territory and taking the resources it contains whereas an unfamiliar or distant territory-holder poses less of a threat. This reduced response minimises the time, energy and risk of injury incurred during territorial encounters with animals which are less of a threat to the territory holder. The nasty neighbour effect is the converse of the dear enemy effect in which some species are less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers.

The striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio) is group living with one single breeding male and up to four communally breeding females per group. Groups typically contain several philopatric adult sons (and daughters) that are believed not to breed in their natal group and all group members participate in territorial defence. When aggression in wild group-living male breeders was tested in a neutral test arena, they were nearly five times more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis it was shown that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers.Colonies of the weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) are able to recognize a greater proportion of workers from neighbouring colonies as non-colony members. When recognized as non-colony members, more aggression is exhibited toward neighbours than non-neighbours. Banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) groups vocalize more and inspect more scent samples in response to olfactory cues of neighbours than strangers. It has been suggested that increased aggression towards neighbours is more common in social species with intense competition between neighbours, as opposed to reduced aggression towards neighbours typical for most solitary species. Furthermore, animals may respond in this way when encounters with intruders from non-neighboring colonies are rare and of little consequence.

Female New Zealand bellbirds (Anthornis melanura) are more aggressive toward the songs of neighbouring females, indicating that neighbouring females pose a greater threat than strangers in this species.Female hen harriers (Circus cyaneus) responses towards neighbours are more intense, mostly flights rather than calls, than responses towards female floaters (individuals without territories), which in turn were more intense than responses towards male floaters.

Pride (2004 film)

Pride is a 2004 television film about two lion cubs as they grow up and face the harsh realities of adulthood. Produced by the BBC and shown on A&E in the U.S., the film features the voices of numerous British actors and uses CGI technology to enhance footage of actual lions and other animals. Jim Henson's Creature Shop provided the digital effects for the film. It was shot in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park.

Rhinoglottophilia

In linguistics, rhinoglottophilia refers to the connection between laryngeal (glottal) and nasal articulations. The term was coined by James A. Matisoff in 1975.There is a connection between the acoustic production of laryngeals and nasals, as can be seen from the antiformants both can produce when viewed via a spectrogram. This is because both sounds in a sense have branched resonators: in the production of nasal sound, both the oral cavity and the nasal cavity act as resonators. For laryngeals, the space below the glottis acts as a second resonator, which in turn can produce slight antiformants.

In Krim, a language without contrastive nasal vowels, vowels are nonetheless strongly nasalized after /h/. A similar correspondence occurs after /h/ and /ʔ/ in Pirahã. It is also attested in some varieties of American English, such as [hɑ̃ːvəd] for Harvard by the Kennedys.Rhinoglottophilia may have occurred historically in the development of Inor, one of the Gurage languages. Inor has nasal vowels, unusual for a Gurage language, and in many cases these occur where the language etymologically had a pharyngeal or laryngeal consonant. Rhinoglottophilia has been documented elsewhere in Gurage, also. Similar processes have also been reported for Irish, Basque, North-Central Hlai and in Nyole, where Bantu *p appears as /ŋ/ rather than as /h/ as in other Luhya dialects.

Avestan also shows the effects of rhinoglottophilia: Proto-Indo-Iranian *s normally becomes h in Avestan, but becomes a velar nasal between a/ā and r, i̯, u̯ or a/ā. Examples include aŋra "evil" (Sanskrit asra), aŋhat̰ "he may be" (Sanskrit ásat), and vaŋ́hō "better" (Sanskrit vasyas).Rhinoglottophilia may occur with any laryngeal sound, not just specifically glottal ones. For example, correspondences such as Khoekhoe xárà 'meerkat' and Khwe xánà 'banded mongoose' (and similar correspondences between nasalized and nonnasalized clicks) have been explained as pharyngealization of the vowel in proto-Khoe.

Wildlife of Senegal

The wildlife of Senegal is composed of its flora and fauna. Senegal has 188 species of mammals and 664 species of bird.

Extant Carnivora species

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