Banastre Tarleton

Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, GCB (21 August 1754 – 15 January 1833) was a British soldier and politician. Tarleton was eventually ranked as a general years after his service in the colonies during the American Revolutionary War, and afterwards did not lead troops into battle.[1]

Tarleton's cavalrymen were called 'Tarleton's Raiders'. His green uniform was the standard uniform of the British Legion, a provincial unit organised in New York, in 1778. After returning to Great Britain in 1781 at the age of 27, Tarleton was elected a Member of Parliament for Liverpool and returned to office in the early 19th century. As such, Tarleton became a prominent Whig politician despite his young man's reputation as a roué.[1] Given the importance of the slave trade to the British shipping industry in Liverpool, Tarleton strongly supported slavery as an economic means.[2]

Sir Banastre Tarleton, Bt
Banastre-Tarleton-by-Joshua-Reynolds
Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the uniform of the British Legion, wearing a "Tarleton Helmet".
National Gallery, London.
Nickname(s)Bloody Ban, the Butcher, the Green Dragoon
Born21 August 1754
Liverpool, Lancashire, England, Great Britain
Died15 January 1833 (aged 78)
Leintwardine, Herefordshire, England, United Kingdom
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
 United Kingdom / British Empire
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1775–1812
RankGeneral
Unit1st Dragoon Guards
Commands heldBritish Legion
Battles/warsAmerican Revolutionary War
Siege of Charleston
Battle of Monck's Corner
Battle of Lenud's Ferry
Battle of Waxhaws
Battle of Fishing Creek
Battle of Camden
Battle of Blackstock's Farm
Battle of Cowpens
Battle of Cowan's Ford
Battle of Torrence's Tavern
Battle of Wetzell's Mill
Battle of Guilford Courthouse
Battle of Green Spring
Siege of Yorktown
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Baronet
Spouse(s)Susan Bertie

Early life

Banastre Tarleton was the third of seven children born to the merchant John Tarleton (1718–1773), who served as Mayor of Liverpool in 1764 and had extensive trading links with Britain's American colonies.[3] His paternal grandfather Thomas Tarleton had been a shipowner and slave trader.[4]

Banastre's younger brother John (1755–1841) entered the family business. He was elected as a Member of Parliament (MP).[5]

Tarleton was educated at the Middle Temple, London and went to University College, Oxford, in 1771, preparing for a career as a lawyer. In 1773 at the age of 19, he inherited £5,000 on his father's death. He squandered almost all of it in less than a year on gambling and women, mostly at the Cocoa Tree club in London. In 1775 he purchased a commission as a cavalry officer (Cornet) in the 1st Dragoon Guards, where he proved to be a gifted horseman and leader of troops. Owing to his abilities, he worked his way up through the ranks to Lieutenant Colonel without having to purchase any further commissions.

American Revolutionary War

In December 1775, at the age of 21, the volunteer-soldier Banastre Tarleton sailed from Cork to North America, where the American Revolutionary War (1775–83) had broken out. Tarleton sailed with Lord Cornwallis as part of an expedition to capture the southern city of Charleston, South Carolina.[6] After that expedition failed, at the Battle of Sullivan's Island (28 June 1776), Tarleton joined the main British Army under command of General William Howe, in New York City.

Under the command of Colonel William Harcourt, Tarleton, as a cornet (lieutenant), was part of a scouting party sent to gather intelligence on the movements of General Charles Lee, in New Jersey. On 13 December 1776, Tarleton surrounded a house in Basking Ridge, and forced Gen. Lee, still in dressing gown, to surrender, by threatening to burn down the house; the prisoner of war, General Lee, was taken to New York, and later was used in an exchange of prisoners.

In the course of the colonial war in North America, Cornet Tarleton's campaign service during 1776 earned him promotion to brigade major of cavalry at the end of the year; he was twenty-two years old.[7] Major Tarleton was at the Battle of Brandywine and at other battles in the campaigns of 1777 and 1778.[7] One such battle, in 1778, was an attack upon a communications outpost in Easttown Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, which was guarded by troops commanded by Capt. Henry Lee III, of the Continental Army, who repulsed the British attack, and in which Major Tarleton was wounded.[8]

Capture of Charleston

After becoming commander of the British Legion, a force of American Loyalist cavalry and light infantry, also called Tarleton's Raiders, Tarleton went to South Carolina, at the beginning of 1780. There, Tarleton's Raiders supported Sir Henry Clinton in the siege operations that culminated in the capture of Charleston.[7] The siege and capture of the city were part of the British strategy in the southern military theatre meant to restore royal authority over the southern colonies of British North America.

After Tarleton's first major victory at Monck's Corner, during the Siege of Charleston, a soldier of the British Legion was involved in an attempted sexual assault that entered legend. The attack by one of Tarleton's soldiers against a civilian woman in the area was halted by one of his companions.[9]

Battle of Waxhaws

On 29 May 1780, Colonel Tarleton, with a force of 149 mounted soldiers, overtook a detachment of 350 to 380 Virginia Continentals, led by Colonel Abraham Buford, who refused to surrender or to stop his march. Only after sustaining many casualties did Buford order the American soldiers to surrender. Nonetheless, Tarleton's forces ignored the white flag and massacred the soldiers of Buford's detachment; 113 American soldiers were killed, 203 were captured, and 150 were severely-wounded. The British army casualties were 5 soldiers killed and 12 soldiers wounded.[10] From the perspective of the British Army, the affair of the massacre is known as the Battle of Waxhaw Creek. In that time, the American rebels used the phrase 'Tarleton's quarter' (a high-rate of casualties) as meaning 'no quarter offered'. In the 19th century, American historians represented Tarleton as a ruthless butcher, whilst the perspective of some contemporary historians has changed in this regard.[11]

An eye-witness, the American field surgeon Robert Brownfield, wrote that Colonel Buford raised the white flag of surrender to the British Legion, "expecting the usual treatment sanctioned by civilized warfare"; yet, while Buford called for quarter, Colonel Tarleton's horse was shot with a musket ball, felling horse and man. On seeing that, the Loyalist cavalrymen believed that the Virginia Continentals had shot their commander — while they asked him for mercy. Enraged, the Loyalist troops attacked the Virginians with an "indiscriminate carnage never surpassed by the most ruthless atrocities of the most barbarous savages"; in the aftermath, the British Legion soldiers killed wounded American soldiers where they lay.[12]

Colonel Tarleton's account, published in 1787, said that his horse had been shot from under him, and that his soldiers, thinking him dead, engaged in "a vindictive asperity not easily restrained".[13] On the other hand, Tarleton advocated repression, and criticized the mildness of Lord Cornwallis's methods, because moderation "did not reconcile enemies, but . . . discourages friends".[14]

Regardless of the extent to which they were true or false, the reports of British atrocities motivated Whig-leaning colonials to support the American Revolution.[11] In the event, on 7 October 1780, at the Battle of Kings Mountain, South Carolina, soldiers of the Continental Army, having heard of the slaughter at Waxhaw Creek, killed surrendering American Loyalists, after a sniper killed their British commanding officer, Maj. Patrick Ferguson.[15]

Subsequent operations

In South Carolina, Col. Tarleton's British Legion were harried by Francis Marion, 'The Swamp Fox', an American militia commander who practiced guerrilla warfare against the British. Throughout the campaigns, Tarleton was unable to capture him or thwart his operations. Marion's local popularity among anti-British South Carolinians ensured continual aid and comfort for the American cause. In contrast, Colonel Tarleton alienated the colonial citizens with arbitrary confiscations of cattle and food stocks.[16]

Tarleton materially helped Cornwallis to win the Battle of Camden in August 1780.[7] He defeated Thomas Sumter at Fishing Creek, aka "Catawba Fords", but was less successful when he encountered the same general at Blackstock's Farm in November 1780.[7] On 17 January 1781 Tarleton's forces were virtually destroyed by American Brigadier General Daniel Morgan at the Battle of Cowpens. Tarleton and about 200 men escaped the battlefield.[17] Retreating from his defeat at the Battle of Cowpens, Tarleton was able to escape capture by forcing a local plantation owner, Adam Goudylock, to serve as a guide.[18]

Tarleton's Movements historical marker 01
Tarleton's Movements historical marker in Adams Grove, Virginia

He was successful in a skirmish at Torrence's Tavern while the British crossed the Catawba River (Cowan's Ford Skirmish 1 February 1781) and took part in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in March 1781. With his men, Tarleton marched with Cornwallis into Virginia.[7] There he carried out a series of small expeditions while in Virginia. Among them was a raid on Charlottesville, where the state government had relocated following the British occupation of the capital at Richmond. He was trying to capture Governor Thomas Jefferson and members of the Virginia legislature. The raid was partially foiled, and Jefferson and all but seven of the legislators escaped over the mountains. Tarleton destroyed arms and munitions and succeeded in dispersing the Assembly. In July 1781 some of his forces allegedly were involved in Francisco's Fight, an alleged skirmish between colonial Peter Francisco and nine of Tarleton's dragoons, which resulted in one dead, eight wounded and Francisco capturing eight horses.[19]

After other missions, Cornwallis instructed Tarleton to hold Gloucester Point, during the Siege of Yorktown. On 4 October 1781, the French Lauzun's Legion and the British cavalry, commanded by Tarleton, skirmished at Gloucester Point. Tarleton was unhorsed, and Lauzun's Legion drove the British within their lines, before being ordered to withdraw by the Marquis de Choisy.[20][21][22] The Legion suffered three Hussars killed, and two officers and eleven Hussars wounded. Fifty British were killed or wounded, including Tarleton.[23] The British surrendered Gloucester Point to the French and Americans after the surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781. After the surrender, the senior British officers were invited to dinner by their American captors, and the only one not to get an invitation was Tarleton. He returned to Britain on parole, finished with this war at the age of 27.[7]

Post-war years

Tarleton had lost two fingers from a bullet received in his right hand in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse,[24] but "his crippled hand was to prove an electoral asset" back home.[25] The condition of his hand is disguised in the pose of his 1782 portrait (shown in this article) by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

After his return to Great Britain, Tarleton wrote a history of his experience in the war in North America, entitled Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America (London, 1781).[26] He portrayed his own actions in the Carolinas favourably and questioned decisions made by Cornwallis. It was criticized by Lieutenant Roderick Mackenzie in his Strictures on Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton's History (1781) and in the Cornwallis Correspondence.[7][27]

Politics

In 1784, Tarleton stood for election as M.P. for Liverpool, but was narrowly defeated. In 1790 he succeeded Richard Pennant as MP for Liverpool in the Parliament of Great Britain and, with the exception of a single year, was re-elected to the House of Commons until 1812.[7] He was a supporter of Charles James Fox despite their opposing views on the British role in the American War of Independence. Tarleton spoke on military matters and a variety of other subjects.

He is especially noted for supporting the slave trade, which was highly important to the port of Liverpool as one of the UK's most prominent port cities at the time and still to date. Tarleton was working to preserve the slavery business with his brothers Clayton and Thomas, and he became well known for his taunting and mockery of the abolitionists. He generally voted with the Parliamentary opposition. When the Fox-North Coalition came to power, he supported the government nominally headed by William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland.He was rewarded with the title of Governor of Berwick and Holy Island.

In 1794, Tarleton was promoted to Major-General, in 1801 to Lieutenant-General and in 1812 to General, but he never again led troops into battle.[1] He had hoped to be appointed to command British forces in the Peninsular War, but the position was instead given to Wellington. He held a military command in Ireland and another in England.[7] In 1815, he was made a baronet and in 1820 a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB).

Personal life

Gainsborough Mary-Robinson
Portrait of Mary Robinson by Thomas Gainsborough, 1781

For 15 years, he had a relationship with the actress and writer Mary Robinson (Perdita), whom he initially seduced on a bet. She was an ex-mistress of the future King George IV while he was still Prince of Wales. Tarleton and Robinson had no children; in 1783 Robinson had a miscarriage. She was important to his parliamentary career, writing many of his speeches. His portrait was painted by both Joshua Reynolds, who showed him at battle in the American Revolution, and Thomas Gainsborough.[7]

Tarleton ultimately married Susan Bertie, the young, illegitimate and wealthy daughter of the 4th Duke of Ancaster in 1798. They had no children.[7] Tarleton did however, father an illegitimate daughter in 1797, prior to his marriage. The child was named Banina Georgina (1797–1818), her mother being named simply as Kolina.[28]

Tarleton died in January 1833, at Leintwardine, Herefordshire.

Legacy

  • Tarleton Street in Liverpool.
  • Banastre – a vessel that the Tarletons named for Banastre Tarleton
  • The house at the site of his defeat in Pennsylvania came to be known as "Tarleton."[29]
  • The Tarleton Nursery School in Berwyn, Pennsylvania, appears to have been named for him.[30]
  • The "General Tarleton Inn" in Ferrensby, North Yorkshire, is named after him.[31]

Representation in other media

  • American writer Washington Irving's biography of George Washington referred to an alleged argument between Tarleton and fellow British officer Patrick Ferguson over whether a soldier guilty of criminal misconduct ought to be executed or released. According to Irving:

"We honor the rough soldier Ferguson for the fiat of instant death with which he would have requited the most infamous and dastardly outrage that brutalizes warfare." Tarleton, on the other hand, reveled in his own misconduct and that of his soldiers.[32]

  • In the 1835 novel Horse-Shoe Robinson by John Pendleton Kennedy, a historical romance set against the Southern campaigns in the American War of Independence, fictional characters interact with the historic figure of Tarleton. He is depicted as a forceful martial character, sensitive to the duties of honour and chivalry.
  • In the 1959–1961 American Disney television series The Swamp Fox, John Sutton portrayed Colonel Banastre Tarleton.
  • In the alternate history series The Domination by S. M. Stirling, Castle Tarleton, in the Domination capitol Archona, is named after him.
  • In the novel Sharpe's Eagle by Bernard Cornwell (the first in the Richard Sharpe series), the novel's main antagonist, Colonel Sir Henry Simmerson is said to be a cousin of Tarleton. He relies on his cousin's political connections to support his position.
  • In the 1986 film Sweet Liberty Tarleton is played by actor Michael Caine and portrayed to the history professor Michael Burgess' (Alan Alda) dismay as a romantic, dashing hero.
  • In the 2000 film The Patriot, the fictitious Colonel William Tavington (played by Jason Isaacs) was based on Tarleton.[33]
  • In the 2006 film Amazing Grace, Tarleton is played by Ciarán Hinds and is portrayed as a leading supporter of the slave trade and a major opponent of William Wilberforce.
  • In the episode "The Sin Eater" of the 2013 TV series Sleepy Hollow, a villainous British army officer named "Colonel Tarleton," played by actor Craig Parker, is featured as the commander of protagonist Ichabod Crane. during a flashback to Crane's service in the Revolutionary War. Other than the name and his cruelty towards accused colonial rebels, it is unclear whether or not the character is based on the historical Tarleton. He turns out to be a demon disguised in human form, and is listed in the credits only as "Tarleton Demon."
  • In Rick Riordan's spin-off novel The Blood of Olympus, Banastre Tarleton is mentioned to be a Roman demigod; his mother is Bellona, the Roman Goddess of War.
  • Tarleton is a minor character in Diana Gabaldon's novel Written in My Own Heart's Blood, part of the Outlander series.
  • Tarleton is a character in Donna Thorland's 2016 historical fiction novel The Dutch Girl. He is depicted as a cruel womanizing soldier determined to get what, and whom, he wants.
  • The 1971 science-fiction book The Star Treasure by Keith Laumer has a protagonist named Banastre Tarleton. The story and character have no connection with the historical figure of that name.

Captured American battle flags sold at auction

In November 2005, it was announced that four rare battle flags or regimental colours seized in 1779 and 1780 from American soldiers by Tarleton and still held in Britain, would be auctioned by Sotheby's in New York City in 2006.[34] Two of these colours were the Guidon of the 2nd Continental Light Dragoons, captured in 1779; and a "beaver" standard – possibly a Gostelowe List Standard No. 7 dating from 1778.[35] The "Beaver" Standard and two other flags (possibly division colours) were apparently captured at the Waxhaw Massacre. The flags were sold at auction on Flag Day in the United States (14 June 2006).

Tarleton helmet

Tarleton introduced to the British Legion, and wore himself, a leather helmet with antique style applications and a fur plume (woollen for lower ranks) protruding far into the upper front side. It is depicted in Sir Joshua Reynolds' portrait of Tarleton above and was named after the officer. The helmet was used by British horse artillery troops until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.[36] It was based off Continental European designs that became popular in several other armies before it fell out of fashion.[37] One such design became the standard-issue headgear of various units in the Bavarian Army until abolished and substituted by the German Reichs typical Pickelhaube after Ludwig II of Bavaria's death in 1886.[38]

Bibliography

  • Bass, Robert D. The Green Dragoon, Sandlapper Pub. Co. 500pp. 2003.[39]
  • Reynolds, Jr., William R. (2012). Andrew Pickens: South Carolina Patriot in the Revolutionary War. Jefferson NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-6694-8.
  • Scotti, Anthony J. Brutal Virtue: The Myth and Reality of Banastre Tarleton, Heritage Books, 302pp., 2002. ISBN 0-7884-2099-2.
  • Wilson, David K. The southern strategy: Britain's conquest of South Carolina and Georgia, 1775–1780. University of South Carolina Press, 2005. ISBN 9781570037979

References

  1. ^ a b c Review by: Hugh F. Rankin; Reviewed Work: The Green Dragoon: The Lives of Banastre Tarleton and Mary Robinson by Robert D. Bass, The North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 34, No. 4 (October, 1957), pp. 548-550
  2. ^ Thomas, Hugh (1997). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440–1870. Simon and Schuster. p. 516. ISBN 0-684-83565-7.
  3. ^ Scotti p.14
  4. ^ "Banastre Tarleton; Biography, Part 1". golden.net. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012.
  5. ^ Port, M. H.; Fisher, David R. (1986). R. Thorne, ed. "TARLETON, John (1755–1841), of Finch House, nr. Liverpool, Lancs". The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790–1820. Boydell and Brewer. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  6. ^ Wilson p.243
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chisholm 1911.
  8. ^ "Battle in Chesco pitted notable foes Capt. Henry Lee of the Continental Army and British Maj. Banastre Tarleton faced off in 1778. Local History". philly-archives.
  9. ^ Allaire, Anthony. "Diary of Loyalist Lieutenant Anthony Allaire". lib.jrshelby.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  10. ^ Boatner, Cassell's Biographical Dictionary, p. 1174
  11. ^ a b Rubin, Ben. "The Rhetoric of Revenge: Atrocity and Identity in the Revolutionary Carolinas". Journal of Backcountry Studies. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  12. ^ Steel Wills, Brian (2014). The River Was Dyed with Blood: Nathan Bedford Forrest and Fort Pillow. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8061-4604-4.
  13. ^ Banastre Tarleton, A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781, in the Southern Provinces of North America, London and Dublin, 1787, p 32.
  14. ^ O'Shaughnessy, Andrew (2013). The Men Who Lost America: British Command during the Revolutionary War and the Preservation of the Empire. Oneworld Publications. p. 259. ISBN 1-78074-247-9.
  15. ^ Steel Wills (2014), pp. 7-8
  16. ^ Lanning, Michael Lee (2008). The American Revolution 100: The People, Battles, and Events of the American War for Independence, Ranked by Their Significance. Sourcebooks, Inc. p. 218. ISBN 1-4022-1083-3.
  17. ^ "70th Congress, 1st Session House Document No. 328: Historical Statements Concerning the Battle of King's Mountain and the Battle of the Cowpens," page 53. Washington: United States Government Printing Office (1928). Retrieved on 10 December 2007.
  18. ^ Hays, Joel Stanford, "Adam Goudylock (ca. 1726–1796), Planter, of Albemarle County, Virginia, and Union County, South Carolina," The American Genealogist 88, no. 1 & 2 (2016): pp. 49-56, 107-117, at 53-54.
  19. ^ Howe, Henry (1852) [1845]. Historical Collections of Virginia: Containing a Collection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, &c., Relating to its History and Antiquities Together with Geographical and Statistical Descriptions : to Which is Appended an Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the District of Columbia. Charleston, SC: Babcock & Co. OCLC 416295361. (Link for 1845 edition)
  20. ^ White, Elton. "Lauzun's Legion's History – Short".
  21. ^ Richard M. Ketchum, Victory at Yorktown, p. 216
  22. ^ "Battle of the Hook – battle gaming".
  23. ^ Historical Society of Pennsylvania, "Extracts from the Journal of Lieutenant John Bell Tilden", The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, p.60
  24. ^ "BANASTRE TARLETON by Janie B. Cheaney". jrshelby.com.
  25. ^ "TARLETON, Banastre (1754–1833), of St. James's Place, Mdx". histparl.ac.uk.
  26. ^ "A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781". google.com.
  27. ^ "Strictures on Lt. Col. Tarleton's History "of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 ..." google.com.
  28. ^ Old Church in Saint Pancras
  29. ^ "Township History Archived 16 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine", Easttown Township; accessed 2014.01.16.
  30. ^ "Banecdotes: The Tarleton Nursery School, Berwyn, PA". golden.net. Archived from the original on 7 March 2015.
  31. ^ "The General Tarleton Inn, Knaresborough".
  32. ^ Irving, Washington (1856–59). George Washington: A Biography. Da Capo Press (1994 Reprint). pp. vol. 4, 52–3. ISBN 0-306-80593-6.
  33. ^ Carroll, Joe (2000-07-15). "Older Americans uncomfortable with Mel Gibson's playing of patriot game". Irish Times. Retrieved 2016-01-03. Tavington is based on a historical figure, Col Banastre Tarleton, who later ended up as an MP for Liverpool
  34. ^ http://www.shareholder.com/bid/downloads/news/20051111-179534.pdf
  35. ^ "Second Continental Light Dragoons". dragoons.info.
  36. ^ "British Artillery : Napoleonic Wars : Horse : Foot : Rockets : Uniforms". www.napolun.com.
  37. ^ "Top 10 Banastre Tarleton Myths – Journal of the American Revolution". 18 August 2016.
  38. ^ "Bayern (Bavarian) Pickelhaube 1886 - 1916". www.kaisersbunker.com.
  39. ^ Edgar, Walte (2014). "Mel Gibson's The Patriot: An Historian's View". American Revolution Institute: The Society of the Cincinnati, Inc.
General

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21st Light Dragoons

The 21st Light Dragoons was a cavalry regiment of the British Army.

It was raised on 5 April 1760, as the 21st Light Dragoons (Royal Forresters) by John, Marquis of Granby, and Lord Robert Manners-Sutton. This first regiment was however disbanded at Nottingham on 3 March 1763.It was raised again in 1779 by Major-General John Douglas and disbanded in Canterbury in 1783.The regiment was raised a third time in 1794 in the north of England when it was also known as the Yorkshire Light Dragoons, served in Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars and was disbanded in Chatham in 1819. Regimental colonels were Colonel Thomas Richard Beaumont (1794–1802) and General Sir Banastre Tarleton, Bt., (1802–?1818)In India another 21st regiment was raised in 1862, by renaming the 3rd Bengal European Cavalry, which eventually became the 21st Lancers, but they have no affiliation to the 21st Light Dragoons.

4th Continental Light Dragoons

The 4th Continental Light Dragoons also known as Moylan's Horse was raised on January 5, 1777, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for service with the Continental Army under Colonel Stephen Moylan. The regiment entered the history books by taking the field in captured British scarlet coats as noted in a letter from General George Washington to Colonel Moylan dated May 12, 1777, in which Moylan was directed to have his uniforms dyed to avoid confusion with British dragoons. The regiment changed to green coats faced in red during the summer of 1778, with Tarleton helmets (black leather helmets in the style associated with Banastre Tarleton).

The regiment saw action at the Battle of Brandywine and the Battle of Germantown in their scarlet uniforms, and the Battle of Guilford Court House and the Siege of Yorktown in their more familiar green coats. The regiment was furloughed June 11, 1783, at Philadelphia and disbanded on November 15, 1783.

Battle of Black Mingo

The Battle of Black Mingo was a skirmish during the American Revolution. It took place in September 1780 in the vicinity of Dollard's Tavern near Black Mingo Creek near Hemingway, South Carolina. General Francis Marion attacked and scattered a contingent of Loyalist troops that had been left to secure the region by Colonel Banastre Tarleton after his destructive march through the area. The Loyalists, under Colonel John Coming Ball, were driven into the nearby swamp after suffering significant casualties.

Battle of Fishing Creek

The Battle of Fishing Creek, also called the Battle of Catawba Ford, was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on August 18, 1780, between American and British forces including the 71st Foot. It was fought near the junction of Fishing Creek and the Catawba River in South Carolina. British forces under Banastre Tarleton surprised the militia company of Thomas Sumter, killing a significant number, taking about 300 captives, and very nearly capturing Sumter, who some say was asleep at the time of the attack.

Battle of Lenud's Ferry

The Battle of Lenud's Ferry was a battle of the American Revolutionary War that was fought on May 6, 1780 in present-day Berkeley County, South Carolina.

All of the British soldiers who took part in the Battle of Lenud's Ferry were in fact Loyalists who had been born and raised in the colony of South Carolina, with the sole exception being their commanding officer Banastre Tarleton. The unit was known as the Loyalist British Legion, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton. The Loyalist British Legion scattered a company of Patriot militia at Lenud's Ferry, a crossing point on the Santee River, north of which lies present-day Georgetown County.

Battle of Monck's Corner

The Battle of Monck's Corner was fought on April 14, 1780, outside the city of Charleston, South Carolina, which was under siege by British forces under the command of General Sir Henry Clinton in the American Revolutionary War. The Loyalist British Legion, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, surprised an American force stationed at Monck's Corner, and drove them away. The action cut off an avenue of escape for Benjamin Lincoln's besieged army. Aside from the British Legion, and the 33rd Foot and 64th Foot led by Lt. Col. James Webster, the force included Loyalists, the American Volunteers, led by Maj. Patrick Ferguson.

Battle of Wahab's Plantation

The Battle of Wahab's Plantation was a surprise attack on a Loyalist camp, which included elements of the British Legion commanded by Banastre Tarleton (although at the time of the battle Tarleton had yellow fever and was not in command), by Patriot militia under the command of William R. Davie on September 21, 1780. The owner of the plantation was militia Captain James A. Walkup who served as a guide for Davie prior to the attack. Confusion has arisen over the spelling of the name Wahab as there are many spellings of the surname including, Walkup/Wahab/Wauchope/Waughup. The Loyalists were camped on the west side of the Catawba River while General Charles Cornwallis' army had camped on the east side. Davie opportunistically decided to attack the Loyalist camp, and succeeded in driving them back in complete surprise and with heavy casualties. He retreated before the British regulars arrived. The latter, in revenge for the attack, burned down Captain Walkup's house.

Battle of Waxhaws

The Battle of Waxhaws (also known as the Waxhaws or Waxhaw massacre, and Buford's massacre) took place during the American Revolutionary War on May 29, 1780, near Lancaster, South Carolina, between a Continental Army force led by Abraham Buford and a mainly Loyalist force led by British officer Banastre Tarleton. Buford refused an initial demand to surrender, but when his men were attacked by Tarleton's cavalry, many threw down their arms to surrender. Buford apparently attempted to surrender. However, the British commanding officer Tarleton was shot at during the truce, causing his horse to fall and trap him. Loyalists and British troops were outraged at the breaking of the truce in this manner and proceeded to fall on the rebels.While Tarleton was trapped under his dead horse, men continued killing the Continental soldiers, including men who were not resisting. Little quarter was given to the patriots/rebels. Of the 400 or so Continentals, 113 were killed with sabers, 150 so badly injured they could not be moved and 53 prisoners were taken by the British and Loyalists. "Tarleton's quarter", thereafter became a common expression for refusing to take prisoners. In some subsequent battles in the Carolinas, few of the defeated were taken alive by either side. This 'Battle of Waxhaws' became the subject of an intensive propaganda campaign by the Continental Army to bolster recruitment and incite resentment against the British. Equally valid accounts of the battle by soldiers from both sides describe Tarleton as having no part in ordering a massacre as he had been trapped under his horse, and when freed immediately ordered thorough medical treatment of American prisoners and wounded.

Battle of Wetzell's Mill

The Battle of Wetzell's Mill (the name may also be spelled Weitzell, Weitzel, Whitesell, or Whitsall) was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on March 6, 1781, between detachments of Nathanael Greene's Continental Army and militia and Banastre Tarleton's Loyalist provincial troops in Guilford County, North Carolina.Greene was trying to avoid encounters with the larger British Cornwallis' larger army while awaiting the arrival of additional troops, and had sent Williams and several hundred men on reconnaissance to watch Cornwallis' movements. Cornwallis learned where Williams was on March 4, and, realizing he could be trapped because he was separated from Greene's army by Reedy Ford Creek, sent Tarleton and 1,200 men toward the ford at Wetzell's Mill. Early on March 6 Tarleton's men tried to sneak up on Williams' position, then about ten miles south of the ford. After a brief skirmish, the two forces raced toward the ford. Williams kept Harry "Light Horse" Lee in the rear to cover their retreat, and reached the ford ahead of Tarleton. His army crossed, at which point he decided to make a stand at the crossing.

Tarleton's first attempt to cross was repulsed, but the second succeeded, and Williams retreated.

British Legion (American Revolution)

The British Legion was the name of a British provincial regiment established during the American Revolutionary War, composed of British Loyalist American infantry and dragoons. It was colloquially known as Tarleton's Raiders, the Green Horse, and the Green Dragoons, after the British officer who led most of its day-to-day activities, Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, and the green uniform coats of its officers. "Legion" was an 18th-century term for a military unit the size of a regiment, but consisting of infantry and cavalry, or infantry, cavalry, and artillery, all under one command, to make it more flexible for scouting or irregular operations than a regiment, which consisted of infantry or cavalry alone.

Cowpens National Battlefield

Cowpens National Battlefield or Cowpens National Battlefield Park is a unit of the National Park Service just east of Chesnee, South Carolina, and near the state line with North Carolina. It preserves a major battlefield of the American Revolutionary War.

Brigadier General Daniel Morgan won the Battle of Cowpens, a decisive Revolutionary War victory over British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton on January 17, 1781. It is considered one of the most memorable victories of Morgan and one of the most memorable defeats of Tarleton.

Established as Cowpens National Battlefield Site March 4, 1929; transferred from the War Department August 10, 1933; redesignated April 11, 1972. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Area: 841.56 acres (3.41 km2), Federal: 790.9 acres (3.2 km2), Nonfederal: 50.66 acres (205,010 m2).

The visitor center features a museum with exhibits about the American Revolution and the battle, including a fiber-optic map that illustrates the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution and the battle, a walking tour of the battlefield itself, and the reconstructed log cabin of one Robert Scruggs, who had farmed the land before the establishment of the park.

Ferrensby

Ferrensby is a village and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England. The population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census was 187. It is about 3 miles (4.8 km) north-east of Knaresborough and near the A1(M) motorway. Nearby attractions include a balloon centre and a maze.

The origin of the place-name is from Old Norse and means farmstead or village of the man from the Faroe Islands, and appears as Ferebi in the Domesday Book of 1086.The village has a public house called The General Tarleton which was named after Banastre Tarleton, a British General who fought on the loyalist side during the American War of Independence.

Horse-Shoe Robinson

Horse-Shoe Robinson: A Tale of the Tory Ascendency is an 1835 novel by John P. Kennedy that was a popular seller in its day.The novel was Kennedy's second, and proved to be his most popular. It is a work of historical romance of the American Revolution, set in the western mountain areas of the Carolinas and Virginia, culminating at the Battle of Kings Mountain.The primary characters of the novel include Francis Marion, Banastre Tarleton, General Charles Cornwallis, Horseshoe Robinson (so named because he was originally a blacksmith), Mary Musgrove and her lover John Ramsay, Henry and Mildred Lyndsay (patriots), Mildred's lover Arthur Butler (who she secretly marries), and Habershaw with his gang of rogues and Indians.

Indiantown, South Carolina

Indiantown is an unincorporated community in rural Williamsburg County, South Carolina, United States. Prior to the arrival of Europeans to North America, it was the site of a historic Chickasaw village and the area was a favored hunting and fishing ground. Within the community is the modern headquarters of the eastern Chickasaw. Known as the Chaloklowa Chickasaw, the people were officially recognized as a tribe by the State of South Carolina in 2005.

Early Scots-Irish immigrants developed a settlement around the Indiantown Presbyterian Church (founded 1757), and some of the Chickasaw were converted to Christianity. During the American Revolution, the church was burned by the British Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton. His act resulted in the citizens giving greater support to his opponent, the Continental General Francis Marion.

The Indiantown Church is still the center of the Community. A number of Revolutionary soldiers are buried in its church yard. The church has purchased the buildings and grounds of the closed Indiantown School, which are used for athletic and cultural events in the community. It operates a day care center as well.

The community no longer has a post office and is mostly within the address of Hemingway, South Carolina.

John Tarleton (MP)

John Tarleton (26 October 1755 – 19 September 1841) was an English ship-owner, slave-trader and politician.

He was a son of John Tarleton, a West Indies merchant and slave trader, from Aigburth near Liverpool, and brother of Banastre Tarleton.The younger John also became a West India merchant, in partnership with his brothers Thomas and Clayton, and Daniel Backhouse. Between 1786 and 1804 he invested in 39 Liverpool-registered ships.At the 1790 general election he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Seaford, but an election petition resulted in him being awarded the seat in 1792. In Parliament, he opposed measures to abolish or regulate the slave trade.At the 1796 general election, he did not contest Seaford but stood against his brother Banastre in Liverpool, but failed to win a seat.

Liverpool (UK Parliament constituency)

Liverpool was a Borough constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of England to 1706 then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament (MPs). In 1868, this was increased to three Members of Parliament.

The Borough franchise was held by the freemen of the Borough. Each elector had as many votes as there were seats to be filled. Votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings. In 1800 there were around 3000 electors, with elections in this seat being nearly always contested.

The Borough returned several notable Members of Parliament including Prime Minister George Canning, William Huskisson, President of the Board of Trade, Banastre Tarleton, noted soldier in the American War of Independence and most notably, William Roscoe the abolitionist and Anti Slave Trade campaigner.

The constituency was abolished in 1885, the city being split into nine divisions of Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth.

Providence Forge, Virginia

Providence Forge is an unincorporated community in New Kent County, Virginia, United States. It was one of the earliest settlements in the county (itself formed by 1654) and the site of a colonial iron forge that was destroyed by British General Banastre Tarleton during the American Revolutionary War.

Nearby, the Chickahominy River separates New Kent from Charles City County. U.S. Route 60 and State Route 155 pass through Providence Forge. The Colonial Downs horse-racing facility is located nearby adjacent to the Providence Forge exit of Interstate 64.

A station on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) was located at Providence Forge in 1881 during construction of the railroad's new Peninsula Subdivision, which was built primarily to facilitate transportation of West Virginia bituminous coal to the newly created city of Newport News. There, on the harbor of Hampton Roads, coal piers were built to load colliers for worldwide export shipment.The C&O's Peninsula Extension was good news for the farmers and merchants of the Virginia Peninsula, and they generally welcomed the railroad. Providence Forge was a stop for passengers until about 1931 and for freight until at least the late 1960s, according to the Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society. The structure was dismantled sometime in 2006. The only similar structure, at Lee Hall, has been preserved and efforts were underway in 2008 to relocate it slightly away from the right-of-way and open it as a museum.Cedar Grove, Emmaus Baptist Church, Olivet Presbyterian Church, and Spring Hill are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Tarleton (surname)

Tarleton or Tarlton is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Banastre Tarleton (1754–1833), English soldier and politician

Cullie Tarleton, American businessman and politician

Donald K. Tarlton (born 1943), Canadian businessman

Francis Alexander Tarleton (1841-1920), Irish mathematical physicist

Gael Tarleton (born 1959), American politician

John Tarleton (American settler) (ca. 1808–1895), American rancher

John Tarleton (Royal Navy officer) (1811–1880), British naval officer

Ken Tarleton (1900–1984), Australian rugby union player

Nel Tarleton (1906–1956), English boxer

Richard Tarlton (died 1588), English actor

The Swamp Fox (TV series)

The Swamp Fox is a television miniseries produced by Walt Disney and starring Leslie Nielsen as American Revolutionary War hero Francis Marion.The theme song ("Swamp Fox, Swamp Fox, tail on his hat...") was sung by Nielsen as well. Myron Healey played Marion's top aide, Maj./Col. Peter Horry. One of the Swamp Fox's adversaries was Colonel Banastre Tarleton, played by John Sutton. Patrick Macnee played a British captain, Tim Considine played Marion's nephew Gabe Marion and Slim Pickens played Plunkett, one of the Swamp Fox's men. Hal Stalmaster appeared in three of the eight episodes as "Gwynn." The Swamp Fox did not bring to Disney the commercial success that had been achieved by Davy Crockett.

The series encompassed eight episodes, running as part of Walt Disney Presents. Episodes were presented on Sundays on ABC from 6:30 to 7:30 p.m. and were also broadcast by CBC Television.

The Disney Channel reran Swamp Fox episodes in the 1980s and 1990s, while Nielsen was at the height of a second career as a white-haired comedy movie star. The first three episodes of the series were also released in 2005 on DVD (in a set including three episodes of The Nine Lives of Elfego Baca).

The actual Francis Marion typically rode into battle with a Continental Army uniform rather than a tri-cornered hat.

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