Ban Johnson

Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson (January 5, 1864 – March 28, 1931) was an American executive in professional baseball who served as the founder and first president of the American League (AL).

Johnson developed the AL—a descendant of the minor league Western League—into a "clean" alternative to the National League, which had become notorious for its rough-and-tumble atmosphere.[1] To encourage a more orderly environment, Johnson strongly supported the new league's umpires,[2] which eventually included Hall of Famer Billy Evans.[3]

With the help of league owners and managers such as Charles Comiskey, Charles Somers and Jimmy McAleer, Johnson lured top talent to the AL, which soon rivaled the more established National League.[4] Johnson dominated the AL until the mid-1920s, when a public dispute with Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis culminated in his forced resignation as league president.[2]

Ban Johnson
Ban Johnson, 1921
Ban Johnson in 1921
American League President
Born: January 5, 1864
Norwalk, Ohio
Died: March 28, 1931 (aged 67)
St. Louis, Missouri
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1937
Election MethodCentennial Committee

The Western League

Born in Norwalk, Ohio, Johnson went on to study law at Marietta College, although he did not take his degree. He subsequently became the sports editor of a newspaper in Cincinnati.[1] During this time, Johnson befriended Charles Comiskey, who was then manager of the Cincinnati Reds.[1] At the urging of Comiskey and Reds owner John T. Brush, Johnson was elected as president of the Western League, a faltering minor league, at a reorganization meeting held in 1893.[1]

Johnson had criticized the National League for its rowdy atmosphere, which was driving away families and women.[1] He set about making baseball more friendly to both. Contrary to the practice of the time, Johnson gave his umpires unqualified support and had little tolerance for players or managers who failed to show them due respect.[5] Johnson also fined and suspended players who used foul language on the field. Soon, the Western League was recognized as not only the strongest minor league, but also as the most effectively managed league in all of baseball.[5]

Formation of the American League

Teams of the American League (2350728586)
Ban Johnson (center) surrounded by the individual portraits of the eight American League teams

Johnson, however, had a bigger plan—another major league. With the help of Comiskey, who had purchased the Sioux City franchise and moved it to St. Paul in 1894 after leaving the Reds, Johnson initiated an ambitious plan of expansion. He got his chance after the 1899 season, when the National League dropped teams in Baltimore, Cleveland, Louisville and Washington, D.C.[1] Johnson moved the Grand Rapids franchise to Cleveland, where they would eventually become the Indians.[1] He also had Comiskey move his Saint Paul team to Chicago, where they eventually became the White Sox.[1] The latter move was made with the blessing of the NL, which saw Comiskey's team as a way to head off any attempt to revive the American Association.[1] For the 1900 season, the Western League was renamed as the American League, although it remained a minor league.[1]

The 1900 season was an unqualified success, and Johnson received a 10-year contract extension.[1] In October, he withdrew the AL from the National Agreement (the formal understanding between the NL and the minor leagues). The final step came on January 28, 1901, when he declared the AL would operate as a major league. He then placed teams in Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington.[1]

The Buffalo Bisons were to be a member of the new American League and their manager Franklin was told right up to Jan. 29, 1901, that "Buffalo was in the league and not to worry", Ban Johnson unceremoniously dumped Buffalo and placed the franchise in Boston. It was later revealed that he not only had been negotiating surreptitiously with Boston people for several months, but also that he had money invested in the Boston franchise. Johnson also had a large stake in the Washington franchise, which he kept until 1903.

A baseball power

The NL then made a critical blunder by limiting salaries to $2,400–a low sum even by 1901 standards. Johnson, Comiskey and the other AL owners responded by raiding NL rosters, promising disgruntled players much higher salaries. Over 100 players "jumped" to the new league. After a two-year war in which the AL trounced the NL in attendance both seasons, the NL sued for peace.[1] Under a new National Agreement, the AL was formally recognized as the second major league. A three-man National Commission was set up, composed of both league presidents and Reds owner Garry Herrmann. Although Herrmann was nominal president of the commission, Johnson soon dominated the body.[1]

Johnson brooked no criticism, and made it very difficult for men he didn't like to buy into the league. For instance, when Harry Frazee bought the Boston Red Sox in 1917, Johnson tried almost from the start to drive him out because Frazee had not been hand-picked by Johnson.[6] At one point, Johnson even had ownership interests in the Cleveland and Washington teams.

Downfall

The Frazee dispute planted the seed for Johnson's downfall. Eventually, the league divided into two factions, with the Red Sox, White Sox and New York Yankees on one side (commonly known as "The Insurrectos") and the other five clubs (the Indians, Philadelphia Athletics, St. Louis Browns, Detroit Tigers and Washington Senators, known as the "Loyal Five") on the other. By this time, Comiskey had become a bitter enemy of Johnson; the two men's once warm friendship had strained considerably. Johnson's authority eroded further that year when the Red Sox traded Carl Mays to the Yankees in defiance of a Johnson order to suspend him after Mays had jumped the club.[7] The Yankees went to court and received an injunction to allow Mays to play, as Johnson had demonstrated throughout the proceedings that his investment in the Cleveland Indians hindered his ability to be impartial.[7]

The final nail in Johnson's coffin proved to be the Black Sox Scandal. Johnson paid no attention to Comiskey's claims that his White Sox may have been on the take from gamblers.[2] However, when the scandal broke after the 1920 season, the White Sox, Red Sox and Yankees threatened to pull out of the AL and join a new 12-team National League. The enlarged league would include a new team in Detroit unrelated to the Tigers, who were owned by Johnson loyalist Frank Navin. However, Navin was in no mood for another war and persuaded the other five clubs to agree to appoint a new National Commission of non-baseball men. Federal District Court Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis was appointed as chairman. However, Landis would only accept an appointment as sole Commissioner of Baseball, with unlimited power over the game.[8] The owners were still reeling from the damage to baseball's reputation due to the Black Sox Scandal, and readily agreed to Landis' demands.[8]

Under the circumstances, a clash between the iron-willed Johnson and the iron-willed Landis was inevitable, and it happened prior to the 1924 World Series. Landis banned two New York Giants from the Series for attempting to bribe members of the Philadelphia Phillies late in the season. After Frankie Frisch and two other Giants stars were implicated, only to be cleared by Landis, Johnson demanded that the Series be canceled. He publicly criticized Landis for his handling of the affair, and Landis threatened to resign if the AL owners didn't rein Johnson in. After the Series, the AL owners promised to remove Johnson from office if he stepped out of line again. Johnson remained on good behavior for two years, even getting an extension of his contract to 1935 and a raise to $40,000 (he had previously made $25,000).

However, in 1926, Johnson criticized Landis for granting Ty Cobb and Tris Speaker an amnesty after evidence surfaced that they had fixed a game in 1919. Landis demanded that the AL choose between him and Johnson. The AL owners were prepared to remove Johnson from office at their annual meeting in January 1927. Because Johnson was in ill health at the time, the owners decided to put him on an indefinite sabbatical instead. Johnson tried to return in the spring and acted as if nothing had changed. However, the situation had become untenable, and Johnson was forced to resign at the end of the season.[2] Frank Navin served as acting president of the American League until the owners selected Indians general manager Ernest Barnard as president.

Legacy

Ban Johnson HOF plaque
Johnson's plaque at the Baseball Hall of Fame

Johnson died at age 67 in St. Louis, Missouri,[9] just a few hours after his successor, Ernest Barnard. Johnson was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937 as one of its charter members. The athletic fieldhouse at Marietta College is named in his honor. He was laid to rest at Riverside Cemetery in Spencer, Indiana.

Will Harridge, who succeeded to the AL presidency in 1931, summed up Johnson's legacy: "He was the most brilliant man the game has ever known. He was more responsible for making baseball the national game than anyone in the history of the sport".[9]

The Jayhawk Collegiate League's Liberal Bee Jays are named in Johnson's honor.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "What Every Fan Should Know: Ban Johnson and the Birth of the American League". At Home Plate. Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  2. ^ a b c d "League American". Baseball Library. Archived from the original on 14 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  3. ^ "Billy Evans Dies in Miami at 71; Major League Umpire 22 Years". The New York Times. January 24, 1956.
  4. ^ "Jimmy McAleer". Baseball Library. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-07.
  5. ^ a b "Bad to the Bone". The Deadball Era. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
  6. ^ "Says Ban Johnson Broke Agreement: Harry Frazee Recalls Famous Peace Pact Signed by Baseball Officials". The New York Times. January 1, 1922.
  7. ^ a b "Harry Frazee". BaseballLibrary.com. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  8. ^ a b "Kenesaw Mountain Landis". Baseball Library. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  9. ^ a b "Ban Johnson". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
  10. ^ "Bee Jays Semi-Pro Baseball". City of Liberal [KS]. Retrieved 2018-06-14.

External links

1902 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1902 Baltimore Orioles season finished with the Orioles in 8th in the American League (AL) with a record of 50–88. The team was managed by John McGraw and Wilbert Robinson. The team played at Oriole Park in Baltimore, Maryland.

During the season, Andrew Freedman, principal owner of the National League's (NL) New York Giants, with the financial backing of John T. Brush, principal owner of the NL's Cincinnati Reds, purchased the Orioles from John Mahon, who was deeply in debt. They raided the Orioles roster, releasing several of Baltimore's better players so that they could sign them to the Giants and Reds. AL president Ban Johnson seized control of the Orioles the next day and restocked their roster with players received on loan from other AL teams.

The Orioles' second season in Baltimore would ultimately prove to be their last, as the team was moved to New York after the season, where they became known as the New York Highlanders.

1925 World Series

In the 1925 World Series, the Pittsburgh Pirates defeated the defending champion Washington Senators in seven games.

In a reversal of fortune on all counts from the previous 1924 World Series, when Washington's Walter Johnson had come back from two losses to win the seventh and deciding game, Johnson dominated in Games 1 and 4, but lost Game 7.

The Senators built up a 3–1 Series lead. After Pittsburgh won the next two games, Johnson again took the mound for Game 7, and carried a 6–4 lead into the bottom of the seventh inning. But errors by shortstop Roger Peckinpaugh in both the seventh and eighth innings led to four unearned runs, and the Pirates become the first team in a best-of-seven Series to overcome a 3–1 Series deficit to win the championship. Peckinpaugh, the Senators' regular shortstop and the 1925 American League Most Valuable Player, had a tough Series in the field, committing a record eight errors.

Playing conditions were of no help. The 1925 Series was postponed twice due to poor weather, and Game 7 was played in what soon became a steady downpour, described as "probably the worst conditions ever for a World Series game." Senators outfielder Goose Goslin reported that the fog prevented him from clearly seeing the infield during the last three innings of the game, and claimed that the Series-winning hit was actually a foul ball. In the next day's The New York Times, James Harrison wrote "In a grave of mud was buried Walter Johnson's ambition to join the select panel of pitchers who have won three victories in one World Series. With mud shackling his ankles and water running down his neck, the grand old man of baseball succumbed to weariness, a sore leg, wretched support and the most miserable weather conditions that ever confronted a pitcher."Twice in Game 7 the visiting Senators held leads of at least three runs over the Pirates but failed to hold them. In fact, after the top of the first inning, Washington led 4-0. Nevertheless, Pittsburgh eventually won the game, scoring three runs in the bottom of the eighth inning to turn a 6-7 deficit into a 9-7 lead. To date, the four-run deficit is the largest ever overcome in the seventh game of the World Series.

A memorable play occurred during the eighth inning of Game 3. The Senators' Sam Rice ran after an Earl Smith line drive hit into right center field. Rice made a diving "catch" into the temporary stands, but did not emerge with the ball for approximately fifteen seconds. The Pirates contested the play, saying a fan probably stuffed the ball into Rice's glove. The call stood and Rice parried questions about the incident for the rest of his life—never explicitly saying whether he had or had not really made the catch. His typical answer (including to Commissioner Landis, who said it was a good answer) was always "The umpire said I caught it." Rice left a sealed letter at the Hall of Fame to be opened after his death. In it, he had written: "At no time did I lose possession of the ball."

Writer Lamont Buchanan wrote, "In 1925, the Senators hopped the Big Train once too often... earning Bucky [Harris] the criticism of many fans and American League head [Ban] Johnson who dispatched an irate wire to the Senators manager." In his telegram, Ban Johnson accused the manager of failing to relieve Walter Johnson "for sentimental reasons." Despite the second-guessing, Harris always said, 'If I had it to do over again, I'd still pitch Johnson.'" Contrary to what Ron Darling claimed, this was Walter Johnson's last World Series. By the time the original Washington Senators next reached the Fall Classic in 1933---their last before they became the Minnesota Twins---Johnson had retired.

American League

The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League (AL), is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which eventually aspired to major league status. It is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League (the "Senior Circuit").

At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion; two seasons did not end in playing a World Series (1904, when the National League champion New York Giants refused to play their AL counterpart, and 1994, when a players' strike prevented the Series). Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone. The New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics (15) and the Boston Red Sox (14).

Baldwin City Blues

The Baldwin City Blues are a summer collegiate wood bat baseball team based in Baldwin City, Kansas, in the United States. The Blues are a member of the Mid-Plains League.

Blues Baseball got its start as a neighborhood coach pitch team playing in the Johnson Country Parks and Recreation League. Preaching fundamentals, team commitment and good sportsmanship, Blues Baseball soon became one of the most well-coached and competitive teams in the area. Coach Faddis saw the potential his players had and developed a baseball program that is arguably the most successful in Johnson County history. With over 50 tournament titles, three State Championships and three World Series crowns to their credit, Blues Baseball set out test the players’ skills in the historic Ban Johnson League in 2012.

The Blues wasted little time in gaining the respect of established Ban Johnson teams. With a roster dominated by recent high school graduates, Blues Baseball became the youngest team in the 85-year history of the league to win the title. The team also became the only first-year team to accomplish this feat. Along the way, Blues Baseball also shattered the single-season winning percentage mark by going 35-1 during the summer. As a result, 10 players were chosen to play in the annual Ban Johnson All Star Game at Kaufman Stadium in July 2012. Four players were also recognized for their outstanding performances by garnering the league’s Defensive Player of the Year (CJ Faddis), Top Relief Pitcher (Nick Kolarik), Wins by a Pitcher (Drew Noble) and Tournament MVP (Jake Wodtke).

Although Coach Faddis experienced a loss of over half his team to other collegiate summer leagues, Blues Baseball re-tooled for the 2013 Ban Johnson Summer season. Again stressing fundamentals, team cohesiveness and personal commitment Coach Faddis motivated the team to “leave it all on the field.” As a result, Blues Baseball put together a second consecutive championship season, winning the Ban Johnson regular season title with a record of 24-5. Along the way, Blues Baseball established yet another Ban Johnson record by being the only team ever to win the League during its first two years of play. Eight Blues players were recognized for their efforts by being selected to the All Star Game at Kauffman Stadium. Coach Faddis and Coach Moore were also selected by league managers and administrators.

In 2014, the Blues moved to Baldwin City, Kansas and helped establish the Mid-Plains League. Michael Moore was named General Manager and Chris Faddis named Team Manager. The team would call Baker University's Sauder Field its initial home in Baldwin City. Overcoming several key injuries, the Blues made the Cowdin Cup Playoffs in its first season in Baldwin City. The season also saw Baldwin City Blues and Kansas State University Catcher Tyler Moore hit a walk off grand slam in the inaugural Mid Plains League All Star Game. With the bases loaded and the Mid Plains All Stars down 4–1 against the visiting Kansas City Men's Amateur Baseball All Stars Moore sent a 1–1 fastball 390 feet over the scoreboard in left field. The theatrical victory helped place the Mid Plains League on the Summer Collegiate Baseball landscape. Moore would go on to lead Kansas State in hitting the following season while winning numerous awards including being named All Big 12 Catcher and nominated for the Johnny Bench Award given to collegiate baseball's top Catcher.

The Blues have seen a number of current and former players either drafted or play professionally. Major League Baseball picks include: Clayton Henning 11th round 2012 (Tampa Bay Rays), Hayden Edwards 31st round (Kansas City Royals), Chase Rader 16th Round 2014 (Detroit Tigers), Matt Hall 6th Round 2015 (Detroit Tigers), Matt Eckelman 21st Round 2016 (Pittsburgh Pirates), Robert Calvano 38th Round 2016 (St. Louis Cardinals) and Ryan Wetzel 33rd Round 2016 (Washington Nationals). Players signing professional contracts include: Aaron Marshall 2016 Santa Fe Fuego (Pecos League), Tyler Moore 2016 Kansas City T-Bones (American Association), Grant Arnold 2017 Hollywood Stars (Pecos League) and Jeremy Melvin 2017 Hollywood Stars (Pecos League).

Baltimore Orioles (1882–1899)

The Baltimore Orioles were a 19th-century American Association and National League (organized 1876) team from 1882 to 1899. The early ball club, which featured numerous future Hall of Famers, finished in first place three consecutive years (1894–1895–1896) and won the "Temple Cup" national championship series in 1896 and 1897. Despite their success, the dominant Orioles were contracted out of the League after the 1899 season, when the N.L. reduced its number of teams and franchises from 12 to 8, with a list of teams and cities limited to just the northeastern United States which endured for the next half-century. This controversial action resulting in the elevation of the former Western League by leaders such as Ban Johnson (1864-1931), into a newly-organized American League in 1901 of which the new reorganized Baltimore Orioles were a prominent member for its first two seasons which "waged war" on the elder "Nationals".

Ban Johnson Park

Ban Johnson Park was a baseball stadium located in Hot Springs, Arkansas, within the Whittington Park Historic District, a "tree-shaded greenway" that is located along Whittington Creek, which runs down the center island of Whittington Avenue. The location of the ballpark was across from the still active Arkansas Alligator Farm and Petting Zoo (built 1902).Originally known as Whittington Park, the field served as a training site for many Major League Baseball teams, by hosting spring training games and serving as home for minor league teams. In 1918, Babe Ruth hit a 573-foot home run at the park, while a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox. The park was also home to the ever first Umpire School. In 1935, Ray Doan, the operator of a youth instructional camp at Whittington Park, renamed the park after Hall of Fame baseball pioneer Ban Johnson, founder of the American League.

Charles Somers

Charles W. Somers (October 13, 1868 – June 29, 1934) was an American executive in Cleveland, Ohio's coal industry who also achieved prominence in Major League Baseball. The financial resources from his business interests allowed Somers to become one of the principal founders of baseball's American League in 1901.

At the insistence of league president Ban Johnson, Somers and Jack Kilfoyl, who owned a popular Cleveland men's furnishings store, became the first owners of the Cleveland franchise.

Kilfoyl was Cleveland's first team president and treasurer, while Somers was its vice president and main financier.

Somers was also the principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, a team which had no official nickname until 1908, but was initially sometimes called the "Somersets" in his honor. Residing in Cleveland and traveling to Boston, Somers was also the American League's vice-president during the trade war for independence of and equality with the National League which was won in 1903 with the playing of the first World Series.Somers' money helped keep some American League teams afloat in their first years, including the St. Louis Browns, Charles Comiskey's Chicago White Sox and Connie Mack's Philadelphia Athletics.Somers sold his interest in the Boston club in 1903 to Henry Killilea. In 1910 Kilfoyl took ill and sold his interest in Cleveland to Somers.Somers invested in one of the first baseball minor league farm systems, ultimately controlling teams in Toledo, Ohio; Ironton, Ohio; Waterbury, Connecticut; Portland, Oregon; and the New Orleans Pelicans.

Facing pressure from the newly formed Federal League, in 1914 Somers transferred his Toledo Mud Hens to Cleveland to share League Park. This was done to keep the Federals out of Cleveland by ensuring there was already a ball game in Cleveland virtually every day of the season.

In 1915 the American League team, previously called the Cleveland Naps in reference to player/manager Nap Lajoie, was renamed the Cleveland Indians. Although Somers had kept the Fed at bay, the new league still had its influence, forcing salaries higher. This, combined with poor attendance at League Park, along with other investments that did not work out, put Somers in a precarious financial position.

In 1916, although the Fed had disbanded, it was too late to save Somers financially. He went broke with debts exceeding assets of $1.75 million, and at the insistence of his bank creditors, sold the Indians for $500,000 to a syndicate headed by Jim Dunn. The creditors did allow him to retain ownership of the Pelicans for sentimental reasons. The Mud Hens returned to Toledo in 1916.

After selling the Indians he successfully rebuilt his business investments. At his death in 1934 (at the height of the Great Depression) his estate was worth approximately $3 million.Somers was married twice. He had a daughter, Dorothy (Mrs. W. W. Clark) from his first marriage. His second wife, Mary Alice Gilbert, survived him. Somers died at Put-in-Bay, Ohio.

Don Schaly

Don Schaly (October 10, 1937 – March 9, 2005) was an American baseball coach. He was the baseball coach at Marietta College in Ohio for 40 years, from 1964 to 2003.

Schaly, a native of Ellwood City, Pennsylvania, retired following the 2003 season after 40 years at the helm of the Marietta baseball program. On March 9, 2005, he died after a short battle with cancer while attending the Pioneers' Spring Trip in Venice, Florida.

The 1959 graduate of Marietta College played baseball and football for the Pioneers. He returned to his alma mater in 1964 and never left, guiding his teams to three NCAA Division III National Championships and seven National Runner-up finishes. He won 18 Mideast Regional Championships and 27 Ohio Athletic Conference Championships.

The coach won numerous coaching awards during his career. He was inducted into the American Baseball Coaches Association (ABCA) Hall of Fame in 1995. Schaly was named the National Coach of the Year four times (1975, 1981, 1983 and 1986) and in 2000 Collegiate Baseball named him the Division III Coach of the Century. Schaly was also awarded the OAC's Coach of the Year 17 times and the Mideast Regional Coach of the year 21 times.

Schaly's final record at Marietta is 1,442–329, but Schaly’s role in the Marietta College Athletics Department extended far beyond the duties of head baseball coach. He was an assistant football coach for 17 years and served as an assistant athletics director for more than 20 years. Schaly also played a primary role in the formation of the Marietta College Athletic Hall of Fame, which he was inducted into in 2004.

Schaly was honored on November 8, 2003, at a banquet to celebrate his accomplishments at Marietta. He became the first person in Marietta College history to have his jersey retired. The college also renamed the main entrance of Ban Johnson Arena the Schaly Lobby in his honor. In 2006, Pioneer Park was renamed Don Schaly Stadium in his honor.

Ernest Barnard

Ernest Sargent Barnard (July 17, 1874 – March 27, 1931) was the second President of the American League, serving from 1927 until his death in 1931. Born in West Columbia, West Virginia, he later resided in Delaware, Ohio. He graduated from Otterbein College in 1895, and became football and baseball coach there until 1898. Moving to Columbus, Ohio, he became secretary of the local Builders Exchange, and coached football at Ohio Medical University. In 1900 he became sports editor for The Columbus Dispatch.

Hired by the Cleveland Indians in 1903, he served that club as traveling secretary (1903–08), vice president and de facto general manager (1908–16, 1918–22), and president (1922–27). During this time he often acted as a mediator between AL president Ban Johnson and Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis. He served under the Indians first owner, Charles Somers, and under their second, Jim Dunn. Dunn had initially fired Barnard upon taking over in 1917. Realizing he'd made a mistake, Dunn brought Barnard back to the team in 1918. Barnard stayed on as president after Dunn's death in 1922, running the team for Dunn's widow and estate.

When AL owners removed Ban Johnson, the league's founder, from the league presidency in 1927, Barnard, after first clearing the way by arranging the sale of the Indians to a group headed by Alva Bradley, replaced him. He was re-elected to a three-year term on December 9, 1930, but died suddenly three months later just prior to an examination at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Coincidentally, Johnson died just hours later.

Barnard was buried at Knollwood Cemetery in Cleveland.

Fred Postal

Frederick Postal was the co-owner of the Washington Senators of the American League with Ban Johnson from 1901 through 1903. In 1903, Johnson and Postal sold the Senators to Thomas C. Noyes.

History of the American League

The history of the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs stretches back into the late-19th century. Prior to 2000, when the AL and NL were dissolved as separate entities and merged into the organization called Major League Baseball, the American League was one of the two leagues that made up major league baseball. Originally a minor league known as the Western League, the league later developed into a major league after the American Association disbanded. In its early history, the Western League struggled until 1894, when Byron Bancroft “Ban” Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League. The American League has one notable difference over the National League, and that is the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in their lineup who is not in the field defensively, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to hit.

Hot Springs Bathers

The Hot Springs Bathers were a Cotton States League baseball team based in Hot Springs, Arkansas, United States, that played from 1938 to 1941 and from 1947 to 1955. In 1938, they were affiliated with the Chicago Cubs. In 1939 and 1940, they were affiliated with the Detroit Tigers. From 1948 to 1951, they were affiliated with the Chicago White Sox. They were affiliated with the St. Louis Cardinals in 1954 and the Kansas City Athletics in 1955. From 1938 to 1941, they played at Whittington Park/Ban Johnson Park, and from 1947 to 1955 they played at Bathers Field/Jaycee Park/Majestic Park.

In 1953, the Cotton States League attempted to evict the Bathers from the league because they signed and planned to play two African-American baseball players, brothers Jim and Leander Tugerson. The eviction was not permanent, however the brothers were never able to play in any regular season games for the team.

The franchise made a misguided return to the spotlight in the One Nation Under Balboni League. This revival has been highlighted by an almost mathematically impossible 1-17 record vs the Asheville Moonshiners over an 8 year period.

Jimmy Hart (baseball)

James John Hart (November 27, 1875 – August 31, 1926) was a Major League Baseball first baseman. Hart played for the Baltimore Orioles in 1901. In 58 career games, he had 64 hits in 206 at-bats, with 23 RBIs. He batted right and left-handed.

On August 5, 1901 Hart punched umpire John Haskell after being called out at third base. American League president Ban Johnson suspended Hart as result of the incident:

"This is the first time a player in the American League has struck an umpire‚ and it is an offense that cannot be overlooked."

Jimmy McAleer

James Robert "Loafer" McAleer (July 10, 1864 – April 29, 1931) was an American center fielder, manager, and stockholder in Major League Baseball who assisted in establishing the American League. He spent most of his 13-season playing career with the Cleveland Spiders, and went on to manage the Cleveland Blues, St. Louis Browns, and Washington Senators. Shortly before his retirement, he became a major shareholder in the Boston Red Sox.His career ended abruptly. During his brief tenure as co-owner of the Red Sox, McAleer quarreled with longtime friend and colleague Ban Johnson, president of the American League. In the wake of this disagreement, he sold off his shares in the Red Sox and broke off his relationship with Major League Baseball.McAleer's rift with Johnson, along with his sudden retirement, damaged his professional reputation, and he received little recognition for his contributions to baseball. Today, he is most often remembered for initiating the customary request that the President of the United States throw out the first ball of the season.

List of American League presidents

The American League President was the chief executive of the American League of professional baseball until 1999, when the AL and National League merged into Major League Baseball.

Minneapolis Millers

The Minneapolis Millers were an American professional minor league baseball team that played in Minneapolis, Minnesota, through 1960. In the 19th century a different Minneapolis Millers were part of the Western League. The team played first in Athletic Park and later Nicollet Park.

The name Minneapolis Millers has been associated with a variety of professional minor league teams. The original Millers date back to 1884 when the Northwestern League was formed. This league failed and the Western League replaced it, absorbing some of the old teams. According to Stew Thornley, this team folded in 1891 due to financial problems. In 1894, another team calling itself the Millers was formed when Ban Johnson and Charles Comiskey revived the Western League in hopes of making it a second major league. The Millers continued to play in the Western League through 1900, when the name was changed to the American League to give it more of a national image. Following the 1900 season, several cities were abandoned for bigger markets in cities recently vacated by the National League, including Minneapolis. Some teams were transferred, as was the case of the Kansas City franchise to become the Washington Nationals (Senators). However, some of the teams were just left out in the dark. It is unclear which of these two paths the Millers took, but most evidence seems to point toward abandonment, not a transfer to Baltimore, especially given that no player for the 1900 Millers played for the 1901 Orioles.

Several teams went by the nickname Millers, but the most prominent of these was the team in the American Association from 1902 to 1960. The Millers won four Association pennants during the 1910–23 tenure of "Pongo Joe" Cantillon, then were managed from 1924–31 by another legend, Michael Joseph Kelley, one of the great figures of American Association history. Kelley operated the team as club president until 1946. Broadcaster Halsey Hall was the Millers' play-by-play man from 1933 until the club folded in 1960 to make way for the Minnesota Twins.

Ted Williams, Willie Mays and Carl Yastrzemski were among some future major leaguers who played for the Millers. The Millers won nine pennants in the Association during their fifty-nine years. They played their home games at Nicollet Park until 1955, the ballfeld being demolished the following year. That site, at 31st and Nicollet Avenue, is now the home of a Wells Fargo bank. In 1956 they moved into Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington, until 1960.

They had a heated crosstown rivalry with the St. Paul Saints. The two clubs often played "streetcar double-headers" on holidays, playing one game in each city.

Over the years the Millers were participants in four Junior World Series; matchups between the champions of the American Association and the International League. In the 1932 championship, the team was defeated by the Newark Bears 4 games to 2. The Millers, under manager Bill Rigney, clinched the 1955 series against the Rochester Red Wings, 4 games to 3, in the final ball game played at Nicollet Park. In 1958, the Millers, with Gene Mauch as skipper, beat the Montreal Royals 4 games to 0. Their last appearance in this Series was in 1959, with Mauch as manager, when the Millers lost the series 4 games to 3 to the Havana Sugar Kings.

After the farm system era began, the Millers were top-level affiliates of the Boston Red Sox (1936–38; 1958–60) and New York Giants (1946–57). The Red Sox actually swapped ownership of their top farm club, the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League, for the Millers in 1957, enabling the Giants to move to San Francisco.

The Millers ceased operations after the 1960 season with the arrival of the Minnesota Twins in 1961. The Red Sox affiliated with the Pacific Coast League's Seattle Rainiers for 1961. The Millers ended with an overall record of 4,800–4,365. Through the years, Millers pitchers threw seven no-hitters, and a Miller batter was the league-leader in home runs twenty-one times and RBIs nine times.

Temple Cup

The Temple Cup was a cup awarded to the winner of a best-of-seven, post-season play-offs championship tournament for American professional baseball for the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs (known as the National League - established earlier in 1876) and awarded four times from 1894 to 1897. The 30-inch-high (76.2 centimeters high) silver cup cost $800, ($22.3 thousand in 2018 dollars) and was donated by coal, citrus, and lumber baron William Chase Temple (1862-1917), a part-owner of the Pittsburgh Pirates at the time. Much like the long running Stanley Cup of ice hockey in the National Hockey League and the Temple Cup's predecessor to the professional baseball team champions, the Dauvray Cup (1887-1893), (awarded seven times in the name of the donor, famed stage actress of the day, Helen Dauvray (1859-1923)), there was only one actual Temple Cup passed along to each baseball season's winning team and city.

Since there was only one major league at the time with the folding of the previous American Association 1882-1891, so the series was later played between the first and second-place teams of the surviving NL. The second-place team defeated the first-place team for the Cup in three of the four series that were played. The Temple Cup was also known as the World's Championship Series. If one team won three titles, that team would have permanent possession of the Cup, later given to the city of Baltimore for their .

Having moved over with several other AA strong franchises to join the senior National League after the 1891 folding of the American Association after ten seasons in the AA since 1882, the frequent champions and powerful scrappy teams of the Baltimore Orioles continued their winning ways from the old AA, capturing three NL pennants in a row (1894-1895-1896), and winning the Temple Cup also. Owner/manager Ned Hanlon (1857-1937), a Baltimorean and one of the most talented baseball men of the sport's early era ran the "Birds" with talented players like "Wee Willie" Keeler (1872-1923), Wilbert Robinson (1863-1934), and John McGraw (1873-1934). McGraw was later player/manager/owner with the early American League charter member team (and third to carry the Orioles name) of the new Baltimore Orioles of 1901-1902, one of the 8 original franchises in the new AL when reorganized in 1901, from the former Western League (on the minor level, 1885-1899) under activist first president Ban Johnson (1864-1931).

After the 1903 "peace pact" between the two major leagues, ending the "war" between them, recognizing each other as equal in stature, accepting a joint policy on player contracts and beginning a "best-of-seven" tournament of champions between them resulting in the modern inter-league World Series for the next century whose championship trophy replaced the old Temple Cup and soon exceeded its esteem. Also each league was allowed a franchise in the nation's largest city, so McGraw was responsible for the new AL Orioles team to move that year of 1903, after only two seasons in Baltimore to New York City to represent the AL, becoming the New York Highlanders, renamed a decade later as the New York Yankees. McGraw went on and later returned to the NL as owner/manager of the famous opposing New York team in the borough of The Bronx with the legendary New York Giants competitive in the early 20th century.

Thomas C. Noyes

Thomas C. Noyes (c. 1868 – August 21, 1912) was the co-owner of the Washington Senators of the American League with Ban Johnson from 1904 through 1919.

Noyes was the part-owner and publisher of the Washington Star when he bought the club from Ban Johnson and Fred Postal. The team was an also-ran for most of his tenure, the only highlight being the acquisition of Walter Johnson in 1907. Things really didn't turn around until Clark Griffith took over as manager in 1912.

He died suddenly in 1912 of pneumonia at a Washington, D.C. hospital. He was 44.The Senators were sold to a group headed by Griffith in 1919.

Western League (1885–1899)

The Western League of Professional Baseball Clubs, also called the Western League, was a minor league baseball league founded on February 11, 1885, and focused in the Midwestern United States.

After several failures and reorganizations, the most notable version of the league was organized by Ban Johnson on November 20, 1893. In 1900, the league was renamed the American League, and declared its major league status in 1901 against the older National League of 1876, which was centered in the American Northeast states.

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Washington Senators (19011960)
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