Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 2,009,109. In 2006, it was estimated to be the fastest-growing city in Africa and sixth-fastest in the world.[7] It is located on the Niger River, near the rapids that divide the upper and middle Niger valleys in the southwestern part of the country.

Bamako is the nation's administrative centre. The city proper is a cercle in its own right. Bamako's river port is located in nearby Koulikoro, along with a major regional trade and conference center. Bamako is the seventh-largest West African urban center after Lagos, Abidjan, Kano, Ibadan, Dakar, and Accra. Locally manufactured goods include textiles, processed meat, and metal goods. Commercial fishing occurs on the Niger River.

The name Bamako (Bàmakɔ̌ in Bambara) comes from the Bambara word meaning "crocodile tail".[8]

Bamako

bermudu
Capital city
View of Bamako
View of Bamako
Official seal of Bamako

Seal
Bamako is located in Mali
Bamako
Bamako
Location of Bamako
Bamako is located in Africa
Bamako
Bamako
Bamako (Africa)
Coordinates: 12°38′21″N 8°0′10″W / 12.63917°N 8.00278°WCoordinates: 12°38′21″N 8°0′10″W / 12.63917°N 8.00278°W
Country Mali
RegionBamako Capital District
CercleBamako
Subdivisions
Government
 • TypeCapitol District
 • Maire du DistrictAdama Sangaré[4]
Area
 • Capital city245.0 km2 (94.6 sq mi)
 • Metro
17,141.61 km2 (6,618.41 sq mi)
Elevation350 m (1,150 ft)
Population
(2009)(Census)
 • Capital city2,009,109
 • Density7,384.11/km2 (19,124.8/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,757,234
 • Metro density160.85/km2 (416.6/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
ISO 3166 codeML-BKO
HDI (2017)0.623[6]
medium

History

The area of the city has evidence of settlements since the Palaeolithic era. The fertile lands of the Niger River Valley provided the people with an abundant food supply and early kingdoms in the area grew wealthy as they established trade routes linking across west Africa, the Sahara, and leading to northern Africa and Europe. The early inhabitants traded gold, ivory, kola nuts, and salt.[9] By the 11th century, the Empire of Ghana became the first kingdom to dominate the area. Bamako had become a major market town, and a centre for Islamic scholars, with the establishment of two universities and numerous mosques in medieval times.[9]

The Mali Empire grew during the early Middle Ages and replaced Ghana as the dominant kingdom in west Africa, dominating Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, and Mauritania.[9] In the 14th century, the Mali Empire became increasingly wealthy because of the trade of cotton, gold and salt. This was eventually succeeded by the Songhai Empire and in the 16th century Berber invaders from Morocco destroyed what remained of the kingdoms in Mali and trans-Saharan trade was taken over by sailors.[9]

Fort de Bammakou
French Fort of Bammakou 1883

By the late 19th century, the French dominated much of western Africa, and in 1883, present-day Mali became part of the colony of French Sudan, and was its capital in 1908. Cotton and rice farming was encouraged through large irrigation projects and a new railroad connected Mali to Dakar on the Atlantic coast.[9] Mali was annexed then into French West Africa, a federation which lasted from 1895 to 1959.[9]

Mali gained independence from France in April 1960, and the Republic of Mali was later established. At this time, Bamako had a population of around 160,000. During the 1960s, the country became socialist and Bamako was subject to Soviet investment and influence.[9] However, the economy declined as state enterprises collapsed and unrest was widespread.[9] Eventually, Moussa Traoré led a successful coup and ruled Mali for 23 years. However his rule was characterised by severe droughts and poor government management and problems of food shortages.[9]

In the late 1980s the people of Bamako and Mali campaigned for a free-market economy and multiparty democracy. In 1990, the National Congress for Democratic Initiative (Congrès National d'Initiative démocratique, CNID) was set up by the lawyer Mountaga Tall, and the Alliance for Democracy in Mali (Alliance pour la démocratie au Mali, ADEMA) by Abdramane Baba and historian Alpha Oumar Konaré. These with the Association des élèves et étudiants du Mali (AEEM) and the Association Malienne des Droits de l'Homme (AMDH) aimed to oust Moussa Traoré. Under the old constitution, all labor unions had to belong to one confederation, the National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM). When the leadership of the UNTM broke from the government in 1990, the opposition grew. Groups were driven by paycuts and layoffs in the government sector, and the Malian government acceding to pressure from international donors to privatise large swathes of the economy that had remained in public hands even after the overthrow of the socialist government in 1968. Students, even children, played an increasing role in the protest marches in Bamako, and homes and businesses of those associated with the regime were ransacked by crowds.

On 22 March 1991, a large-scale protest march in central Bamako was violently suppressed, with estimates of those killed reaching 300. Four days later, a military coup deposed Traoré. The Comité de Transition pour le Salut du Peuple was set up, headed by General Amadou Toumani Touré.[10] Alpha Oumar Konari officially became president on 26 April 1992.[9]

On 20 November 2015, two gunmen took 170 people hostage in the Radisson Blu hotel. Twenty-one people‚ including three Chinese businessmen were killed in the "Bamako hotel attack" along with the two gunmen during the seven-hour siege.[11]

Geography

Bamako cercle
The Cercle of Bamako

Bamako is situated on the Niger River floodplain, which hampers development along the riverfront and the Niger's tributaries. Bamako is relatively flat, except to the immediate north where an escarpment is found, being what remains of an extinct volcano. The Presidential Palace and main hospital are located here.

Bamako bridge1
Pont des Martyrs

Originally, the city developed on the northern side of the river, but as it grew, bridges were developed to connect the north with the south. The first of these was the Pont des Martyrs (2-lane with two pedestrian sections) and the King Fahd Bridge (four-lane with two motorcycle and two pedestrian sections). Additionally, a seasonal causeway between the eastern neighborhoods of Sotuba and Misabugu was inherited from colonial times (alternated traffic on one lane with five crossing sections). The Sotuba Causeway ( Chaussée submersible de Sotuba in French, and Babilikoroni in Bamanankan) is typically under water from July to January. A third bridge (1.4 km long, 24 m wide, four-lane with two motorcycle and two pedestrian sections) is being built at the same location[12] to reduce downtown congestion, notably by trucks.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Bamako features a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw). Located between the Sahara to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south, Bamako is very hot on average all year round with the hottest months being March, April, and May. The mildest months are November to February. During the dry season, rainfall is scarce: virtually none falls between November and April due to the dominance of the Saharan anticyclone and the dry trade winds. The rainy season occurs in the summer with the peak during July, August, and September.

Administration

Sotrumas in Bamako - 12th February 2005
Taxi vans in Bamako
Bamako Avenue Avenue Al Qoods
Avenue Al Qoods in central Bamako

The District of Bamako has been divided into six communes (distinguished by numbers, and not named) since Ordinance No. 78-34/CNLM of 18 August 1978, and amended by a law in February 1982 establishing the new boundaries of Communes III and IV.[16] Each commune is administered by the municipal council and a mayor elected from among its members. The last elections were held on 26 April 2009 and the Alliance for Democracy in Mali hold the majority of representatives for the communes.

Communes and neighborhoods

Commune I has a population of 335,407 people (2009) and covers 35 square kilometres (14 sq mi). It is bounded to the north by the rural commune of Djalakorodji (Kati Cercle), west by the Commune II, north-east by the rural commune of Sangarebougou (Kati Cercle), on the east by the rural commune of Gabakourou and south by the Niger River. Nine neighborhoods comprise this commune: Banconi, Boulkassombougou, Djelibougou, Doumanzana Fadjiguila, Sotuba Korofina North, and South Korofina Sikoroni.[17]

Commune II has a population of 159,805 people (2009) and covers 18.3 square kilometres (7.1 sq mi). It is bounded to the east by the backwater of Korofina at the west foot of the Point G hill, and to the south by Niger River. The municipality has eleven neighborhoods: Niaréla (the oldest), Bagadadji, Medina-Coura, Bozola, Missira, Hippodrome, Quinzambougou, Bakaribougou, TSF, Industrial Area, and Bougouba. The new Cité du Niger island is also located in the Commune II.[18] The area is the most important in the industry sector in Bamako.[19]

Commune III has a population of 128,872 people (2009) and covers 20.7 square kilometres (8.0 sq mi). It is bounded on the north by the Kati, east by the Boulevard du Peuple, which separates it from the Commune II, south by the portion of the Niger River, between the Pont des Martyrs and the Motel de Bamako, and west by the Farako River and Avenue Cheick Zayed El Mahyan Ben Sultan with the neighborhood of ACI-2000. Commune III is the administrative and commercial center of Bamako. It accommodates in particular the two largest markets in the capital, the Grand Market and Dibida. Twenty neighborhoods make up this commune and the villages of Koulouninko and Sirakorodounfing were attached to the Commune III.[20]

Commune IV has a population of 300,085 people (2009) and covers 42 square kilometres (16 sq mi). It is bounded to the east by Commune III, north, west by Kati Cercle and south by the left bank of the Niger River. Commune IV consists of eight neighborhoods: Taliko, Lassa, Sibiribougou, Djikoroni Para, Sébénikoro, Hamdallaye, Lafiabougou and Kalabambougou.[21]

Commune V has a population of 414,668 people (2009) and covers 42 square kilometres (16 sq mi).[22] It is bounded to the north by the Niger River, south by the airport and the commune of Kalabancoro, and to the east by the Commune VI and Niger. It consists of eight neighborhoods: Badalabougou, Sema I, Quartier Mali, Torokorobougou, Baco-Djicoroni, Sabalibougou, Daoudabougou and Kalaban-Coura.

Commune VI has a population of 470,269 people (2009) and covers 87 square kilometres (34 sq mi). This is the largest of the communes that make up Bamako. It consists of ten neighborhoods: Banankabougou, Djanékéla, Faladié, Magnambougou, Missabougou, Niamakoro, Sénou, Sogoniko, Sokorodji and Yrimadio.

Bamako contains the following neighborhoods (quartiers): ACI-2000, Badalabugu, Bajalan I, Bajalan II, Bako Jikoroni, Bagadaji, Bamako Kura, Bankoni, Bolibana, Bozola, Bugudani, Bulkasumbugu, Dar Salam, N'tomikorobougou, Dawdabugu, Dravela, Fajigila, Falaje, Garantigibugu, Jalakoroji, Janekela, Janjigila, Jelibugu, Jikoroni Para, Jumanzana, Hamdallaye, Hippodrome, Kalaban Koro, Kalaban Kura, Korofina, Kuluba, Kulubleni, Lafiabugu, Madina Kura, Magnambugu (Magnambugu Faso Kanu), Misabugu, Misira, Niarela, Ntomikorobugu, Point G, Quartier du Fleuve, Quartier Mali, Quinzanbugu, Sabalibugu I, Sabalibugu II, Safo, Same, Sangarebugu, Saranbugu, Sebeninkoro, Sikoroni, Sirakoro, Senu, Sibiribugu, Sokoniko, Sokoroji, Sotuba, Titibugu, Torokorobugu, TSF-Sans Fil, Wolofobugu, Yirimanjo, Zone Industrielle

Demographics

BamakoMali
People gathered on a Bamako hillside.

Bamako has experienced a staggering population growth. In 1884, it had only 2,500 inhabitants, 8,000 in 1908, 37,000 in 1945, and 100,000 in 1960. Today, the population is at least 18 times what it was in 1960, with over 2,009,109 recorded at the 2009 census, and continues to attract a rural population in search of work.[23] Including illegal squatters and temporary workers, some experts believe the population today is well over 2 million. This uncontrolled growth has caused significant difficulties in terms of traffic, sanitation (including access to safe water), and pollution. Bamako became the crossroads of West Africa and hosts a diverse population, composed of different ethnic groups in Mali, but also from neighboring countries.

Economy

033-artisanat
Craft sellers set up their wares at the zone artisanal in Bamako city centre.

Industry

The traditional commercial center of Bamako was located to the north of the river, and contained within a triangle bounded by Avenue du Fleuve, Rue Baba Diarra, and Boulevard du Peuple. This area contains the Marché Rose and Street Market.

The downtown area is highly congested, polluted, and expensive, and urbanization is sprawling at a rapid pace within a radius of 30 kilometres (19 mi). The largest urbanized area now lies on the southern bank of the Niger River. A modern central business district is rapidly developing immediately west of the downtown area in the ACI-2000 district, taking advantage of a well-designed geometric layout, legacy of the old airport runways and taxiways. A large administrative area is being developed at the junction between ACI-2000 and the King Fadh Bridge, containing most of the state departments (ministries) and administrative services in a central location. Bamako is also the headquarters of many large companies and administrative institutions. Air Mali (formerly Compagnie Aérienne du Mali) has its head office in Bamako.[24] Bamako received much investment by Saudi Arabia for decades which saw a number of important structures being built. In recent years, China has become an important investor in Bamako, developing its infrastructure and facilities.

Bamako cattle
Cattle crossing a road in Bamako

Agriculture is active in Bamako, with the presence of Bozo fisherman, and it is common to see cattle crossing the streets. However, the most important by far is the manufacturing and service sector. The District of Bamako concentrates 70% of industrial activity.[25] The service sector is the most developed, and the city thrives in crafts and trade.

Music

A music boom in Bamako took off in the 1990s, when vocalist Salif Keita and singer-guitarist Ali Farka Touré achieved international fame.[26] It attracted a number of tourists, record producers, and aspiring musicians to the city to try to follow in their footsteps. It is common to see musicians in the streets with djembes and percussion bands playing traditional Bamana rhythms.

The range of ethnicities involved in Bamako's music scene are diverse, including singers and instrumentalists from Mali's myriad ethnic groups; the Tuaregs of the Sahara, the Sonrai of Timbuktu, the Malinkes from the border region south of Bamako, the Dogon cliff dwellers, the Wassalous near the Ivory Coast, the Fulas of central Mali etc.[26] Bars and nightclubs have grown rapidly including Mr. Keita's Mofu and Oumou Sangare's Hotel Wassulu which featured Malian and other west African artists. Notable western artists such as Robert Plant, Ry Cooder, Bonnie Raitt, John Lee Hooker, Damon Albarn and the French Basque star Manu Chao have all visited Bamako to jam and record with notable local musicians.[26]

Energy

Much of the electricity is generated from the hydroelectric Sélingué Dam. The drinking water supply in Bamako and Kati is also ensured by a pumping station on the Niger River. However, the capacity of 135,000 cubic metres (4,800,000 cu ft) to provide drinking water per day is insufficient for the needs estimated at 152,000 cubic metres (5,400,000 cu ft) during the hot season between April and June. During this period, frequent water shortages are experienced. A new pumping station was to open in Kabala in 2009.

Landmarks

The National Library of Mali was first created by the Institut Français d'Afrique Noire, an arm of the French colonial government, in 1944. Following Mali's 1960 independence, this library became the Government Library; it would later be renamed again as the National Library of Mali. In 1968, the library was transferred from its initial home in Koulouba to Ouolofobougou, a section of Bamako. The library holds more than 60,000 works, including books, periodicals, audio documents, videos, and software. These materials are available free to the public, though a small subscription fee is required for borrowing privileges. The library also hosts some of the exhibits for African Photography Encounters, a biannual Bamako photography festival.

The Bamako Grand Mosque is located in the city centre of Bamako, situated north of the Niger River near the central Market (Grand Marche) and the colonial era Bamako Cathedral. It is one of the tallest structures in Bamako. Built on the site of a precolonial mud-brick mosque, the current mosque was built through funding from the Saudi Arabian government at the end of the 1970s. With its tall concrete minarets built around a square central structure, the building is stylistically closer to Saudi religious structures than West African.[27] The mosque is visible from much of the city and occasionally is opened to tourists.

BCEAO tower Bamako
BCEAO tower

The BCEAO Tower at 20 stories is the tallest building in the West African nation. It sits on the north ("left") bank of the River Niger in the city centre.[28] The BCEAO Tower is the Malian headquarters of the Central Bank of West African States, which provides development banking and government financial and currency services in several Francophone West African nations. Classified as Neo-Sudanic architecture, it is modeled on the Sudano-Sahelian architecture of the famous mosques of Djenne and Timbuktu. The building is located in the busy Commune III neighbourhood, where "Avenue Moussa Tavele" meets the waterside boulevard between the two main Bamako bridges: King Fahd Bridge a block west and Martyrs Bridge three blocks east. Just to the east of the BCEAO complex, a park and formal garden mark where the diagonally running "Boulevard du Peuple" reaches the river. By contrast, small market gardens and launching points or river canoes lie along the river front.[28] With the Hotel de l'Amitié and the Bamako Grand Mosque, the BCEAO Tower is one of three landmarks visible across most of the city.[28] Also of note is the Bamako Cathedral.

The Cité Administrative (Administrative City) is a complex of buildings located just west of the northern end of the King Fahd Bridge. The complex was begun in 2003 by then President Konaré with the help of funding from the government of Libya. The 10-hectare (25-acre) Cité Administrative was completed in 2010 and houses many of the offices of the government.[29][30]

Musee Nationale du Mali
The National Museum of Mali buildings, designed by architect Jean-Loup Pivin
Bamako Cathedral
Bamako Cathedral

The National Museum of Mali is an archeological and anthropological museum, presenting permanent and temporary exhibits on the prehistory of Mali, as well as the musical instruments, dress, and ritual objects associated with Mali's various ethnic groups. The National Museum began under French rule as the Sudanese Museum, part of the Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (IFAN) under Théodore Monod. It was opened on 14 February 1953, under the direction of Ukrainian archeologist Yuriy. Shumowskyi. Shumovskyi had worked in the museum for nine years, gathering half (nearly 3,000) of today's finds.

With the independence of the Republic of Mali in 1960, the Sudanese Museum became the National Museum of Mali, with the new objectives of promoting national unity and celebrating Malian traditional culture. However, lack of financial means and absence of qualified personnel caused some deterioration in the museum's collections. On 30 March 1956, the National Museum moved into a new cemented structure, created by architect Jean-Loup Pivin from traditional Malian designs. Since the 1996 election of former archaeologist Alpha Oumar Konaré to Mali's presidency, the museum's funding has increased considerably, becoming among the best in West Africa. The museum often hosts part of the biannual African Photography Encounters, photography festival held in Bamako since 1994.

Also of note is the Muso Kunda Museum, the Bamako Regional Museum, Bamako Zoo, the Bamako Botanical Gardens, the National Conference Center Tower (NCC), the Souvenir Pyramid, the Independence Monument, Al Quoods Monument, the triangular Monument de la paix, the Hamdallaye obelisk, the Modibo Keita Memorial and many other monuments, the Palais de la Culture Amadou Hampaté Ba and the Point G hill, containing caves with rock paintings.

In 1988, Bamako was the location of a WHO conference known as the Bamako Initiative that helped reshape health policy of sub-Saharan Africa. The yearly held Budapest-Bamako rally has the endpoint in Bamako, with the Dakar Rally often passing through Bamako.

Image gallery

Monument Al Quoods - Bamako

Al Quoods Monument

Monument de l'indépendance - Bamako

Independence Monument

Monument de la paix - Bamako

Monument de la paix

L'obélisque des idéogrammes, Hamdallaye - Bamako

Hamdallaye obelisk

Pyramide du souvenir - Bamako

Pyramide du souvenir

Place Abdoul Karim Camara - Bamako

Place Abdoul Karim Camara

Place des explorateurs, Koulouba - Bamako

Place des explorateurs

Transport

Bamakolooking north from the old bridge
Looking north from Pont Des Martyrs. Kuluba hill is in the background.
Taxi vans in Bamako
This is a sotrama stand. The sotrama (taxi van) is what is used as public transportation, many being owned independently.

The Dakar-Niger Railway links Bamako to Dakar via Kati, Négala, Kita, and Kayes.

In 2015, a rail link to San-Pédro in Ivory Coast is proposed.[31]

The road network links Bamako to Koulikoro, Kati, Kolokani, Ségou, and Sikasso.

The Bamako-Sénou International Airport is 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the city and opened to passengers in 1974. Passenger traffic steadily increased in the early 2000s. Government figures revealed 403,380 passengers in 1999, 423,506 in 2003, 486,526 in 2004, and 516,000 in 2005, and is predicted to reach over 900,000 by 2015 under a low (4%) yearly growth-rate scenario.[32] To date this growth rate has been surpassed. Total air traffic the airport increased by 12.4% in 2007 and 14% in 2008. Most of this increase came in passenger transport, with the number of passengers served increasing by 20% in 2007 and 17% in 2008. Twenty-seven airline carriers operated weekly or better at Bamako-Sénou International Airport in the 2007–2008 period. This continued growth was offset by cargo flights' decline of 16.75% in 2007, and 3.93% in 2008.[33] The highest frequency route is on the Bamako-Dakar sector with 29 weekly non-stop connections. Domestic flights also serve Mali's regional capitals Kayes, Mopti, Timbuktu, Sikasso, Gao, and Kidal. Bamako Senou International Airport is managed by Aéroports du Mali (ADM).[32] Its operations are overseen by the Malian Ministry of Equipment and Transports.[33]

Much of the transportation is either by the Niger River, or by paved roads linking Bamako to other major urban areas. Navigating the river is possible from Koulikoro to Mopti and Gao. The bush taxi is one of the main modes of transport.

Bamako is situated on both sides of the Niger River and two bridges connect the two banks: the Bridge of Martyrs completed in 1960 and renamed in memory of protesters killed in March 1991 by the regime of Moussa Traoré, and the King Fahd Bridge, named after the Saudi Arabian donor. A third bridge project is currently being funded by the People's Republic of China. Located in Sotuba area, it has the objective to decongest traffic in the city.[34]

Healthcare

The Point G hospital, built between 1906 and 1913, covers 25 hectares (62 acres). A former military hospital, it became a civilian hospital shortly before the independence of Mali, and is situated on a hill overlooking Bamako.[35]

The second hospital of Bamako is the Gabriel Touré Hospital named after a young doctor and humanist Gabriel Touré who was born in 1910 in Ouagadougou and died in 1935 after having been contaminated by a patient with the pneumonic plague. The hospital was established in 1959.[36]

The contract for the building of a new hospital in Bamako, to relieve pressure on the other hospital resources was signed on 27 December 2008. Located in the district of Yirimadio, the department will include a pediatric and obstetrics-gynecology facilities, a department of internal medicine, medical imagery facilities and hospital care with 150 beds to support the emergency services and intensive care. This hospital, like many recent developments in Bamako is financed and equipped with Chinese investment.[37]

In popular culture

Bamako has provided the backdrop or been the subject of books and films such as Bamako, directed by Abderrahmane Sissako. The film depicts a trial taking place in Bamako, amid the daily life that is going on in the city. In the midst of that trial, two sides argue whether the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, or perhaps corruption, are guilty of the current financial state of many poverty-stricken African countries. The film was first released at the Cannes Film Festival on 21 May 2006 and in Manhattan by New Yorker Films on 14 February 2007 and was the recipient of the first Film Award of the Council of Europe given at the Istanbul International Film Festival in April 2007.[38]

Notable people

Gallery

Bamakomali (3)

Ministry buildings

Mali - Bozo girl in Bamako

A Bozo girl in Bamako

Bamako bridge crop enh

Pont des Martyres (Martyrs' Bridge)

Bamakomali

Monument

NCC tower Bamako

Tower by the Bamako International Conference Center

Bamako Entrance Arch

Bamako airport road welcome sign

Place de la liberté - Bamako

Place de la liberté

Twin towns – sister cities

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b [2]
  3. ^ a b [3]
  4. ^ "Coupe du Maire du District : Le Stade reçoit son trophée". L'Essor, 24 September 2008
  5. ^ "Population of Bamako, Mali". Mongabay.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
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  8. ^ "SUDANESE IMPOSE SENEGAL BOYCOTT; Traders Told to Use Port in Ivory Coast – Move Is Aimed at Dakar's Trade". New York Times, 3 September 1960
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  16. ^ Ordonnance n° 78-34/CNLM du 18 août 1978, modifiée par une loi de février 1982 fixant les nouvelles limites des Communes III et IV, cité par Doussou Djiré, Commune IV : entre tradition et modernité, l'Essor, 24 April 2009
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  20. ^ Cissé, A.M. (24 April 2009). Commune III : dans un mouchoir de poche ? l'Essor
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  27. ^ Velton (2000) p.124
  28. ^ a b c Velton, Russ (2006). Mali. Chalfont St Peter, Bucks / Guilford, Connecticut: Bradt UK / Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-1-84162-077-0.
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  32. ^ a b Composante aéroport Bamako-Sénou Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Proposition MCA-Mali (2006)
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  36. ^ B. Doumbia, Board of Directors of the Gabriel Toure hospital: the quality imperative, L'Essor, 26 February 2009
  37. ^ B. Doumbia, Futur « Hôpital du Mali » : les travaux peuvent démarrer, l'Essor, 31 December 2008
  38. ^ ""Bamako", winner of the first Council of Europe film award in Istanbul". Council of Europe. 14 April 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
  39. ^ Sebastian Klee Medien. "Mali – ein Land voller Gegensätz". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  40. ^ Kulturstiftung Leipzig. "Leipziger Blätter - Heftarchiv - Heft 2 - kulturstiftung-leipzig.de". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  41. ^ "Bamako, Mali - A Rochester Sister City". Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  42. ^ Cidades irmãs de São Paulo Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  • Pascal James Imperato. Historical Dictionary of Mali. Scarecrow Press/ Metuchen. NJ – London (1986) ISBN 0-8108-1369-6
  • Ross Velton. Mali: The Bradt Travel Guide. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 2000.

External links

2002 Africa Cup of Nations

The 2002 Africa Cup of Nations was the 23rd edition of the Africa Cup of Nations, the association football championship of Africa (CAF). It was hosted by Mali. Just like in 2000, the field of sixteen teams was split into four groups of four. Cameroon won its fourth championship (repeating as champions), beating Senegal on penalty kicks 3−2 after a goalless draw.

2015 Bamako hotel attack

On 20 November 2015, Islamist militants took 170 hostages and killed 20 of them in a mass shooting at the Radisson Blu hotel in Bamako, the capital city of Mali. Malian commandos raided the hotel and freed the surviving hostages. Al-Mourabitoun claimed that it carried out the attack "in cooperation with" Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb; an Al Qaeda member confirmed that the two groups cooperated in the attack.

AS Real Bamako

AS Real Bamako is a Malian football club based in Bamako. They play in the Malien Première Division the top division in Malian football. Their home stadium is Stade Modibo Keïta.Among Real Bamako's most successful players was Salif "Domingo" Keïta (1963–67), who went on to win three Championships and the Ballon d'Or Africain (1970) at Saint-Étienne in France.

Bamako, Bougouriba

Bamako is a village in the Diébougou Department of Bougouriba Province in south-western Burkina Faso. The village has a population of 988.

Bamako, Comoé

Bamako is a town in the Tiéfora Department of Comoé Province in south-western Burkina Faso. The town has a population of 1,383.

Bamako Convention

The Bamako Convention (in full: Bamako Convention on the ban on the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa) is a treaty of African nations prohibiting the import of any hazardous (including radioactive) waste. The Convention was negotiated by twelve nations of the Organisation of African Unity at Bamako, Mali in January, 1991, and came into force in 1998.

Impetus for the Bamako Convention arose from the failure of the Basel Convention to prohibit trade of hazardous waste to less developed countries (LDCs), and from the realization that many developed nations were exporting toxic wastes to Africa. This impression was strengthened by several prominent cases. One important case, which occurred in 1987, concerned the importation into Nigeria of 18,000 barrels (2,900 m3) of hazardous waste from the Italian companies Ecomar and Jelly Wax, which had agreed to pay local farmer Sunday Nana $100 per month for storage. The barrels, found in storage in the port of Koko, contained toxic waste including polychlorinated biphenyls, and their eventual shipment back to Italy led to protests closing three Italian ports.

The Bamako Convention uses a format and language similar to that of the Basel Convention, but is much stronger in prohibiting all imports of hazardous waste. Additionally, it does not make exceptions on certain hazardous wastes (like those for radioactive materials) made by the Basel Convention.

Bamako Sign Language

Bamako Sign Language, also known as Malian Sign Language, or LaSiMa (Langue des Signes Malienne), is a sign language that developed outside the Malian educational system, in the urban tea-circles of Bamako where deaf men gathered after work. It is used predominantly by men, and is threatened by the educational use of American Sign Language, which is the language of instruction for those deaf children who go to school.

Bamako–Sénou International Airport

Modibo Keita International Airport (IATA: BKO, ICAO: GABS) (formerly Bamako–Sénou International Airport) is Mali's main airport located approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of downtown Bamako, the capital of Mali in West Africa. It is the country's only international airport. It is managed by Aéroports du Mali (ADM). Its operations are overseen by the Malian Ministry of Equipment and Transport.

CO de Bamako

Club Olympique de Bamako is a Malian football club based in Bamako. They play in the top division in Malian football. Their home stadium is Stade 26 Mars. As of the 2010 season, the club's president was Moussa Konaté.

Cercles of Mali

A cercle is the second level administrative unit in Mali. Mali is divided into eight régions and one capital district (Bamako); the régions are subdivided into 49 cercles. These subdivisions bear the name of their principal city.

During French colonial rule in Mali, a cercle was the smallest unit of French political administration that was headed by a European officer. A cercle consisted of several cantons, each of which in turn consisted of several villages. In 1887 the Cercle of Bafoulabé was the first cercle to be created in Mali. In most of former French West Africa, the term cercle was changed to Prefecture or Department after independence, but this was not done in Mali.

Some cercles (and the district) were, prior to the 1999 local government reorganisation, further divided into Arrondissements, especially in urban areas or the vast northern regions (such as Kidal), which consisted of a collection of Communes. Since these reforms, cercles are now directly subdivided into rural and urban communes, which in turn are divided in Quartiers (Quarters, or Villages and encampments in rural areas) which have elected councils at each level. There are 703 communes, 36 urban communes (including 6 in Bamako District) and 667 rural communes. The cercles are listed below.

Djoliba AC

Djoliba Athletic Club is a Malian football club and one of the two biggest teams in Mali alongside the Stade Malien. The team is based in the capital city of Bamako. It has its headquarters and three training stadia at Complex Sportif Hérémakono, in the Heremakono Quartier. The President of Djoliba AC, re-elected in 2009 to a four-year term, is Karounga Keita a Vice President of the Malian Football Federation, former trainer at the club, who was a player at the founding of the club in 1960. Djoliba or Joliba is the name of the Niger River in the Bamana language. Not only a football club, Djoliba AC is an Omnisports club which fields teams in many sports, and is operated as a membership organisation with an elected board.

Jean Zerbo

Jean Zerbo (born 27 December 1943) is a Malian Roman Catholic prelate who has served as Archbishop of Bamako since 1998. Pope Francis raised him to the rank of Cardinal on 28 June 2017. He is the first cardinal from Mali.

Koman Coulibaly

Koman Coulibaly (born 4 July 1970) is a Malian football referee. He has been a full international referee for FIFA since 1999, and officiated his first international match on 19 April 2000, between Mali and Burkina Faso. Coulibaly is one of Mali's most experienced officials, having been selected for five Africa Cup of Nations tournaments and the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

List of Malian records in athletics

The following are the national records in athletics in Mali maintained by its national athletics federation: Fédération Malienne d'Athlétisme (FMA).

List of terrorist incidents in 2016

This is a list of terrorist incidents which took place in 2016, including attacks by violent non-state actors, split up by month. Note that terrorism related to drug wars and cartel violence is not included in these lists.

Malian Cup

The Coupe du Mali Orange for sponsorship reasons is the top knockout tournament of the Malien football.The competition is the only one where some of the clubs who won titles are based outside Bamako, the Malian capital.

Malian Première Division

Malian Première Division is the top division of football in Mali. Having been created in 1966, it is governed by the Malian Football Federation. The league has been professional since 2004. The official name is Ligue 1 Orange Mali for sponsorship reasons.

The season usually runs from December to late August. The league currently consists of fourteen clubs and features a round-robin home-and-away schedule. The Malian champions qualify for the CAF Champions League.

In the 2017 current season, the competition started in early January, but in the 6th round, the government dissolved the football association on 9 March and the remaining matches of the round were abandoned.

Stade Malien

Stade Malien is a Malian football and sports club based in Bamako. One of the two dominant clubs of Malian football, their eastern Bamako training grounds host other sports as well, including a successful basketball club.

Timeline of Malian football

1930s – 1940s – 1950s – 1960s – 1970s – 1980s – 1990s – 2000s – 2010s

Climate data for Bamako (1950–2000, extremes 1949–2015)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.9
(102.0)
42.8
(109.0)
43.9
(111.0)
43.5
(110.3)
45.0
(113.0)
42.0
(107.6)
40.0
(104.0)
37.8
(100.0)
38.4
(101.1)
38.9
(102.0)
42.0
(107.6)
40.0
(104.0)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F) 33.4
(92.1)
36.4
(97.5)
38.5
(101.3)
39.6
(103.3)
38.5
(101.3)
35.3
(95.5)
32.1
(89.8)
31.1
(88.0)
32.2
(90.0)
34.6
(94.3)
35.3
(95.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
Average low °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
19.9
(67.8)
22.9
(73.2)
25.2
(77.4)
25.4
(77.7)
23.6
(74.5)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.6
(70.9)
21.3
(70.3)
18.4
(65.1)
16.8
(62.2)
21.3
(70.3)
Record low °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
15.8
(60.4)
17.8
(64.0)
16.1
(61.0)
17.5
(63.5)
17.2
(63.0)
18.0
(64.4)
14.7
(58.5)
10.8
(51.4)
6.0
(42.8)
6.0
(42.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.6
(0.02)
0.7
(0.03)
2.1
(0.08)
19.7
(0.78)
54.1
(2.13)
132.1
(5.20)
224.1
(8.82)
290.2
(11.43)
195.9
(7.71)
66.1
(2.60)
5.2
(0.20)
0.5
(0.02)
991.3
(39.03)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.2 0.2 0.6 3.3 6.3 7.7 16.7 17.9 14.7 5.7 0.3 0.1 73.7
Average relative humidity (%) 24 20 22 33 50 67 77 81 78 65 38 27 49
Mean monthly sunshine hours 277.4 253.0 268.1 230.4 242.6 233.6 216.6 218.3 221.7 253.7 270.7 268.6 2,954.7
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[13]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990),[14] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity)[15]
Capitals of African states
Countries
Sections
Tributaries (list) and
distributaries
Cities
Lakes
Dams and bridges
Protected Areas
Kayes Region
Koulikoro Region
Sikasso Region
Ségou Region
Mopti Region
Tombouctou Region
Gao Region
Kidal Region
Bamako Capital District
Ménaka Region
Taoudénit Region

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