Balochi language

Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Balochi
بلؤچی
Balochi
Balochi in Perso-Arabic script (Nastaʿlīq style)
Native to Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan,
Ethnicity Baloch, some Brahui and Sheedis
Native speakers
7.6 million (2007)[1]
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Balochistan
Recognised minority
language in
 Iran
Provincial in Balochistan
 Pakistan
Provincial in Balochistan
 Afghanistan
Provincial in Nimroz province
Regulated by Balochi Academy, Quetta, Pakistan
Language codes
ISO 639-2 bal
ISO 639-3 balinclusive code
Individual codes:
bgp – Eastern Balochi
bgn – Western Balochi
bcc – Southern Balochi
ktl – Koroshi
Glottolog balo1260[2]
Linguasphere 58-AAB-a > 58-AAB-aa (East Balochi) + 58-AAB-ab (West Balochi) + 58-AAB-ac (South Balochi) + 58-AAB-ad (Bashkardi)
Moderniranianlanguagesmap
Geographic distribution of Balochi (yellow) and other Iranian languages

Vowels

The Balochi vowel system has at least eight vowels: five long and three short.[3] These are /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, /uː/, /a/, /i/ and /u/. The short vowels have more centralized phonetic quality than the long vowels. The variety spoken in Karachi also has nasalized vowels, most importantly /ẽː/ and /ãː/.[4]

Consonants

The following table shows consonants which are common to both Northern and Southern Balochi.[5] The consonants /s/, /z/, /n/, /ɾ/ and /l/ are articulated as alveolar in Western Balochi. The plosives /t/ and /d/ are dental in both dialects.

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatoalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ k ɡ ʔ
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative s z ʃ ʒ[cn 1] h[cn 2]
Tap ɾ ɽ[cn 3]
Nasal m n
Approximant w l j

Notes

  1. ^ Words with /ʒ/ are uncommon.
  2. ^ Word-initial /h/ is dropped in Balochi as spoken in Karachi.
  3. ^ The retroflex tap has a very limited distribution.

In addition, /f/ occurs in a few words in Southern Balochi. /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) in some loanwords in Southern Balochi corresponding to /χ/ (voiceless uvular fricative) in Western Balochi; and /ɣ/ (voiced velar fricative) in some loanwords in Southern Balochi corresponding to /ʁ/ (voiced uvular fricative) in Western Balochi.

Grammar

The normal word order is subject–object–verb. Like many other Indo-Iranian languages, Balochi also features split ergativity. The subject is marked as nominative except for the past tense constructions where the subject of a transitive verb is marked as oblique and the verb agrees with the object.[6]

Dialects

There are two main dialects: the dialect of the Mandwani (northern) tribes and the dialect of the Mazaris (southern) tribes.[7] The dialectal differences are not much significant.[7] The grammatical terminations in the northern dialect are less distinct compared with those in the southern tribes.[7]

Writing system

Balochi was not a written language before the 19th century[8] and the Persian script was used to write Balochi wherever necessary.[8] However, Balochi was still spoken at the Baloch courts.

British linguists and political historians wrote Balochi with the Latin script. Following the creation of Pakistan, Baloch scholars adopted Persian alphabet. The first collection of poetry in Balochi, Gulbang by Mir Gul Khan Nasir was published in 1951 and incorporated the Arabic Script. It was much later that Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashemi wrote a comprehensive guidance on the usage of Arabic script and standardized it as the Balochi Orthography in Pakistan and Iran. This earned him the title of the 'Father of Balochi'. His guidelines are widely used in Eastern and Western Balochistan. In Afghanistan, Balochi is still written in a modified Arabic script based on Persian.

The Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashemi Orthography

The following alphabet was used by Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashemi in his lexicon of Balochi "Sayad Ganj" (سید گنج) (lit. Sayad's Treasure).[9] آ، ا، ب، پ، ت، ٹ، ج، چ، د، ڈ، ر، ز، ژ، س، ش، ک، گ، ل، م، ن، و، ھ ہ، ء، ی ے

Balochi Orthography

ا آ ب بھ پ پھ ت تھ ٹ ٹھ ث ج جھ ݘ چ چھ ح خ د دھ ڈ ڈھ ڋ ذ ڌ ڌھ ر ڑ ڑھ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط طھ ظ ع غ ف ق قھ ک کھ گ گھ ل لھ م مھ ن نھ ں ڹ و وھ ہ ھ ء ی ے ﻳﮭ ~٠

There are 47 letters in the Balochi language the orthography of the Balochi script was introduced by Taimur Mengal in his Balochi pamphlet "Balochi Nama Qasim" published in 1987. The same alphabet was published in his article "Balochki Mundh Likh" in the monthly Balochi Nama, Dera Ghazi Khan, August–September 1991, Vol. 1, issue 1, Pp. 24.[10][11]

Balochi Newest Latin Alphabet (Ballatin)

Aa Àà Bb Čč Dd Ďď Ee Èè Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Òò Pp Rr Ss Šš Tt Ťť Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Žž[12]

Balochi Latin alphabet

The following Latin-based alphabet was adopted by the International Workshop on "Balochi Roman Orthography" (University of Uppsala, Sweden, May 28–30, 2000).[13]

Alphabetical order:

a á b c d ď e f g ĝ h i í j k l m n o p q r ř s š t ť u ú v w x y z ž ay aw (33 letters and 2 digraphs)

A/a amb (mango), angúr (grape), bagg (camel-caravan), sardar (Head man-nobleman), namb (mist)
Á/á dár (wood), abba (father), árth (flour), bahá (price), pádh (foot), áeghah (coming), áhán (them)
B/b (be) bawar (snow, ice), bám (dawn), bágpán (gardener), baktáwar (lucky)
C/c (che) cattre (umbrella), bachek (son), kánc (knife), Karácí, Kulánc, Cákar, Bálác
D/d (de) dard (pain), drad (rainshower), dárman (medicine), wádh (salt)
Ď/ď is the same as Ř/ř (ře) so this latter is preferably used to simplify the orthography.
E/e eš (this), cer (below), eraht (end of date harvest), pešraw (leader, forerunner), kamer (ploughshare)
F/f (fe) To be used only in loan words where its use is inevitable, like Fráns (France), fármaysí (pharmacy).
G/g (ge) gapp (talk), ganokh (mad), bágh (garden), bagg (herd of camels), pádagh (foot), Bagdád (Baghdad)
Ĝ/ĝ (like ĝhaen in Perso-Arabic script) Only in loan words and in eastern dialects: Ghair (Others), Ghali (Carpet), Ghaza (Noise)
H/h (he) hár (flood), máh (moon), koh (mountain), mahár (rein), hon (blood)
I/i (i) istál (star), ingo (here), gir (take), kirr (near)
Í/í (í) ímmán (faith), šír (milk), pakír (beggar), samín (breeze), gálí (carpet)
J/j (je) jang (war), janagh (to beat), jing (lark), ganj (treasure), sajjí (roasted meat)
K/k (ke) Kirmán (Kirman), kárc (knife), nákho (uncle), gwask (calf), kasán (small)
L/l (le) láp (stomach), gal (joy), ghall (party, organization), gull (cheek), gul (rose)
M/m (me) mát/más (mother), bám (dawn), camm (eye), mastir (leader, bigger)
N/n (ne) nán/nagan/naghan (bread), nokk (new, new moon), dann (outside), kwahn (old), nákho (uncle)
O/o (o) oštagh (to stop), ožnág (swim), roc (sun), dor (pain), socagh (to burn)
P/p (pe) Pádh (foot), šap (night), šapád (bare-footed), gapp (talk), haptád (70)
Q/q (qú) used in loan words, like Qábús.
R/r (re) Rustum (a name), rekh (sand), baragh (to take away), giragh (to get), garragh (to bray), gurrag (to roar), šarr (good), sarag (head), sarrag (a kind of donkey's braying)
Ř/ř (ře) řák (post), řukkál (famine), gařř (urial), guřř (last), guřřag (to chop)
S/s (se) sarag (head), khass (someone), kasán (little), bass (enough), ás (fire)
Š/š (še) šap (night), šád (happy), meš (sheep), šuwánag (shepherd), wašš (happy, tasty)
T/t (te) taghard (mat), tahná (alone) thás (bowl), kilítt (kay), masítt (mosque), battí (lantern)
Ť/ť (ťe) ťung (hole), ťíllo (bell), baťť (cooked rice), baťťág (eggplant)
U/u uštir (camel), šumá (you), ustád (teacher), gužn (hunger), buz (goat)
Ú/ú (ú, sounds like the "oo" in English word "root") úrt (thin), zúrag (to take), bizú (take), dúr (distant)
V/v (ve) Used in loanwords only, like in the English word service, very.
W/w (we) warag (food, to eat), wardin (provision), dawár (abode), wádh (salt), kawwás (learned), hawa (wind)
X/x (khe) Xudá (God)
Y/y (ye) yád (remembrance), yár (friend), yárah (eleven), biryání (meat in rice), raydyo (radio), yakk (one)
Z/z (ze) zarr (monay), zí (yesterday), muzz (wages), moz (banana), nazzíkk (nearby), bazgar (tenant), Zor (power)
Ž/ž (že) žand (tired), zindaghi (life), žáng (bells), pažm (wool), gažžag (to swell), gužnag (hungry), Mauz (waves)
Ay/ay (h)ayrán (surprise), ayrát (distribution), say (3), may (our), kay (who), šumay (your)
Aw/aw kawr (river), hawr (rain), kissaw (story), dawl (sort), dawr (jump), awlád (off-spring), kawl (promise), gawk (neck)

References

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balochic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ See Farrell (1990) for Southern Balochi (as spoken in Karachi, Pakistan, and Axenov (2006) for Western Balochi as spoken in Turkmenistan.
  4. ^ Farrell (1990).
  5. ^ See Axenov (2006) and Farrell (1990), respectively.
  6. ^ "Balochi" at National Virtual Translation Center."Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 18, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  7. ^ a b c Dames, Mansel Longworth (1922). A text book of the Balochi language. Lahore: Government Print of Punjab. p. 1.
  8. ^ a b Dames, Mansel Longworth (1922). A text book of the Balochi language. Lahore: Government Print of Punjab. p. 3.
  9. ^ https://sayadganj.albaloch.com
  10. ^ Mir Qasim Qaisrani Baloch (August/September 1991) Balochki Mundh Likh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan, Monthly Balochi Nama, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, Pp. 24-25
  11. ^ "Security Check Required".
  12. ^ Baluchi learn Regulated By VTG
  13. ^ "Baluchi Roman ORTHOGRAPHY -". www.phrasebase.com. Retrieved 2015-10-23.

Further reading

Dictionaries and Lexicographical Works

  • Gilbertson, George W. 1925. English-Balochi colloquial dictionary. Hertford: Stephen Austin & Sons.
  • Ahmad, K. 1985. Baluchi Glossary: A Baluchi-English Glossary: Elementary Level. Dunwoody Press.
  • Baksh, M., Farrell, T. and Razzaq, A. ? Balochi Ganj: A Balochi to Balochi and English Dictionary. ?
  • Badal Khan, S. 1990. Mán Balócíá Darí Zubánání Judá. Labzánk Vol. 1(3): pp. 11–15.
  • Abdulrrahman Pahwal. 2007. Balochi Gálband: Balochi/Pashto/Dari/English Dictionary. Peshawar: Al-Azhar Book Co. p. 374.
  • Mír Ahmad Dihání. 2000. Mír Ganj: Balócí/Balócí/Urdú. Karachi: Balóc Ittihád Adabí Akedimí. p. 427.
  • Bruce, R. I. 1874. Manual and Vocabulary of the Beluchi Dialect. Lahore: Government Civil Secretariat Press. vi 154 p.
  • Ishák Xámúś. 2014. Balochi Dictionary: Balochi/Urdu/English. Karachi: Aataar Publications. p. 444.
  • Nágumán. 2011. Balócí Gál: Ambáre Nókáz (Balochi/English/Urdu). Básk. p. 245.
  • Nágumán. 2014. Jutgál. Makkurán: Nigwar Labzánkí Majlis. p. 64.
  • Ghulám Razá Azarlí. 2016. Farhange Kúcak: Pársí/Balúcí. Pársí Anjuman.
  • Dames, M. L. 1891. A Text-book of the Balochi Language, consisting of miscellaneous stories, legends, poems, legends, poems, and a Balochi-English vocabulary. Lahore.
  • Hashmi, S. Z. S. 2000. Sayad Ganj: Balochi-Balochi Dictionary. Karachi: Sayad Hashmi Academy. P. 887.
  • Ulfat Nasím. 2005. Tibbí Lughat. Balócí Akademí. p. 260.
  • Gulzár Xán Marí. 2005. Gwaśtin. Balócí Akedimí. p. 466.
  • Raśíd Xán. 2010. Batal, Guśtin, Puźdánk, Ghanŧ. Tump: Wafá Labzání Majlis. p. 400.
  • Śe Ragám. 2012. Batal, Gwaśtin u Gálband. Balócí Akademí. p. 268.
  • Abdul Azíz Daolatí Baxśán. 1388. Nám u Ném Nám: Farhang Námhá Balúcí. Tihrán: Pázína. p. 180.
  • Nazeer Dawood. 2007. Balochi into English Dictionary. Gwádar: Drad Publications. p. 208.
  • Abdul Kaiúm Balóc. 2005. Balócí Búmíá. Balócí Akademí. p. 405.
  • Ján Mahmad Daśtí. 2015. Balócí Labz Balad [Balochi/Balochi Dictionary]. Balócí Akademí. p. 1255.
  • Korn, A. 2006. Counting Sheep and Camels in Balochi
  • Bogoljubov, Mixail, et al. (eds.). Indoiranskoe jazykoznanie i tipologija jazykovyx situacij. Sbornik statej k 75-letiju professora A. L. Gryunberga. St. Pétersbourg (Nauka). pp. 201–212.
  • Marri, M. K. and Marri, S. K. 1970. Balúcí-Urdú Lughat. Quetta: Balochi Academy. 332 p.
  • Mayer, T. J. L. 1900. English-Baluchi Dictionary. Lahore: Government Press.
  • Wáhid Buzzdár. 2004. Balócí Gálband. Balócí Akademí. p. 218.

Orthography

  • Jahani, Carina. 1990. Standardization and orthography in the Balochi language. Studia Iranica Upsaliensia. Uppsala, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell Internat.
  • Axenov, S. 2000. Balochi Orthography in Turkmenistan. pp. 71–78. In Language in society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi. Sweden: Uppsala University.
  • Elfenbein, J. 2000. 'Unofficial and Official Efforts to Promote Balochi in Roman Script'. pp. 79–88. In: Jahani, C. (ed.). Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi. Sweden: Uppsala University.
  • Sayad Háśumí. 1964. Balócí Syáhag u Rást Nibíssag. Dabai: Sayad Háśumí Balóc. p. 144.
  • Ghaos Bahár. 1998. Balócí Lékwaŕ. Balócí Akademí. p. 227.
  • Ziá Balóc. 2015. Balócí Rást Nibíssí. Raísí Cáp u Śingjáh. p. 264.
  • Axtar Nadím. 1997. Nibiśta Ráhband. Balócí Akedimí. p. 206.
  • Táj Balóc. 2015. Sarámad (Roman Orthography). Bahren: Balóc Kalab. p. 110.

Courses and Study Guides

  • Barker, Muhammad A. and Aaqil Khan Mengal. 1969. A course in Baluchi. Montreal: McGill University.
  • Collett, Nigel A. 1986. A Grammar, Phrase-book, and Vocabulary of Baluchi (As Spoken in the Sultanate of Oman). Abingdon: Burgess & Son.
  • Farrell, Tim. 1990. Basic Balochi: An introductory course. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici.
  • Natawa, T. 1981. Baluchi (Asian and African Grammatical Manuals 17b). Tokyo. 351 p.
  • Munazzih Batúl Baóc. 2008. Ásán Balúcí Bólcál. Balócí Akademí. p. 152.
  • Abdul Azíz Jázimí. Balócí Gappe Káidaián. p. 32.
  • Muhammad Zarrín Nigár. Dastúr Tatbíkí Zabáne Balúcí bá Fársí. Íránśahr: Bunyáde Naśre Farhange Balóc. p. 136.
  • Gilbertson, George W. 1923. The Balochi language. A grammar and manual. Hertford: Stephen Austin & Sons.
  • Xer Muhammad Nadwí. 1981. Balócí Muallim. Karachi: Saogát. p. 192.
  • Ahmadzai, N. K. B. M. 1988. Bólcál: Inglish, Urdú, Balócí, Bráhúí, Kurdí. Quetta: Balochi Academy. 2, 188 p.
  • Bugti, A. M. 1978. Balócí-Urdú Bólcál. Quetta: Kalat Publications.
  • Ayyúb Ayyúbí. 1381. Dastúr Zabán Fársí bih Balúcí. Íránśahr: Intiśárát Asátír. p. 200.
  • Farrell, T. 1990. Basic Balochi: An Introductory Course. Baluchistan Monograph Series, 1. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orietale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici. 90 p.
  • Hitturam, R. B. 1881. Biluchi Nameh: A Text-book of the Biluchi Language. Lahore.

Etymological and Historical Studies

-Elfenbein, J. 1985. Balochi from Khotan. In: Studia Iranica. Vol. XIV (2): 223-238. -Gladstone, C. E. 1874. Biluchi Handbook. Lahore. -Hashmi, S. Z. S. 1986. Balúcí Zabán va Adab kí Táríx [The History of Balochi language and Literature: A Survey]. Karachi: Sayad Hashmi Academy. -Korn, A. 2005. Towards a Historical Grammar of Balochi. Studies in Balochi Historical Phonology and Vocabulary [Beiträge zur Iranistik 26]. Wiesbaden (Reichert). -Korn, A. 2009. The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective // Iranian Journal for Applied Language Studies I. pp. 43–79. -Korn, A. 2003. The Outcome of Proto-Iranian *ṛ in Balochi // Iran : Questions et connaissances. Actes du IVe congrès européen des études iraniennes, organisé par la Societas Iranologica Europaea, Paris, 6-10 septembre 1999. III : Cultures et sociétés contemporaines, éd. Bernard HOURCADE [Studia Iranica Cahier 27]. Leuven (Peeters). pp. 65–75. -Korn, A. 2003. Balochi and the Concept of North-West Iranian // The Baloch and Their Neighbours: Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan in Historical and Modern Times, éds. Carina JAHANI, Agnes KORN. Wiesbaden (Reichert). pp. 49–60. -Mengal, A. K. 1990. A Persian-Pahlavi-Balochi Vocabulary I (A-C). Quetta: Balochi Academy. -Morgenstiene, G. 1932. Notes on Balochi Etymology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. p. 37-53. -Moshkalo, V. V. 1988. Reflections of the Old Iranian Preverbs on the Baluchi Verbs. Naples: Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. No. 5: pp. 71–74. -Moshkalo, V. V. 1991. Beludzskij Jazyk. In: Osnovy Iranskogo Jazykozanija. Novoiranskie Jazyki I. Moscow. p. 5-90. -Paul, L. 2003. The Position of Balochi Among Western Iranian Languages. In: The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 61-71. -Rossi, A. V. 1998. Ossetic and Balochi in V. I. Abaev’s Slovar. pp. 373-431. In: Studia Iranica et Alanica. Rome: Instituto per l’Africa e l’Orientale. 540 pp. -Rossi, A. V. 2000 (Forthcoming). An Etymological-Comparative Dictionary of the Balochi Language.

Dialectology and Language Contact -Pierce, E. 1874. A Description of the Mekranee-Beloochee Dialect. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. XI: 1-98. -Pierce, E. 1875. Makrani Balochi. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 11: N. 31. -Baranzai, A. N. 2003. The Sarawani Dialect of Balochi and Persian Influence on it. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 75–111. -Dames, M. L. 1881. A Sketch of the Northern Balochi Language. Calcutta: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. -Elfenbein, J. 1963. A Vocabulary of Marw Baluchi. Naples. -Elfenbein, J. 1966. The Baluchi Language. A Dialectology with Text. London. -Filipone, E. 1990. Organization of Space: Cognitive Models and Baluchi Dialectology. Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. Naples. Vol. 7: pp. 29–39. -Gafferberg, E. G. 1969. Beludzhi Turkmenskoi. SSR: Ocherki Khoziaistva Material’oni Kultuy I Byta. sn. -Geiger, W. 1889. Dialectspaltung in Baluchi. Abhandlungen der I. Classe derKoniglich Bayersichen Akaemie der Wissenschaften XVIII/I p. 65-92. -Geiger, W. 1889. Etymologie des Baluci. Abhandlungen der I. Classe derKoniglich Bayersichen Akaemie der Wissenschaften. Vol. XIX(I): pp. 105–53. -Gren-Eklund, G. 2003. Language Contact in Balochistan from the Indian Point of View. In: The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 33-47. -Marston, E. W. 1877. Grammar and Vocabulary of the Mekranee Beloochee Dialect. Bombay. -Mockler, E. 1877. A Grammar of the Baloochee Language as it is Spoken in Makran. London. P. 350. -Rossi, A. V. 1979. Phonemics in Balochi and Modern Dialectology. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici. Iranica, pp. 161-232. 6. Rájmání Zuwánénk (Sociolinguistics): -Jahani, Carina. 2000. Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi Sweden: Uppsala University. -Rahman, T. 1996. Language and Politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. -Rahman, T. 1996. The Balochi/Brahvi Language Movements in Pakistan. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. Vol. 19(3): 71-88. -Rahman, T. 2001. The Learning of Balochi and Brahvi in Pakistan. Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. Vol. 24(4): 45-59. -Rahman, T. 2002. Language Teaching and Power in Pakistan. Indian Social Science Review. 5(1): 45-61. -Rzehak, L. 2003. Some Thoughts and Material on Balochi in Afghanistan. In: The Baloch and their Neighbours.” Jahani, C. and Korn, A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 259–278. -Al-Ameeri S. A. 2003. The Baloch in the Arabian Gulf States. In “The Baloch and their Neighbours.” Jahani, C. and Korn, A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 237–243. -Tan, E. 2000. A Mother Tongue Literacy Programme Among the Baloch of Singo Line, Karachi. pp. 59–67. In: Jahani, C. (ed.), Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi Sweden: Uppsala University. -Archer, B. 2001. Acquiring a Multilingual Repertoire in Quetta, Balochistan. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 157–167. -Axenov, S. 2003. The Balochi Language in Turkmenistan. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 245–257. -Badal Khan, S. 2003. Language Contact in Balochistan and its Impact on Balochi Personal Names. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 279–311. -Elfenbein, J. 1982. Notes on the Balochi-Brahui Linguistic Commensality. In: TPhS, pp. 77–98. -Farrell, T. 2000. Mother Tongue Education and the Health and Survival of the Balochi Language. In Jahani, C. (ed.) Language in society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi. Sweden: Uppsala University. pp. 19–32. -Farrell, T. 2003. Linguistic Influences on the Balochi Spoken in Karachi. In: The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 169-209. -Foxton, W. 1985. Arabic/Baluchi Bilingualism in Oman. Naples: Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. N. 2 pp. 31-39. -Jahani, C. 2000. Language Attitudes and Language Maintenance Among Iranian Baloch in Sweden. In; Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi Sweden: Uppsala University. pp. 33-58. -Mahmoodzahi, M. 2003. Linguistic Contact in Iranian Balochistan in Historical and Modern Times. In: The Baloch and their Neighbours, Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 147-155. -Moshkalo, V. V. 2000. Language and Culture of the Baloch in Turkmenistan. pp. 97-103. In: Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi Sweden: Uppsala University. -Natawa, T. 1970. The Baluchis in Afghanistan and their Language. pp. II:417-18. In: Endo, B. et al. Proceedings, VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto. Tokyo: Science Council of Japan. -Rzehak, L. 1995. Menschen des Ruckens-Menschen des Baluches: Sprache und Wirklicheit im Verwandtschaftssystem der Belutschen. pp. 207-229. In: Reck, C. & Zieme, P. (ed.); Iran und Turfan. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. -Titus, P. 2003. Linguistic Contact in the Baloch-Pashtun Boundary Zone. In: The Baloch and Their Neighbours. Jahani C. and Korn A. (eds.) Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 331-333. 7. Tawárénk (Phonology): -Elfenbein, Josef.1997. "Balochi Phonology". In Kaye, Alan S. Phonologies of Asia and Africa. 1. pp. 761–776. -Ziá Balóc. Balócí Tawárénk. Ruzhn Educational Foundation. p. 263. - Farideh Okati. 2012. The Vowel Systems of Five Iranian Balochi Dialects. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis: Studia linguistica Upsaliensia. p. 241. - Bahareh Soohani. 2017.The Phonology of Iranian-Balochi Dialects: Description and Analysis. Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.

Grammar and Morphology

-Axenov, Serge. 2006. The Balochi language of Turkmenistan: A corpus-based grammatical description. Sweden: Acta Uppsala Universitet. -Farrell, Tim. 1989. A study of ergativity in Balochi.' M.A. thesis: School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London. -Farrell, Tim. 1995. Fading ergativity? A study of ergativity in Balochi. In David C. Bennett, Theodora Bynon & B. George Hewitt (eds.), Subject, voice, and ergativity: Selected essays, 218–243. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. -Korn, Agnes. 2009. Marking of arguments in Balochi ergative and mixed constructions. In Simin Karimi, VIda Samiian & Donald Stilo (eds.) Aspects of Iranian Linguistics, 249–276. Newcastle upon Tyne (UK): Cambridge Scholars Publishing. -Abraham, W. 1996. The Aspect-Case Typology Correlation: Perfectivity Triggering Split Ergativity. Folia Linguistica Vol. 30 (1-2): pp. 5–34. -Ahmadzai, N. K. B. M. 1984. The Grammar of Balochi Language. Quetta: Balochi Academy, iii, 193 p. -Andronov, M. S. 2001. A Grammar of the Balochi Language in Comparative Treatment. Munich. -Bakhtiari, B. M. 2003. Notes on the Tense System in Balochi and Standard Persian. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 133–145. -Bashir, E. L. 1991. A Contrastive Analysis of Balochi and Urdu. Washington, D.C. Academy for Educational Development, xxiii, 333 p. -Delforooz, B.B. 2003. The Structure of Present and Past Stems in Baluchi Compared to Old, Middle and New Persian. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 19–31. -Jahani, C. 1994. Notes on the Use of Genitive Construction Versus Izafa Construction in Iranian Balochi. Studia Iranica. Vol. 23(2): 285-98. -Jahani, C. 1999. Persian Influenc on Some Verbal Constructions in Iranian Balochi. Studia Iranica. Vol. 28(1): 123-143. -Jahani, C. 2003. The Case System in Balochi in a Contact Linguistic Perspective. In: Jahani, C. and Korn, A. (eds.), The Baloch and Their Neighbours. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 113–131. -Korn, A. 2008. A New Locative Case in Turkmenistan Balochi // Iran and the Caucasus 12. pp. 83–99. -Korn, A. 2008. Marking of arguments in Balochi ergative and mixed constructions // Aspects of Iranian Linguistics, éds. Simin KARIMI, Vida SAMIIAN, Donald STILO. Newcastle (Cambridge Scholars Publishing). pp. 249–276. -Korn, A. 2008. The Nominal Systems of Balochi: How many Grammars? // The Baloch and Others: Linguistic, Historical and Socio-political Perspectives on Pluralism in Balochistan, éds. Carina JAHANI, Agnes KORN, Paul TITUS. Wiesbaden (Reichert). pp. 167–194. -Korn, A. 2005. Das Balochi im Kontakt mit den anderen iranischen Sprachen { Le baloutchi en contact avec les autres langues iraniennes occidentales } // Sprachkontakt und Sprachwandel. Akten der XI. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, 17.-23. September 2000, Halle an der Saale, éds. Olav HACKSTEIN, Gerhard MEISER. Wiesbaden (Reichert). pp. 285–294. -Korn, A. 2005. Das Nominalsystem des Balochi, mitteliranisch betrachtet { Le système nominal du baloutchi, du point de vue du moyen iranien } // Indogermanica: Festschrift Gert Klingenschmitt. Indische, iranische und indogermanische Studien dem verehrten Jubilar dargebracht zu seinem fünfundsechzigsten Geburtstag, éd. Günter SCHWEIGER. Taimering (VWT-Verlag). pp. 289– 302. -Korn, A. Forthcoming. Verbal nouns in Balochi // Verbal Adjectives and Participles in the IndoEuropean Languages, éds. Claire LE FEUVRE, Daniel PETIT, Georges-Jean PINAULT. Bremen (Hempen). -Korn, A. 2009. Archaismus und Innovation im Verbalsystem des Balochi { Archaisme et innovation dans le système verbal du baloutchi } // Iranistik. Deutschsprachige Zeitschrift für iranistische Studien 12. pp. 103–112. -Leech, R. 1838. Grammar of the Balochky Language. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. VII(2): p. 608. - Mockler, E. 1877. Introduction to a Grammar of the Balochee Language. London. -Nasir, K. A. B. M. 1975. Balócí Kárgónag. Quetta. -Sabir, A. R. 1995. Morphological Similarities in Brahui and Balochi Languages. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics. Vol. 24(1): 1-8. -Sabir, A. R. 2003. Some Structural and Lexical Similarities Between Balochi and Brahui. In: The Baloch and their Neighbours. Jahani, C. and Korn, A. (eds). Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 211–219.

Semantics

-Elfenbein, J. 1992. Measurement of Time and Space in Balochi. Studia Iranica, Vol. 21(2): pp. 247–254. -Filipone, E. 1996. Spatial Models and Locative Expressions in Baluchi. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orietale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici. 427 p.

Miscellaneous and Surveys

-Anka, M. H. 1937. Balochi Kaumi Zaban. Baluchistan?, Karachi, October 24, 1937. -? 1969 Bibliography of Baluchi and Brahui Language and Literature. Pakistan Quarterly, Vol. 17: p. 76. -Baloch, B. A. 1986. Balochi: On the Move. In: Mustada, Zubeida, ed. The South Asian Century: 1900-1999. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 163–167. -Bausani, A. 1971. Baluchi Language and Literature. Mahfil: A Quarterly of South Asian Literature, Vol. 7 (1-2): pp. 43–54. -Elfenbein, J. 1989. Baluchistan III: Baluchi Language and Literature. In: Encyclopædia Iranica III, pp. 633–644. - Elfenbein, J. 1989. Balochi. In: SCHMITT, pp. 350–362. - Elfenbein, J. 1964. Linguistic Desiderata in Baluchistan. In: REDARD, pp. 73–77. -Frodovs, V. A. 1960. Beludzsky. Moscow. -Geiger, W. 1889. Balucische Text mit Ubersetzung. ZDMG XLIII, pp. 579–589. -Geiger, W. 1901. Die Sprach der Balutschen. Geiger/Kuhn II, P. 231-248, Gelb, I. J. 1970. Makran and Meluha in Early Mesopotamian Sources. Revue d’Assyriologie. Vol. LXIV: pp. 1–8. -Gichky, N. 1986. Baluchi Language and its Early Literature. Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. No. 3, pp. 17–24. -Grierson, G. A. 1921. Balochi. In: Linguistic Survey of India X: Specimens of Languages of Eranian Family. Calcutta. pp. 327–451. -Ibragimov, B. 1973. Beludzhi Pakistana. Sots.-ekon. Polozhenie v Pakist. Beludhistane I nats. dvizhnie beludzhei v 1947-1970. Moskva. 143 p. -Jaffrey, A. A. 1964. New Trends in the Balochi Language. Bulletin of the Ancient Iranian Cultural Society. Vol. 1(3): 14-26. -Jahani, C. Balochi. In: Garry, J. and Rubino, C. (eds.). Facts About World’s Languages. New York: H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 59–64. -Kamil Al-Qadri, S. M. 1969. Baluchi Language and Literature. Pakistan Quarterly. Vol. 17: pp. 60–65. -Korn, A. and Jahani, C. 2009. Balochi. The Iranian Languages, ed. Gernot WINDFUHR [Routledge Language Family Series], London (Routledge). pp. 634–692. -Morgenstiene, G. 1969. The Baluchi Language. Pakistan Quarterly. Vol. 17: 56-59. -Nasir, G. K. 1946. Riyásat Kalát kí Kaumí Zabán. Bolan. -Rooman, A. 1967. A Brief Survey of Baluchi Literature and Language. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Vol. 15: 253-272. -Rossi, A. V. 1982. Balochi Miscellanea. pp. 157–183. In: Monumentum George Morgenstierne, II. Leiden: Brill. 287 p. - Rossi, A. V. 1982-1983. Linguistic Inquiries in Baluchistan Towards Integrated Methodologies. Naples: Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. N.1: 51-66. -Zarubin, I. 1930. Beitrage zin Stadium von Sprache und Folklore der Belutschen. Zapiski Kollegii Vostokovedov. Vol. 5: 653-679. -Śáhwání, A. A. 1998. Balócí Zubán u Adab. Śál: Balócí Akedimí. -Sabá Daśtiárí. 1995, 1998. Balócí Zubáne Ákibat. Vol: 480. Vol 2. 723. - Maryam Nourzaei. 2017. Participant Reference in Three Balochi Dialects: Male and Female Narrations of Folktales and Biographical Tales. Uppsala University.

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