Balinese script

The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is also used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok.[1] The script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, and so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.[2]

Though everyday use of the script has largely been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script has significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is strongly associated with the Hindu religion. The script is mainly used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts.[2][3]

Aksara Bali
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬩᬮᬶ
Aksara Bali1
Type
LanguagesBalinese
Sasak
Time period
c. 1000–present
Parent systems
Sister systems
Batak
Baybayin
Kulitan
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Javanese
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Bali, 360
Unicode alias
Balinese
U+1B00–U+1B7F
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

Characteristics

There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /ə/ at the end of a sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Pure Balinese can be written with 18 consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit and Old Javanese utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are also used for writing the Sasak language. Each consonant has a conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[4][5]

Punctuation includes a comma, period, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate pitch information. Text are written left to right without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[1]

There is also a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans. Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional characters, known to be used inline in text (as opposed to decoratively on drawings), remains under study and those characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course.[1]

Letters

A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ), and each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/.

Consonants

Consonants are called wianjana (ᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ) or aksara wianjana (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ). Balinese script has 33 consonants, of which only 18 called wreṣāstra (ᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ) are used for writing basic vocabulary in Balinese language. The other 15, known as sualalita (ᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ), are mainly used for writing Sanskrit and Kawi loanwords in Balinese language. The consonants can be arranged into Sanskrit order and hanacaraka traditional order.

Hanacaraka traditional order

The consonants can be arranged in hanacaraka traditional order. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka. However, the hanacaraka sequence only has the 18 consonants of aksara wreṣāstra (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ) and exclude aksara sualalita (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ). However, this table below include aksara sualalita as the current romanization have no diacritics for the consonants.

ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ
Aksara Wianjana
Consonants
Poem First Line Second Line Third Line Fourth Line
IPA [ha] [na] [tʃa] [ra] [ka] [da] [ta] [sa] [wa] [la] [ma] [ga] [ba] [ŋa] [pa] [dʒa] [ja] [ɲa]
Aksara Latin
Latin Transcription
ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la ma ga ba nga pa ja ya nya
Aksara Wreṣāstra
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ
Aksara Sualalita
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ





Sanskrit order

As other Brahmic scripts, consonants in Balinese script can be arranged into Tamil / Sanskrit order. Thus, Balinese script had been influenced by Kalvi / Shiksha. The table below uses the order.

Aksara Wianjana
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ
Consonants
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara
ᬅᬭ᭄ᬥᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
(Semivowels)
Ūṣma
ᬊᬱ᭄ᬫ
(Fricatives)
Wisarga
ᬯᬶᬲᬭ᭄ᬕ
(Glottal)
Unvoiced Voiced Anunāsika
ᬅᬦᬸᬦᬲᬶᬓ
Nasal
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Bali Ka.png


[ka]
ka
Ka1
Bali Ka mahaprana.png


[kʰa]
kha
Ka mahaprana
Bali Ga.png


[ga]
ga
Ga1
Bali Ga gora.png


[gʰa]
gha
Ga gora
Bali Nga.png


[ŋa]
nga
Nga1
Bali Ha.png


[ha]
ha
Ha12
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Bali Ca.png


[tʃa]
ca
Ca murca1
Bali Ca laca.png


[tʃʰa]
cha
Ca laca3
Bali Ja.png


[dʒa]
ja
Ja1
Bali Ja jera.png


[dʒʰa]
jha
Ja jera
Bali Nya.png


[ɲa]
nya
Nya1
Bali Ya.png


[ja]
ya
Ya1
Bali Sa saga.png


[ɕa]
śa ça
Sa saga
Mūrdhanya
ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ
(Retroflex)
Bali Ta latik.png


[ʈa]
ṭa
Ta latik
Bali Ta latik mahaprana.png


[ʈʰa]
ṭha
Ta latik m.5
Bali Da madu murdhanya.png


[ɖa]
ḍa
Da murda a.4
Bali Da murda mahaprana.png


[ɖʰa]
ḍha
Da murda m.5
Bali Na rambat.png


[ɳa]
ṇa
Na rambat
Bali Ra.png


[ra]
ra
Ra1
Bali Sa sapa.png


[ʂa]
ṣa
Sa sapa
Dantya
ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ
(Dental)
Bali Ta.png


[ta]
ta
Ta1
Bali Ta tawa.png


[tʰa]
tha
Ta tawa
Bali Da.png


[da]
da
Da lindung1
Bali Da madu.png


[dʰa]
dha
Da madu
Bali Na.png


[na]
na
Na kojong1
Bali La.png


[la]
la
La1
Bali Sa.png


[sa]
sa
Sa danti16
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Bali Pa.png


[pa]
pa
Pa1
Bali 8, Pha.png


[pʰa]
pha
Pa kapal
Bali Ba.png


[ba]
ba
Ba1
Bali Ba kembang1.png or Bali Ba kembang2.png


[bʰa]
bha
Ba kembang7
Bali Ma.png


[ma]
ma
Ma1
Bali Wa.png


[wa]
wa
Wa1

^1 Aksara wreṣāstra. They are, in traditional order: ha na ca ra ka / da ta sa wa la / ma ga ba nga / pa ja ya nya.
^2 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced. For example, ᬳᬸᬚᬦ᭄ hujan (lit. rain) is pronounced ujan.[6]
^3 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended (gantungan) form is left.[7] However, the independent form is included in Unicode.[8]
^4 alpaprana ^5 mahaprana
^6 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition
^7 The former of the two letter forms is more frequently used.

Vowels

Vowels, called suara (ᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ) or aksara suara (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ), can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position. They are described in the following list:

Aksara suara
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
Vowels
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Aksara suara hŗeşua
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭᬳᬺᬱ᭄ᬯ
(Short vowels)
Aksara suara dirgha
ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭᬤᬷᬭ᭄ᬖ
(Long vowels)
Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA Name Name Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Bali vowel A kara.png
a [a] A kara
Bali vowel A kara-tedung.png
ā [ɑː]
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Bali vowel I kara.png
i [i] I kara
Bali vowel I kara-tedung.png
ī [iː]
Mūrdhanya
ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ
(Retroflex)
Bali vowel Ra repa.png
[ɹ̩] Ra repa
Bali vowel Ra repa-tedung.png
[ɹ̩ː]
Dantya
ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ
(Dental)
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png
[l̩] La lenga
Bali vowel La lenga-tedung.png
[l̩ː]
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Bali vowel U kara.png
u [u] U kara
Bali vowel U kara-tedung.png
ū [uː]
Kaṇṭha-Tālawya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palato-guttural)
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png
e [e]
[ɛ]
E kara Airsanya
Bali vowel Airsanya.png
ai [aːi]
Kaṇṭha-Oṣṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labio-guttural)
Bali 3-vowel O.png
o [o]
[ɔ]
O kara
Bali vowel O kara-tedung.png
au [aːu]

Gantungan and Gempelan

Gantungan (ᬕᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬗᬦ᭄) (appended letters) and gempelan (ᬕᬾᬫ᭄ᬧᬾᬮᬦ᭄) (attached letters) has to be used to represent consonant cluster as zero vowel sign (adeg-adeg) may not used in middle of sentence in general. Thus, as some Brahmic family (Javanese), consonant cluster is written in stack. Each consonant letter has a corresponding either gantungan or gempelan (for pa, pha, sa and ṣa only) form, and the presence of gantungan and gempelan eliminate the inherent vowel [a] of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na () is appended with gantungan da (◌᭄ᬤ), the pronunciation becomes nda (ᬦ᭄ᬤ).

Gantungan or gempelan can be applied with pangangge (diacritic) to a letter. However, attaching two or more gantungan to one letter is forbidden; this condition is known as tumpuk telu (three layers). Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle of a sentence to avoid such situation. For example, tamblang with consonant cluster mbl is written as ᬢᬫ᭄‌ᬩ᭄ᬮᬂ.[9]

The forms of gantungan and gempelan are as follows:

Gantungan Gempelan
ᬕᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬗᬦ᭄ ᬕᬾ‌ᬾ‌ᬫ᭄ᬧᬮᬦ᭄
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara
ᬅᬭ᭄ᬥᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
(Semivowels)
Ūṣma
ᬊᬱ᭄ᬫ
(Fricatives)
Wisarga
ᬯᬶᬲᬭ᭄ᬕ
(Glottal)
Unvoiced Voiced Anunāsika
ᬅᬦᬸᬦᬲᬶᬓ
Nasal
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Alpaprāṇa
ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Unaspirated
Mahāprāṇa
ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ
Aspirated
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Gantungan Ka.png
◌᭄ᬓ
Ka
Gantungan Ka mahaprana.png
◌᭄ᬔ
Ka mahaprana
Gantungan Ga.png
◌᭄ᬕ
Ga
Gantungan Ga gora.png
◌᭄ᬖ
Ga gora
Gantungan Nga.png
◌᭄ᬗ
Nga
Gantungan Ha.png
◌᭄ᬳ
Ha
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Gantungan Ca.png
◌᭄ᬘ
Ca murca
Gantungan Ca laca.png
◌᭄ᬙ
Ca laca
Gantungan Ja.png
◌᭄ᬚ
Ja
Gantungan Ja jera.png
◌᭄ᬛ
Ja jera
Gantungan Nya.png
◌᭄ᬜ
Nya
Pangangge Nania.png
◌᭄ᬬ
Ya
Gantungan Sa saga.png
◌᭄ᬰ
Sa saga
Mūrdhanya
ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ
(Retroflex)
Gantungan Ta latik.png
◌᭄ᬝ
Ta latik
Gantungan Ta latik mahaprana.png
◌᭄ᬞ
Ta latik m.
Gantungan da madu alpaprana.png
◌᭄ᬟ
Da madu a.
Gantungan Da madu murdhanya.png
◌᭄ᬠ
Da madu m.
Gantungan Na rambat.png
◌᭄ᬡ
Na rambat
Pangangge Cakra.png
◌᭄ᬭ
Ra
Gempelan Sa sapa.png
◌᭄ᬱ
Sa sapa
Dantya
ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ
(Dental)
Gantungan Ta.png
◌᭄ᬢ
Ta
Gantungan Ta tawa.png
◌᭄ᬣ
Ta tawa
Gantungan Da.png
◌᭄ᬤ
Da lindung
Gantungan Da madu.png
◌᭄ᬥ
Da madu
Gantungan Na.png
◌᭄ᬦ
Na kojong
Gantungan La.png
◌᭄ᬮ
La
Gempelan Sa danti.png
◌᭄ᬲ
Sa danti
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Gempelan Pa.png
◌᭄ᬧ
Pa
Gantungan Pa kapal.png
◌᭄ᬨ
Pa kapal
Gantungan Ba.png
◌᭄ᬩ
Ba
Gantungan Ba kembang.png
◌᭄ᬪ
Ba kembang
Gantungan Ma.png
◌᭄ᬫ
Ma
Pangangge Suku kembung.png
◌᭄ᬯ
Wa

Diacritics

Diacritics (pangangge (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕ), pronounced /pəŋaŋɡe/, also known as sandhangan when referring to the Javanese script) are symbols that cannot stand by themselves. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation. The three types of diacritics are pangangge suara, pangangge tengenan (pronounced /t̪əŋənan/) and pangangge aksara.

Pangangge suara

Pangangge suara (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ) change the inherited vowel of a consonant letter. For example, the letter (na) with ulu (◌ᬶ) becomes ni (ᬦᬶ); ka () with suku (◌ᬸ) becomes ku (ᬓᬸ). The diacritics in this category are summarized in the following list:

Pangangge suara
ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Balinese script Transliteration IPA Name
Kaṇṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Guttural)
Pangangge Pepet.png
◌ᭂ e / ê / ě 1 [ə] Pepet
Pangangge Tedung.png
◌ᬵ ā [ɑː] Tedung
Tālawya
ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palatal)
Pangangge Ulu.png
◌ᬶ i [i] Ulu
Pangangge Ulu sari.png
◌ᬷ ī [iː] Ulu sari
Oṣṭhya
ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labial)
Pangangge Suku.png
◌ᬸ u [u] Suku
Pangangge Suku ilut.png
◌ᬹ ū [uː] Suku ilut
Kaṇṭha-Tālawya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ
(Palato-guttural)
Pangangge Taling.png
◌ᬾ e / é 1 [e]
[ɛ]
Taling
Pangangge Taling detya.png
◌ᬿ ai [aːi] Taling detya
Kaṇṭha-Oṣṭhya
ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ
(Labio-guttural)
Pangangge Taling-tedung.png
◌ᭀ o [o]
[ɔ]
Taling tedung
Pangangge Taling detya-tedung.png
◌ᭁ au [aːu] Taling detya matedung

^1 As first romanization of Balinese Language was developed during Dutch Colonial Era, letter e represents sound [ə] and letter é represents sound [e] and [ɛ] as in Van Ophuijsen Indonesian and Dutch orthography. After 1957, sounds [ə], [e] and [ɛ] are represented with e as in current Indonesian orthography with exception for new learner and dictionary usage.[10][11]

Many consonants can form ligatures with tedung:

Aksara Bali polih tedung

Pangangge tengenan

Pangangge tengenan (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬢᭂᬗᭂᬦᬦ᭄), except adeg-adeg, adds a final consonant to a syllable. It can be used together with pangangge suara. For example, the letter (na) with bisah (◌ᬄ) becomes ᬦᬄ (nah); (ka) with suku (◌ᬸ) and surang (◌ᬃ) becomes ᬓᬸᬃ (kur). Compared to Devanagari, bisah is analogous to visarga, cecek to anusvara, and adeg-adeg to virama.

Adeg-adeg is zero vowel diacritics as in other Brahmic scripts in Balinese script. Adeg-adeg, as virama in Devanagari, suppress the inherent vowel /a/ in the consonant letter. Adeg-adeg is used on impossibility of gantungan and gempelan usage such as succeeded by punctuation marks, attachment of two or more gantungan to one letter (tumpuk telu, lit. three layers), preservation of combination (watek ksatriya, ᬯᬢᭂᬓ᭄‌ᬓ᭄ᬱᬢ᭄ᬭᬶᬬ rather than ᬯᬢᭂᬓ᭄ᬓ᭄ᬱᬢ᭄ᬭᬶᬬ) and disambiguation.[10]

Pangangge tengenan
ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬢᭂᬗᭂᬦᬦ᭄
Balinese script IPA Translit. Name
Pangangge Bisah.png
◌ᬄ [h] h Bisah
Pangangge Surang.png
◌ᬃ [r] r Surang
Pangangge Cecek.png
◌ᬂ [ŋ] ng Cecek
Pangangge Adeg-adeg.png
◌᭄ [∅] Adeg-adeg

Pangangge aksara

Pangangge aksara (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ) is appended below consonant letters. Pangangge aksara are the appended (gantungan) forms of the ardhasuara (semivowel) consonants. Guwung macelek is the appended form of the vowel ra repa ().

Pangangge aksara
ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ
Balinese script IPA Translit. Name
Pangangge Cakra.png
◌᭄ᬭ [ra] ra Cakra
Guwung
Pangangge Guwung macelek.png
◌ᬺ [rə] Guwung macelek
Pangangge Suku kembung.png
◌᭄ᬯ [ʋa] ua Suku kembung
Pangangge Nania.png
◌᭄ᬬ [ja] ia Nania

Numerals

Balinese numerals are written in the same manner as Arabic numerals. For example, 25 is written with the Balinese numbers 2 and 5.

Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Arabic numeral Name Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Arabic numeral Name
Bali 0.png
0 Bindu
Windu
Bali 5.png
5 Lima
Bali 1.png
1 Siki
Besik
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png
6 Nem
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png
2 Kalih
Dua
Bali 7.png
7 Pitu
Bali 3-vowel O.png
3 Tiga
Telu
Bali 8, Pha.png
8 Kutus
Bali 4.png
4 Papat
Bali 9.png
9 Sanga
Sia

If the number is written in the middle of a text, carik has to be written before and after the number to differentiate it from the text. Below is an example of how a date is written using Balinese numerals (date: 1 July 1982, location: Bali):

Balinese script Transliteration
Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

ᬩᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭞ᬚᬸᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭙᭘᭒᭟
Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

Other symbols

There are some special symbols in the Balinese script. Some of them are punctuation marks, and the others are religious symbols. The symbols are described in the following list:

Symbol Symbol Name Remarks
Punctuation Carik.png
Carik
Carik Siki.
Written in the middle of a sentence, like a comma (,). Also, written surrounding numerals to differentiate them from the text.
Punctuation Carik kalih.png
Carik Kalih
Carik Pareren
Written at the end of a sentence, like a full stop (.).
Punctuation Pamungkah.png
Carik pamungkah Functions like a colon (:).
Center ᭟᭜᭟ Pasalinan Used at the end of a prose, letter, or verse.
Punctuation Panti.png
Panten or Panti Used at the beginning of a prose, letter, or verse.
Punctuation Pamada.png
Pamada Used at the beginning of religious texts. This symbol is a ligature of the letters ma, nga, ja, and pa, forming the word mangajapa, which roughly means "praying for safety".
Modre symbol Omkara.png
ᬒᬁ Ongkara Sacred symbol of Hinduism. This symbol is pronounced "Ong" or "Om".

Orthography

Balinese Language

Assimilation

Assimilation in Balinese occurs within the word. Balinese script represents assimilation occurred, however Latin script sometimes may not represent this. In general, alveolar consonants are assimilated into palatal, retroflex or labial. There are more specific descriptions in assimilation combination:[11]

  • [n] assimilated into [ɲ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster nc ᬜ᭄ᬘ and nj ᬜ᭄ᬚ. For example, word wianjana is written as ᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ ([wjaɲdʒana]), not written as ᬯ᭄ᬬᬦ᭄ᬚᬦ ([wjandʒana]).
  • [s] assimilated into [ɕ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster sc ᬰ᭄ᬘ. For example, word pascad is written as ᬧᬰ᭄ᬘᬤ᭄ ([paɕcad]), not written as ᬧᬲ᭄ᬘᬤ᭄ ([pascad]).
  • [d] assimilated into [dʒ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster dny ᬚ᭄ᬜ. For example, word yadnya is written as ᬬᬚ᭄ᬜ ([jadʒɲa]), not written as ᬬᬤ᭄ᬜ ([jadɲa]).
  • [n] assimilated into [ɳ] if preceded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster rn ᬭ᭄ᬡ. For example, word karna is written as ᬓᬭ᭄ᬡ ([karɳa]), not written as ᬓᬭ᭄ᬦ ([karna]).
  • [s] assimilated into [ʂ] if succeeded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster st (ṣṭ) ᬱ᭄ᬝ and sn (ṣṇ) ᬱ᭄ᬡ. For example, word dusta (duṣṭa, lie) is written as ᬤᬸᬱ᭄ᬝ ([duʂʈa]), not written as ᬤᬸᬲ᭄ᬝ ([dusʈa]).
  • [n] assimilated into [m] if succeeded by labial consonants. For example, word tanbara is written as ᬢᬫ᭄ᬪᬭ ([tambʰara]), not written as ᬢᬦ᭄ᬪᬭ ([tanbʰara]).

Liquid Consonant-Schwa Combination

Liquid consonant, [r] and [l], may not be combined with ◌ᭂ (pepet, schwa) [ə] as ᬭᭂ and ᬮᭂ. These combination, rě [rə] and lě [lə], sholuld be written as (re repa) and (le lenga). Word kěrěng (lit. eat a lot) and lekad are written as ᬓᭂᬋᬂ and ᬍᬓᬤ᭄. While combination of ◌᭄ᬮ (gantungan [l]) and ◌ᭂ (pepet) is possible as in ᬩ᭄ᬮ‍ᭂᬕᬜ᭄ᬚᬸᬃ (bleganjur), combination of ◌᭄ᬭ (cakra or gantungan [r]) and ◌ᭂ pepet is not allowed. If the combination follows a word which ends in a consonant, ◌᭄ᬋ (gempelan re repa) may be used as in ᬧᬓ᭄ᬋᬋᬄ (Pak Rěrěh, Mr. Rěrěh). If the combination is in a word, ◌ᬺ (guwung macelek) may be used instead as in ᬓᬺᬱ᭄ᬡ (Krěsna, Krishna).[11][12]

Latin Script Transliteration

Latin script transliteration into Balinese script is based on phonetics. As vocabulary expands, foreign sounds are introduced and have no equivalent on Balinese script. In general, transliteration of foreign sounds is shown as below.[13]

Foreign Sound Transliteration
IPA Foreign Sound
Latin Script
Balinese Language Example
Latin Script Balinese Script Foreign Word Balinese Language Meaning
Latin Script Balinese Script
[f] f p telefon telepon ᬢᬾᬮᬾᬧᭀᬦ᭄ telephone
[v] v p vitamin pitamin ᬧᬶᬢᬫᬶᬦ᭄ vitamine
[kw], [k], [q] q k quantum kuantum ᬓ᭄ᬯᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬫ᭄ quantum
[x] x kṣ ᬓ᭄ᬱ taxi taksi ᬢᬓ᭄ᬱᬶ taxi
[z] z j
[z] z s

Sasak Language

Fonts

There are some fonts for Balinese script as of 2016. Bali Simbar, Bali Galang, JG Aksara Bali, Aksara Bali, Tantular Bali, Lilitan, Geguratan and Noto Sans Balinese are some fonts that included Balinese script. The fonts have different degree of compatibility each other, and most contain critical flaws.[14]

Bali Simbar is first font for Balinese script by I Made Suatjana Dipl Ing at 1999.[15] Bali Simbar is not compatible for Mac-OS and Unicode.[15][14] JG Aksara Bali, was designed by Jason Glavy, has over 1400 Balinese glyphs, including a huge selection of precomposed glyph clusters.[14] The latest version of JG Aksara Bali is released on 2003, thus has no compatibility with Unicode.[14] Bali Simbar and JG Aksara Bali, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Balinese's extensive repertoire as Balinese script was not included in Unicode at the creation time.[15][14]

Aksara Bali by Khoi Nguyen Viet is the first hacked Unicode Balinese font with a brute-force OpenType implementation. The results depend on how well other OpenType features are implemented in the renderer. The font has about 370 Balinese glyphs, but does not display the vowel ⟨é⟩ correctly.[14] The team of Aditya Bayu Perdana, Ida Bagus Komang Sudarma, and Arif Budiarto has created a small series of Balinese fonts: Tantular Bali, Lilitan, and Geguratan, all using hacked Unicode and a brute-force OpenType implementation. Tantular has about 400 Balinese glyphs.[14] These all have serious flaws.[14]

Another Unicode font is Noto Sans Balinese from Google.[16] However, Noto Sans Balinese exhibits several critical flaws, such as an inability to correctly display more than one diacritic per consonant.[14]

The free font Bali Galang, maintained by Bemby Bantara Narendra, displays correctly apart from the consonant-spanning vowels ⟨o⟩ and ⟨au⟩. However, those vowels can be manually substituted by their graphic components, ⟨é⟩ and ⟨ai⟩ followed by the length sign (tedung), which together display as ⟨o⟩ and ⟨au⟩. It also automatically assimilates some consonants within words. It displays corresponding Balinese glyphs instead of Latin letters.

Unicode

Balinese script was added to the Unicode Standard in July, 2006 with the release of version 5.0.

The Unicode block for Balinese is U+1B00–U+1B7F:

Balinese[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1B0x
U+1B1x
U+1B2x
U+1B3x ᬿ
U+1B4x
U+1B5x
U+1B6x
U+1B7x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery

Bible printed with Balinese script

Page from a Bible printed with Balinese script

Pura Puseh 05153

Sign at Pura Puseh Temple, Batuan, Bali

JL DIPONEGORO 200507

Street sign in Singaraja, written in Latin and Balinese script

Sign of Klungkung Regent's Office

Klungkung Regent's Office sign

References

  1. ^ a b c Everson, Michael; Suatjana, I Made (2005-01-23). "N2908: Proposal for encoding the Balinese script in the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-09.
  2. ^ a b Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  3. ^ Fox, Richard (2013). Rival Styles of Writing, Rival Styles of Practical Reasoning. Heidelberg: Institut für Ehtnologie.
  4. ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  5. ^ Richard Ishida (2012). "Balinese Script Notes". Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  6. ^ Tinggen, p. 16
  7. ^ Tinggen, p. 23
  8. ^ "Unicode Table" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  9. ^ Tinggen, p. 27
  10. ^ a b Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Pedoman Perubahan Ejaan Bahasa Bali dengan Huruf Latin dan Huruf Bali. Singaraja: Rikha. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  11. ^ a b c Pedoman Pasang Aksara Bali. Denpasar: Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali. 1997. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  12. ^ Ishida, Richard. "Balinese script notes". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  13. ^ Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Celah-Celah Kunci Aksara Bali (1 ed.). Singaraja: Rhika.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Bringing Balinese to iOS". Norbert’s Corner. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "Aksara Bali". Bali Galang Foundation. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  16. ^ "Noto Sans Balinese". Google Noto Font. Retrieved 24 March 2016.

Sources

  • Surada, I Made. 2007. Kamus Sanskerta-Indonesia. Surabaya: Penerbit Paramitha.
  • Simpen, I Wayan. Pasang Aksara Bali. Diterbitkan oleh Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali.

External links

Balinese

Balinese may refer to:

Bali, an Indonesian island

Balinese art

Balinese people

Balinese language

Balinese script

Balinese (Unicode block)

Balinese mythology

Balinese (cat), a cat breed

Balinese Gamelan, local music

Balinese Room, a famous illegal casino in Galveston, Texas

"Balinese", a song by ZZ Top from their 1975 album, Fandango!

Balinese (Unicode block)

Balinese is a Unicode block containing characters of Balinese script for the Balinese language. Balinese language is mainly spoken on the island of Bali, Indonesia.

Balinese language

Balinese or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000) on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as Northern Nusa Penida, Western Lombok and Eastern Java. Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian. Balinese itself is not mutually intelligible with Indonesian but may be understood by Javanese speakers after some exposure.In 2011, the Bali Cultural Agency estimated that the number of people still using the Balinese language in their daily lives on the Bali Island does not exceed 1 million, as in urban areas their parents only introduce the Indonesian language or even English, while daily conversations in the institutions and the mass media have disappeared. The written form of the Balinese language is increasingly unfamiliar and most Balinese people use the Balinese language only as a means of oral communication, often mixing it with Indonesian in their daily speech. But in the transmigration areas outside Bali Island, the Balinese language is extensively used and believed to play an important role in the survival of the language.The higher registers of the language borrow extensively from Javanese: an old form of classical Javanese, Kawi, is used in Bali as a religious and ceremonial language.

Belanjong pillar

The Belanjong pillar, also Blanjong pillar or Blanjong inscription (Indonesian: Prasasti Blanjong), is a pillar established in 914 CE in the harbour of Belanjong, in the southern area of Sanur in Bali.

The pillar was established by king Sri Kesari Warmadewa, the first king of the Balinese Warmadewa dynasty and bears a long inscription where the king describes his military campaign in the island. It is located in the Belanjong (Blanjong) Temple, where it is housed under a protective enclosure, and is often decorated and partially covered with devotional cloth.

The inscription is written in both the Indian Sanskrit language and Old Balinese language, using two scripts, the Nagari script and the Old Balinese script (which is used to write both Balinese and Sanskrit). The Old Balinese in pre-Nagari script is on one side of the pillar, while the Sanskrit inscription in Pallava-derived old Javanese script (also called Kawi script) is on the other side. The mix of language and script suggest that the objective of the inscription was not to communicate locally to the Balinese people, but rather to be established as a symbol of power and authority.The pillar testifies to the connections of Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java. According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty leading a military expedition, to establish a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali. The inscription also tells about the success of military expeditions of offshore islands, either Nusa Penida or faraway Maluku. This is the first known inscription in which a Balinese king recorded his name.Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island.The pillar is dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in the year 836 saka.According to French historian George Coedès:

These inscriptions reveal a Hindu-Balinese society, independent of Java, making use of a dialect particular to the island, and practicing Hinduism and Buddhism at the same time.

The pillar was only discovered in 1932, and has remained where it was initially found.

Bhaiksuki script

Bhaiksuki (Sanskrit: भैक्षुकी, Bhaiksuki:𑰥𑰹𑰎𑰿𑰬𑰲𑰎𑰱) is a Brahmi-based script that was used around the 11th and 12th centuries CE. It used to be known in English as the "Arrow-Headed Script" or "Point-Headed Script," while an older designation, "Sindhura," had been used in Tibet for at least three centuries. Records showing usage of the script mainly appeared in the present-day states of Bihar and West Bengal in India, and in regions of Bangladesh. Records have also been located in Tibet, Nepal, and Burma.

Bhattiprolu script

The Bhattiprolu script is a variant of the Brahmi script which has been found in old inscriptions at Bhattiprolu, a small village in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. It is located in the fertile Krishna river delta and the estuary region where the river meets the Bay of Bengal.

The inscriptions date to between the 5th century BCE, putting them among the earliest evidence of Brahmi writing in South India.Bhattiprolu differs from Ashokan Brahmi in two significant ways. First, the letters gh, j, m, l, s are "radically different": m is upside-down compared to Brahmi, while gh appears to derive from g rather than from Semitic heth. Secondly, the inherent vowel has been discarded: A consonant written without diacritics represents the consonant alone. This is unique to Bhattiprolu and Tamil Brahmi among the early Indian scripts.

Burmese script

The Burmese script is the basis of the alphabets used for modern Burmese, Mon, Shan and Karen.

Goykanadi

Goykānaḍī is an ancient script used in the territory of Goa. This script was also called kandavī. This script was used to write Konkani and sometimes Marathi. Similarly, it was used by the trading Saraswat and Daivajna families along with the Modi script to maintain their accounts.

Hanacaraka

Hanacaraka is the native name for the following indigenous scripts used in Indonesia:

The Balinese script

The Javanese script

The Sundanese script

Javanese script

The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲ (a)ꦏ꧀ꦱ (ksa)ꦫ (ra)ꦗ (ja)ꦮ (wa)) and Hanacaraka (ꦲ (ha)ꦤ (na)ꦕ (ca)ꦫ (ra)ꦏ (ka)), formally known as Déntawyanjana (ꦢꦺ (dé)ꦤ꧀ꦠ (nta)ꦮꦾ (wya)ꦚ꧀ꦗ (nyja)ꦤ (na)) and Carakan (ꦕ (ca)ꦫ (ra)ꦏ (ka)ꦤ꧀ (n)), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script is a descendant of the Brahmi script and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.

Kalinga script

The Kalinga script is one of many descendants of the ancient Pali script used in what is now modern-day regions of Odisha. It was primarily used to write Odia and Telugu in north Andhra Pradesh, in the ancient state of Kalinga. It is visually very similar to Pali.By the 12th century, this script had essentially become the current Odia script.

Kawi script

Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") or Aksara Jawa Kuna ("Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD, with similarities to the Nāgarī script.The Kawi script is related to the Nagari or old-Devanagari script in India. Also called the Prae-Nagari in Dutch publications after the classic work of F.D.K. Bosch on early Indonesian scripts, the early-Nagari form of script was primarily used in the Kawi script form to write southeast Asian Sanskrit and Old Javanese language in central and eastern Java. Kawi is the ancestor of traditional Indonesian scripts, such as Javanese and Balinese, as well as traditional Philippine scripts such as Luzon Kavi the ancient scripts of Laguna Copper plate Inscriptions 822A.D. and The Baybayin 1500 AD. The strongest evidence of Nagari influence is found in the Sanur stone inscription found in South Bali, which consists of texts in two scripts: one in Early Nagari and the other in Early Kawi script. Further, the Sanur inscription overlaps into two languages – Sanskrit and Old Balinese. Of these, the Old Balinese language portion of the text is expressed in both Early Nagari and Early Kawi script. This inscription is likely from 914 CE, and its features are similar to the earliest forms of Kawi script found in the central and eastern regions of the Bali's neighboring island of Java.According to de Casparis, the early Nagari-inspired Kawi script thrived for over three centuries between the 7th- and 10th-century, and after 910 CE, the later Kawi script emerged incorporating regional innovations and South Indian influence (which in itself is influenced in part by Brahmi-Nandinagari). The four stages of Kawi script evolution are 910–950 CE (east Javanese Kawi I), 1019-1042 (east Javanese Kawi II), 1100–1220 (east Javanese Kawi III), 1050–1220 (Quadrate script of the Kadiri period).The earliest known texts in Kawi date from the Singhasari kingdom in eastern Java. The more recent scripts were extant in the Majapahit kingdom, also in eastern Java, Bali, Borneo and Sumatra. The Kawi script has attracted scholarly interest both in terms of the history of language and script diffusion, as well as the possible routes for the migration of Buddhism and Hinduism to southeast Asian region because many of the major scripts of southeast Asia show South Indian Pallava script influence.The scripts are abugidas, meaning that characters are read with an inherent vowel. Diacritics are used, either to suppress the vowel and represent a pure consonant, or to represent other vowels.

A well-known document written in Kawi is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, found in 1989 in Laguna de Bay near Manila, Philippines. It has inscribed on it a date of Saka era 822, corresponding to May 10, 900 AD, and is written in Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog. This document, among other discoveries made in recent years in the country such as the Golden Tara of Butuan and 14th century pottery and gold jewellery artifacts found in Cebu, is highly important in revising the ancient history of the Philippines.

The "Butuan Ivory Seal" (The left hand image is the seal itself; the right hand image shows how a print from the seal would appear.)The Kawi lettering reads "Butban". The three square seal style characters are BA, TA and NA; the leftward curl underneath BA is the /u/ vowel diacritic, changing the syllable to BU; the small heart-shaped character under TA is the subscript conjunct form of BA which also removes the default /a/ vowel from TA; the large curl to the upper right is the Kawi virama, which indicates the default /a/ vowel on NA is not pronounced. The three blocks of characters together read "[Bu][Tba][N-]. In both Balinese script and Javanese script, which are descended from Kawi, the word is spelled in a very similar pattern, using a similar /u/ diacritic, conjunct form for B, and virama.

The modern Javanese script, state George Campbell and Christopher Moseley, emerged in part through the modification of the Kawi script over the medieval era. This modification occurred in part via secondary forms called pasangan in Javanese, and also from changes in shape. It also shows influence of the northern and western Javanese script forms based on the Pallava Grantha script found in Tamil Nadu as well as the Arabic and Roman script with changes in theo-political control of Java and nearby islands from the 14th- to 20th-century.

Laṇḍā scripts

The Laṇḍā scripts (also Lahnda, Landa), meaning "without a tail", is a Punjabi word used to refer to writing systems used in Punjab and nearby parts of North India. It is distinct from the Lahnda language, which used to be called Western Punjabi.

There are at least ten ancient scripts that were classified as Laṇḍā scripts. They were often used as the mercantile scripts of the Punjab region.

Laṇḍā is a script that evolved from the Śāradā during the 10th century. It was widely used in the northern and north-western part of India in the area comprising Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir and some parts of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It was used to write Punjabi, Hindustani, Sindhi, Saraiki, Balochi, Kashmiri, Pashto, and various Punjabi dialects like Pahari-Pothwari.

In later centuries, Gurmukhī evolved from Laṇḍā. Khojkī, an ecclesiastical script of the Isma'ili Khoja community, is within the Sindhi branch of the Landa family of scripts. Mahajani, a script previously used for the Punjabi and Mārwāṛī, is related to Laṇḍā. The Khudabadi, formerly used for Sindhi, is a Laṇḍā-based script.

List of languages by writing system

Below is a list of languages sorted by writing system (by alphabetical order).

Mahajani

Mahajani is a Laṇḍā mercantile script that was historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records in Marwari, Hindi and Punjabi.

It is a Brahmic script and is written left-to-right. Mahajani refers to the Hindi word for 'bankers', also known as 'sarrafi' or 'kothival' (merchant).

Multani script

Multani is a Brahmic script originating in the Multan region of Punjab and in northern Sindh, Pakistan. It was used to write Saraiki language, often considered a dialect of Western Punjabi language. The script was used for routine writing and commercial activities. Multani is one of four Landa scripts whose usage was extended beyond the mercantile domain and formalized for literary activity and printing; the others being Gurmukhi, Khojki, and Khudawadi. Although Multani is now obsolete, it is a historical script in which written and printed records exist. It was also known as Karikki and as Sarai.

Sasak language

The Sasak language is spoken by the Sasak ethnic group, which make up the majority of the population of Lombok in Indonesia. It is closely related to the Balinese and Sumbawa languages spoken on adjacent islands, and is part of the Austronesian language family. Sasak has no official status; the national language, Indonesian, is the official and literary language in areas where Sasak is spoken.

Some of its dialects, which correspond to regions of Lombok, have a low mutual intelligibility. Sasak has a system of speech levels in which different words are used depending on the social level of the addressee relative to the speaker, similar to neighbouring Javanese and Balinese.

Not widely read or written today, Sasak is used in traditional texts written on dried lontar leaves and read on ceremonial occasions. Traditionally, Sasak's writing system is nearly identical to Balinese script.

Sri Kesari Warmadewa

Sri Kesari Warmadewa was the first king of Bali to leave a written inscription. He authored the inscription on the 914 CE Belanjong pillar ("Prasasti Blanjong") in southern Sanur. The inscription It is written in both the Indian Sanskrit language and Old Balinese language, using two script, the Nagari script and the Old Balinese script (which is used to write both Balinese and Sanskrit). The pillar testifies to the connections of Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java. It is dated according to the Indian Saka calendar.Sri Kesari is considered as the founder as the Warmadewa dynasty, which prospered for several generations, one of its descendant being the famous king Udayana Warmadewa.According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty leading a military expedition, to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.

Ujung Water Palace

Ujung Water Palace is a former palace in Karangasem Regency, Bali. Now, this palace also known as Ujung Park or Sukasada Park. It is located approximately 5 kilometres from Amlapura. In the Dutch East Indies era, this place known by the name Waterpaleis. The palace three large pools. In the middle of the pool, there is the main building named Gili Bale, connected to the edge of the pool by bridge.

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