Bakhtiari dialect

Bakhtiari dialect is a dialect of Southern Luri spoken by Bakhtiari people in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari, Bushehr, eastern Khuzestan and parts of Isfahan and Lorestan provinces. It is closely related to the Boir-Aḥmadī, Kohgīlūya, and Mamasanī dialects in northwestern Fars. These dialects, together with the Lori dialects of Lorestan (e.g. Khorramabadi dialect), are referred to as the “Perside” southern Zagros group, or Lori dialects. "Luri and Bakhtiari are much more closely related to Persian, than Kurdish."[4] The Bakhtiari dialect is considered a middle Persian dialect which could survive through history. There do exist transitional dialects between Southern Kurdish and Lori-Bakhtiāri', and Lori-Bakhtiāri itself may be called a transitional idiom between Kurdish and Persian, with most of the language originating from Persian.[5]

Bakhtiari
بختیاری
Native toIran
EthnicityLur people, Bakhtiari people
Native speakers
1 million (2001)[1]
350,000 monolinguals
Persian alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3bqi
Glottologbakh1245[3]
LurishLanguageMap
Map of Lurish speakers

References

  1. ^ Bakhtiari at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ "Bakhtiâri".
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bakhtiari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Limbert, John: Journal of Iranian Studies Vol. 1, No. 2 at p. 47 (1968) "The Origin and Appearance of Kurds in Pre-Islamic Iran".
  5. ^ electricpulp.com. "KURDISH LANGUAGE i. HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LA – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
Sources

External links

Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Sindhi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.The Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads.

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used to write languages of many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur, and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

Ardal

Ardal (Persian: اردل‎, also romanized as Ardel) is a city and capital of Ardal County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,162, in 1,767 families. People maily speak Lurish language by Bakhtiari dialect.

Bakhtiari

Bakhtiari or Bakhtiyari (Persian: بختياري‎) may refer to:

Bakhtiari people, a tribe of Iran

Bakhtiari dialect, spoken by Bakhtiari people

Bakhtiari Dam, an arch dam under construction on the Bakhtiari River

Bakhtiari River, a river in Iran and a tributary of the Dez River

Bakhtiari Rug, made by the Bakhtiari people

Bakhtiari, Fars, a village in Fars Province, Iran

Bakhtiari, Yazd, a village in Yazd Province, Iran

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran

David Bakhtiari (born 1991), American football player

Eric Bakhtiari (born 1984), American football player

Shapour Bakhtiar, former prime minister of Iran

Qurat-ul-Ain Bakhtiari, Pakistani social activist

Les Lions en Pierre Sculptée chez les Bakhtiari, used by Bakhtiari people

Bakhtiari people

The Bakhtiari (Persian: بختیاری‎) are a southwestern Iranian tribe, and a subgroup of the Lurs. They speak the Bakhtiari dialect, a southwestern Iranian dialect, belonging to the Lurish language.Bakhtiaris primarily inhabit Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari and eastern Khuzestan, Lorestan, Bushehr, and Isfahan provinces. In Khuzestan, Bakhtiari tribes are concentrated primarily in the eastern part of the province in the cities of Masjed Soleyman and Andekah.

A small percentage of Bakhtiari are still nomadic pastoralists, migrating between summer quarters (sardsīr or yaylāq) and winter quarters (garmsīr or qishlāq). Numerical estimates of their total population vary widely.

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province (Persian: استان چهارمحال و بختیاری‎, Ostān-e Chahār-Mahāl-o Bakhtiyārī ) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It lies in the southwestern part of the country. Its capital is Shahr-e Kord.

The province was put as part of Region 2 upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014.It has an area of 16,332 square kilometers, and had a population of 895,263 in 2011.

Khuzestan Province

Khuzestan Province (Persian: استان خوزستان‎ Ostān-e Khūzestān, is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the southwest of the country, bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf. Its capital is Ahvaz and it covers an area of 63,238 km2. Since 2014 it has been part of Iran's Region 4.As the Iranian province with the oldest history, it is often referred to as the "birthplace of the nation", as this is where the history of the Elamites begins. Historically, one of the most important regions of the Ancient Near East, Khuzestan is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, whose capital was in Susa. The Achaemenid Old Persian term for Elam was Hujiyā when they conquered it from the Elamites, which is present in the modern name. Khuzestan, meaning "the Land of the Khuz", refers to the original inhabitants of this province, the "Susian" people (Old Persian "Huza" or Huja, as in the inscription at the tomb of Darius the Great at Naqsh-e Rostam). They are the Shushan of the Hebrew sources where they are recorded as "Hauja" or "Huja". In Middle Persian, the term evolves into "Khuz" and "Kuzi". The pre-Islamic Partho-Sasanian inscriptions gives the name of the province as Khwuzestan.

The seat of the province has for the most of its history been in the northern reaches of the land, first at Susa (Shush) and then at Shushtar. During a short spell in the Sasanian era, the capital of the province was moved to its geographical center, where the river town of Hormuz-Ardasher, founded over the foundation of the ancient Hoorpahir by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Dynasty in the 3rd century CE. This town is now known as Ahvaz. However, later in the Sasanian time and throughout the Islamic era, the provincial seat returned and stayed at Shushtar, until the late Qajar period. With the increase in the international sea commerce arriving on the shores of Khuzistan, Ahvaz became a more suitable location for the provincial capital. The River Karun is navigable all the way to Ahvaz (above which, it flows through rapids). The town was thus refurbished by the order of the Qajar king, Naser al-Din Shah and renamed after him, Nâseri. Shushtar quickly declined, while Ahvaz/Nâseri prospered to the present day.

Khuzestan is known for its ethnic diversity; the population of Khuzestan consists of Lurs, Iranian Arabs, Qashqai people, Afshar tribe, indigenous Persians and Iranian Armenians. Khuzestan's population is predominantly Shia Muslim, but there are small Christian, Jewish, Sunni and Mandean minorities. Half of Khuzestan's population is Bakhtiari.Since the 1920s, tensions on religious and ethnic grounds have often resulted in violence and attempted separatism, including an uprising in 1979, unrest in 2005, bombings in 2005–06 and protests in 2011, drawing much criticism of Iran by international human rights organizations. In 1980, the region was invaded by Ba'athist Iraq, leading to the Iran–Iraq War. Currently, Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Iran's parliament, the Majlis. Meanwhile, it has six representatives in the Assembly of Experts, including Ayatollahs Mousavi Jazayeri, Ka'bi, Heidari, Farhani, Ali Shafi'i, Muhammad Hussain Ahmadi.

Lordegan

Lordegan (Lurish and Persian: لردگان‎, also Romanized as Lordegān, Lordgān, and Lordagān; also known as Lordajān, Lordakān, and Lurdagān) is a city and capital of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 22,728, in 4,459 families.History of civilization in the region is back to Eilamian Elam Empire ( about 2500–3000 BC). The most important evidence about the history of region is three Hills (Ghale Afghan, Ghale Goshe, Ghale Geli) (in Persian:تپه) which are not natural and belong to Eilamian Empire.

The place is covered with Oak forests with variety of wild animals. On the fringes of the Lordegan River lush rice fields come to view, specially in the months of spring and summer. Most of the rivers in the province of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province have a wide variety of fish the most important being the Siah Shakuli a species of the Cyprinidae. Besides which this area due to climatic conditions provides facilities for the nurturing of Trou

About the people, most of the living in rural area having farm and caring domestic animals. The majority of people in the region are Lurs and Bakhtiari and speak the Bakhtiari dialect of Lurish language.

Lordegan County

Lordegan County (Persian: شهرستان لردگان‎) is a county in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Lordegan. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 175,289, in 34,603 families. The county contains four districts: the Central District, Manj District, Falard District, and Khanmirza District. The county has three cities: Lordegan, Mal-e Khalifeh, Manj-e Nesa and Aluni.

Luri language

Luri or Lurish (Luri: لۊری) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia. The Luri dialects are descended from Middle Persian (Pahlavi). Luri forms five language groups known as Feyli, Central Luri, Bakhtiari, Laki and Southern Luri.

This language is spoken mainly by the Feyli Lurs, Bakhtiari and Southern Lurs (Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Mamasani, Sepidan, Bandar Ganaveh, Deylam) of Iran and beyond.

Persian carpet

A Persian carpet (Persian: فرش ايرانى‎ farsh, meaning "to spread") or Persian rug (Persian: قالی ايرانى qālī-ye īranī), also known as Iranian carpet, is a heavy textile made for a wide variety of utilitarian and symbolic purposes and produced in Iran (historically known as Persia), for home use, local sale, and export. Carpet weaving is an essential part of Persian culture and Iranian art. Within the group of Oriental rugs produced by the countries of the so-called "rug belt", the Persian carpet stands out by the variety and elaborateness of its manifold designs.

Persian carpets and rugs of various types were woven in parallel by nomadic tribes, in village and town workshops, and by royal court manufactories alike. As such, they represent different, simultaneous lines of tradition, and reflect the history of Iran and its various peoples. The carpets woven in the Safavid court manufactories of Isfahan during the sixteenth century are famous for their elaborate colours and artistical design, and are treasured in museums and private collections all over the world today. Their patterns and designs have set an artistic tradition for court manufactories which was kept alive during the entire duration of the Persian Empire up to the last royal dynasty of Iran.

Carpets woven in towns and regional centers like Tabriz, Kerman, Mashhad, Kashan, Isfahan, Nain and Qom are characterized by their specific weaving techniques and use of high-quality materials, colours and patterns. Town manufactories like those of Tabriz have played an important historical role in reviving the tradition of carpet weaving after periods of decline. Rugs woven by the villages and various tribes of Iran are distinguished by their fine wool, bright and elaborate colours, and specific, traditional patterns. Nomadic and small village weavers often produce rugs with bolder and sometimes more coarse designs, which are considered as the most authentic and traditional rugs of Persia, as opposed to the artistic, pre-planned designs of the larger workplaces. Gabbeh rugs are the best-known type of carpet from this line of tradition.

The art and craft of carpet weaving has gone through periods of decline during times of political unrest, or under the influence of commercial demands. It particularly suffered from the introduction of synthetic dyes during the second half of the nineteenth century. Carpet weaving still plays a major part in the economy of modern Iran. Modern production is characterized by the revival of traditional dyeing with natural dyes, the reintroduction of traditional tribal patterns, but also by the invention of modern and innovative designs, woven in the centuries-old technique. Hand-woven Persian carpets and rugs have been regarded as objects of high artistic and utilitarian value and prestige since the first time they were mentioned by ancient Greek writers.

Although the term "Persian carpet" most often refers to pile-woven textiles, flat-woven carpets and rugs like Kilim, Soumak, and embroidered tissues like Suzani are part of the rich and manifold tradition of Persian carpet weaving.

In 2010, the "traditional skills of carpet weaving" in Fars Province and Kashan were inscribed to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.

Qaleh-ye Khvajeh

Qaleh-ye Khvajeh (Persian: قلعه خواجه‎; also Romanized as Qal‘eh-ye Khvājeh, Qal‘eh Khvājeh, and Qal’eh Khājeh; also known as Qal‘eh-ye Khvājeh Bālā) is a city and capital of Andika County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 801, in 179 families. The language of the city is the Bakhtiari dialect, and its people are mainly of Baba-Ahmadi, Alasdand Gandali, and Bakhtiari descent.

Old
Middle
Modern
Lurish languages in Iran and Iraq

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