Bakewell is a small market town and civil parish in the Derbyshire Dales district of Derbyshire, England, well known for the local confection Bakewell pudding. It is located on the River Wye, about thirteen miles (21 km) southwest of Sheffield. In the 2011 census the civil parish of Bakewell had a population of 3,949. The town is close to the tourist attractions of Chatsworth House and Haddon Hall.
Bakewell town centre
Bakewell parish highlighted within Derbyshire
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Although there is evidence of earlier settlements in the area, Bakewell itself was probably founded in Anglo Saxon times, when Bakewell was in the Anglian kingdom of Mercia. The name Bakewell means a spring or stream of a man named Badeca (or Beadeca) and derives from this personal name plus the Old English wella. In 949 it was Badecanwelle and in the 11th century Domesday Book it was Badequelle. Bakewell Parish Church, a Grade I listed building, was founded in 920 and has a 9th-century cross in the churchyard. The present church was constructed in the 12th and 13th centuries but was virtually rebuilt in the 1840s by William Flockton. By Norman times Bakewell had gained some importance: the town and its church (having two priests) being mentioned in the Domesday Book and a motte and bailey castle was constructed in the 12th century.
A market was established in 1254, and Bakewell developed as a trading centre. The Grade I listed five-arched bridge over the River Wye was constructed in the 13th century, and is one of the few surviving remnants of this earlier period. A chalybeate spring was discovered, and a bath house built in 1697. This led to an 18th-century bid to develop Bakewell as a spa town, in the manner of Buxton. The construction of the Lumford Mill by Richard Arkwright in 1777 was followed by the rebuilding of much of the town in the 19th century.
Bakewell is in the valley of the River Wye in central Derbyshire. The town centre is sited near the river at about 410 feet (120 m) above sea-level, with the highest parts of the town at about 607 feet (185 m) on the valley sides. The town is in the Derbyshire Dales district and is about 13 miles (21 km) southwest of Sheffield, 31 miles (50 km) southeast of Manchester, and 21 miles (34 km) north of Derby. Nearby towns include Matlock to the south east, Chesterfield to the east and Buxton to the west northwest. Villages near Bakewell include Ashford-in-the-Water, Elton, Great Longstone, Monyash, Over Haddon, Sheldon, Rowsley, Pilsley, Youlgreave and Baslow.
Bakewell attracts many domestic and international tourists. Monday is popular with visitors as the traditional market is held in the town on this day. The cattle market is housed in a new purpose built agricultural centre, across the river from the main part of the town. A medium-sized stall market is held in the town centre.
A major employer within the town is the Peak District National Park Authority, based at Aldern House on Baslow Road. The National Park Authority is tasked with conserving and enhancing, as well as promoting understanding and enjoyment, of the local area. Opposite Aldern House is another major employer, Newholme Hospital, an NHS cottage hospital providing outpatient clinic services to the local community. A campaign in the town, involving local tradespeople, has failed to prevent the establishment of a branch of Costa Coffee in the town.
All Saints' Church is a Grade I listed church founded in 920, during Saxon times and the churchyard has two Saxon crosses. One cross is the Beeley Cross, dug up in a field at a disputed location near Beeley and moved for some years to the grounds of Holt House near Darley Bridge. Although only the base and lower part of the shaft survive, it stands over five feet high and is carved on all four faces. The other cross is the Bakewell Cross, eight feet high and almost complete. It was carved in the 7th or 8th century and shows a number of scenes including one of the Annunciation. This cross may originally have stood at Hassop Cross Roads, although there is no firm evidence for this. During restoration work, in the 1840s, many carved fragments of Saxon stonework were found in and around the porch, as well as some ancient stone coffins.
In 1862, the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway opened Bakewell railway station. The line became part of the Midland Railway and later the LMS main line from London to Manchester. John Ruskin objected to what he saw as the desecration of the Derbyshire countryside, all so that "a Buxton fool may be able to find himself in Bakewell in twelve minutes, and vice versa." In return for the Duke of Rutland's permission for the line to pass through his estate at Haddon Hall, the Bakewell station buildings, located on the hillside overlooking the town, are more imposing than a small town might be thought to justify, and the Duke's coat of arms are carved into the stonework. Such pandering to the nobility and landowners, was typical of the time, since their support would be necessary to obtain the Act of Parliament, even though the inconvenient high contour of the railway, which forced the station to be placed out of town, was due to the Duke insisting that the line ran out of sight of Haddon Hall. The station buildings are now used for small businesses, because the line between Matlock and Buxton closed in 1968: most of the trackway has now been designated the Monsal Trail, a quiet motor-traffic-free track for walking, cycling and horseriding.
"Normal" trains now run from Derby via Ambergate only as far as Matlock, and from Manchester only as far as Buxton. There have been repeated proposals for fully reopening the remaining, Wye Valley, portion of the line, which would run through Bakewell and over the magnificent Monsal Dale viaduct.
Peak Rail, a local preserved railway venture, has shown the way by reopening the line from Matlock to Rowsley, a village that is a few miles to the east of Bakewell near Haddon Hall. Reaching Bakewell is just one of Peak Rail's long-term ambitions, and in order to keep alive the intention for a future return of the railway (under one auspice or another), Derbyshire County Council is currently protecting the trackbed from development, (in order of seeing the old railway station fully restored and return to its former glory and use, as it still remains completely intact).
Bakewell is known for the Bakewell pudding, a jam pastry with an egg and ground almond enriched filling. It is not to be confused with Bakewell tart, which is a completely different confection, made with shortcrust pastry, an almond topping and a sponge and jam filling; Mr Kipling also made "Cherry Bakewells", often also known as Bakewell tarts. The origins of the pudding are not clear; however, the generally accepted story is that it was first made by accident in 1820 when the landlady of the White Horse Inn (now called the Rutland Arms Hotel) left instructions for her cook to make a jam tart with an egg and almond paste pastry base. The cook, instead of stirring the eggs and almond paste mixture into the pastry, spread it on top of the jam. When cooked the jam rose through the paste. The result was successful enough for it to become a popular dish at the Inn, and commercial variations, usually with icing sugar on top, have spread the name.
Three shops in Bakewell offer what they each claim is the original recipe. The Bakewell Tart Shop & Coffee House sells four different variations of the confection, including: "Bakewell Tart", "Iced Bakewell Tart", "Moist Bakewell Tart" and "Traditional Bakewell Pudding"; whilst The Old Original Bakewell Pudding Shop and Bloomers of Bakewell both sell a "Bakewell Pudding".
In the 2011 census, Bakewell was 99.1% White, 0.2% Asian, and 0.5% Mixed/multiple.
There are a number of annual events that take place in the town. The Peak District traditional well dressing takes place during June; colourful images made of petals embedded into clay appear at several places throughout the town. The Bakewell Agricultural Show (the Little Royal) is one of the largest covered agricultural shows in the UK, and attracts around 65,000 visitors. It takes place on the first Wednesday and Thursday in August at the Bakewell Showground. The Little Royal show was founded by Wootten Burkinshaw Thomas in 1819. August also has the Bakewell Arts Festival — a music and theatre event that started in 1997. The Peak Literary Festival is held in the spring and autumn of each year. The spring festival starts on the last Friday in May and the autumn on the last Friday in October. Carnival week, culminating in a procession through the town, is held at the beginning of July.
Bakewell has a large recreation park to the east of the town centre, which has tennis courts, children's playground, and football/cricket pitches. In the town itself, and located near to the library, is the municipal swimming pool and gym. Alongside the River Wye is a popular riverside walk.
Bakewell was the focus of attention during the Stephen Downing case, which involved the conviction and imprisonment in 1974 of a 17-year-old council worker, Stephen Downing, for the murder of a 32-year-old legal secretary in Bakewell Cemetery. Following a campaign by a local newspaper, his conviction was overturned in 2002, after Downing had served 27 years in prison. The case is thought to be the longest miscarriage of justice in British legal history, and attracted worldwide media attention.
A Matter of Loaf and Death is a 2008 British stop-motion animated film created by Nick Park, and the fourth of his shorts to star his characters Wallace and Gromit. It is the first Wallace and Gromit short since A Close Shave in 1995. A Matter of Loaf and Death is a murder mystery, with Wallace and Gromit starting a new bakery business.
With an unknown assailant murdering bakers, Gromit tries to solve the case before Wallace ends up a victim himself. It was the last Wallace and Gromit film before the retirement of Wallace's voice actor Peter Sallis in 2010.Bakewell Glass
Bakewell Glass is glassware produced in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The company that produced it was Bakewell & Ensell and, subsequently, Bakewell, Pears & Co.Bakewell pudding
Bakewell pudding is an English dessert consisting of a flaky pastry base with a layer of sieved jam and topped with a filling made of egg and almond paste.Bakewell railway station
Bakewell railway station was a railway station built to serve the town of Bakewell in Derbyshire, England by the Midland Railway on its extension of the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midland Junction Railway line from Rowsley to Buxton.Bakewell tart
A Bakewell tart is an English confection consisting of a shortcrust pastry shell beneath layers of jam, frangipane, and a topping of flaked almonds. It is a variant of the Bakewell pudding but although closely associated with the town of Bakewell in Derbyshire, there is no evidence that it originated there.Cathy Bakewell, Baroness Bakewell of Hardington Mandeville
Catherine Mary Bakewell, Baroness Bakewell of Hardington Mandeville, (born 7 March 1949), known as Cathy Bakewell, is a British politician who is a Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords and an elected District Councillor for the Coker ward of South Somerset.DE postcode area
The DE postcode area, also known as the Derby postcode area, is a group of 23 postcode districts in England, which are subdivisions of 11 post towns. These postcode districts cover south and central Derbyshire (including Derby, Alfreton, Ashbourne, Bakewell, Belper, Heanor, Ilkeston, Matlock, Ripley and Swadlincote), parts of east Staffordshire (including Burton upon Trent) and north-west Leicestershire, and very small parts of Nottinghamshire.Derbyshire Dales
Derbyshire Dales () is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. The population of the district as taken at the 2011 Census was 71,116. Much of the district is situated in the Peak District, although most of its population lies along the River Derwent.
The borough borders the districts of High Peak, Amber Valley, North East Derbyshire and South Derbyshire in Derbyshire and also Sheffield in South Yorkshire. The district also lies within the Sheffield City Region, and the district council is a non-constituent partner member of the Sheffield City Region Combined Authority. A significant amount of the working population is employed in Sheffield and Chesterfield.
The district offices are in Matlock. It was formed on 1 April 1974, originally under the name of West Derbyshire. The district adopted its current name in 1988. The district was a merger of Ashbourne, Bakewell, Matlock and Wirksworth urban districts along with Ashbourne Rural District and Bakewell Rural District.
Following their review of parliamentary representation in Derbyshire, the Boundary Commission for England has formed a new constituency called Derbyshire Dales.Enid Bakewell
Enid Bakewell, (née Turton; born 16 December 1940) played for the English women's cricket team in 12 Tests between 1968 and 1979, and in 23 one-day international matches. A right-handed bat and slow left-arm bowler, on her figures she has a strong claim to be regarded as the best all-rounder that the English women's game has produced. In Tests she scored 1,078 runs at an average of 59.88, with 4 centuries, as well as taking 50 wickets at an average of 16.62. She scored 112 not out and took 10 for 75 against West Indies at Edgbaston in 1979.She along with Lynne Thomas set the record for the highest opening run partnership in the history of Women's Cricket World Cup(246)In 2014 Wisden Cricketers' Almanack selected her as one of the five greatest female players of all time.Joan Bakewell
Joan Dawson Bakewell, Baroness Bakewell, (née Rowlands; born 16 April 1933) is an English journalist, television presenter and Labour Party Peer. Baroness Bakewell is President of Birkbeck, University of London. She is also an author and playwright and has been awarded Humanist of the year for services to humanism.Leicester Longwool
The Leicester Longwool is an English breed of sheep. Alternative names for the breed include: Leicester, Bakewell Leicester, Dishley Leicester, English Leicester, Improved Leicester and New Leicester. It was originally developed by 18th-century breeding innovator Robert Bakewell.It is now one of Britain's rarest breeds, categorised as "endangered" by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust, since fewer than 500 registered breeding females remain in the United Kingdom.Los Angeles Sentinel
The Los Angeles Sentinel is a weekly African-American-owned newspaper published in Los Angeles, California. The paper boasts of reaching 125,000 readers as of 2004, making it one of the oldest, largest and most influential African-American newspaper in the Western United States. The Sentinel was also noted for their coverage of the changing African American daily life experience in the post-1992 Los Angeles Riots era. The Sentinel was founded in 1933 by Col. Leon H. Washington Jr. for black readers. Since that time, the newspaper has been considered a staple of black life in Los Angeles. The paper mainly focuses on and thus enjoys most of its circulation in the predominantly African-American neighborhoods of South Los Angeles, Inglewood and Compton.
On March 17, 2004, the Sentinel was purchased and came under the direction of real estate developer and community activist Danny Bakewell.Midlands 2 East (North)
Midlands 2 East (North) is a level 7 English Rugby Union league and level 2 of the Midlands League, made up of teams from the northern part of the East Midlands region including clubs from Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and the occasional team from Leicestershire, with home and away matches played throughout the season. Each year all clubs in the division also take part in the RFU Intermediate Cup - a level 7 national competition.
The division was formed for the 2000-01 when the old Midlands 3 East was split into two regional divisions called Midlands 3 East (North) and Midlands 3 East (South) and gained its current title for the 2009-10 season due to further restructuring to the Midlands League. Promoted teams tend to move up to Midlands 1 East with champions going up automatically and the runners up having to play a playoff against the runners up from Midlands 2 East (South) for their place. Demoted teams typically drop to Midlands 3 East (North).Peak Rail
Peak Rail is a preserved railway in Derbyshire, Central England, which operates a steam and heritage diesel service for tourists and visitors to both the Peak District and the Derbyshire Dales.
The preserved railway line is over three and a half miles (5.6 km) in length and, as of April 2016, operates train services from Matlock station (shared with Derwent Valley Line services from Derby via Ambergate) via the site of Matlock Riverside and Darley Dale to Rowsley South.
Peak Rail intends to extend its operational services northward to Bakewell when resources allow, extending to a total of 4.25 miles (6.84 km). Beyond Bakewell, the railway trackbed is used by the Monsal Trail, but a restored line could operate single track alongside (as is done by the heritage Avon Valley Railway) once safety issues are resolved.Robert Bakewell (agriculturalist)
Robert Bakewell (23 May 1725 – 1 October 1795) was a British agriculturalist, now recognized as one of the most important figures in the British Agricultural Revolution. In addition to work in agronomy, Bakewell is particularly notable as the second to implement systematic selective breeding of livestock. His advancements not only led to specific improvements in sheep, cattle and horses, but contributed to general knowledge of artificial selection.Stephen Downing case
The Stephen Downing case involved the conviction and imprisonment in 1974 of a 17-year-old council worker, Stephen Downing, for the murder of a 32-year-old legal secretary, Wendy Sewell, in the town of Bakewell in the Peak District in Derbyshire, central England.
Following a campaign by a local newspaper, his conviction was overturned in 2002, after Downing had served 27 years in prison. The case is thought to be the longest miscarriage of justice in British legal history, and attracted worldwide media attention.Theatre 625
Theatre 625 is a British television drama anthology series, produced by the BBC and transmitted on BBC2 from 1964 to 1968. It was one of the first regular programmes in the line-up of the channel, and the title referred to its production and transmission being in the higher-definition 625-line format, which only BBC2 used at the time.William Bakewell
William Bakewell (May 2, 1908 – April 15, 1993) was an American actor who achieved his greatest fame as one of the leading juvenile performers of the late 1920s and early 1930s.William Lincoln Bakewell
William Lincoln Bakewell (November 26, 1888 – May 21, 1969) was the only American aboard the Endurance during the 1914 to 1916 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition with Sir Ernest Shackleton. William Bakewell joined the Endurance crew in Buenos Aires, Argentina along with friend Perce Blackborow. Bakewell was hired on as an Able Seaman. Bakewell's adventures, including his time on board the Endurance, are documented in his own words in his memoir The American on the Endurance.