Baker Bowl

Baker Bowl is the best-known popular name of a baseball park that formerly stood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Its formal name, painted on its outer wall, was National League Park. It was also initially known as Philadelphia Park or Philadelphia Base Ball Grounds / Park.

Baker Bowl was located on a small city block bounded by N. Broad St., W. Huntingdon St., N. 15th St. and W. Lehigh Avenue.

The ballpark was initially built in 1887. It was constructed by Phillies owners AJ Reach and John Rogers.[3] The ballpark cost $80,000 and had a capacity of 12,500.[3] At that time the media praised it as state-of-the-art. In the dead-ball era, the outfield was enclosed by a relatively low wall all around. Center field was fairly close, with the railroad tracks running behind it. Later, the tracks were lowered and the field was extended over top of them. Bleachers were built in left field, and over time various extensions were added to the originally low right field wall, resulting in the famous 60-foot (18 m) fence.

The ballpark's second incarnation opened in 1895. It was notable for having the first cantilevered upper deck in a sports stadium, and was the first ballpark to use steel and brick for the majority of its construction. It also took the rule book literally, as the sweeping curve behind the plate was about 60 feet (18 m), and instead of angling back toward the foul lines, the 60-foot (18 m) wide foul ground extended all the way to the wall in right, and well down the left field line also. The spacious foul ground, while not fan-friendly, would have resulted in more foul-fly outs than in most parks, and thus was probably the park's one saving grace in the minds of otherwise-frustrated pitchers.

Baker Bowl
The Cigar Box
The Band Box
Baker Bowl and Huntingdon Street station, 1928
Former namesPhiladelphia Base Ball Grounds (1887–1895)
National League Park (1895–1913, officially thereafter)
Location2622 North Broad St or 2601 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Coordinates39°59′35″N 75°9′21″W / 39.99306°N 75.15583°WCoordinates: 39°59′35″N 75°9′21″W / 39.99306°N 75.15583°W
OwnerPhiladelphia Phillies
OperatorPhiladelphia Phillies
Capacity12,500 (1887–94)
18,000 (1895–1928)
20,000 (1929)
18,800 (1930–38)
Field sizeLeft Field – 341 ft (104 m)
Center Field – 408 ft (124 m)
Right-Center – 300 ft (91 m)
Right Field – 280 ft (85 m)
SurfaceGrass
Construction
OpenedApril 30, 1887
ClosedJune 30, 1938
Demolished1950
Construction costUS$80,000
($2.23 million in 2018 dollars[1])
ArchitectJohn D. Allen
Tenants
Philadelphia Phillies (NL) (1887–1938)
Philadelphia Eagles (NFL) (1933–35)
DesignatedAugust 16, 2000[2]

The Baker Wall

Baker bowl right field
Baker Bowl's right field wall in 1937 after the metal screen was added to extend the total height to 60 feet (18 m). Notice the Phillies advertisement for Lifebuoy Soap along the length of the wall. An often-told joke was that even if the team used the product, they still "stunk".

The most notable and talked-about feature of Baker Bowl was the right field wall; its closest distance was only 280 feet (85 m) from home plate, with right-center only 300 feet (91.5 m) away, and with a screen-and-wall barrier that in its final form was 60 feet (18 m) high. By comparison, the Green Monster at Fenway Park is 37 feet (11 m) high, and 310 feet (94 m) away. The Baker wall was a rather difficult task to surmount. The wall was an amalgam of different materials. It was originally a relatively normal-height masonry structure. When it became clear that it was too soft a home run touch, the barrier was extended upward using more masonry, wood, and a metal pipe-and-wire screen. The masonry in the lower part of the wall was extremely rough (writer Michael Benson termed it "the sort of surface that efficiently removes an outfielder's skin upon contact"[4]) and eventually a layer of tin was laid over the entire structure except for the upper part of the screen. The wall dominated the stadium in much the same way as the Green Monster does, only some 30 feet (9.1 m) closer to the diamond; and because of its material, it made a distinctive sound when balls ricocheted off it, as happened frequently. The clubhouse was located above and behind the center field wall.[3] No batter ever hit a ball over the clubhouse, but Rogers Hornsby once hit a ball through a window.[3]

Name

The ballpark, shoehorned as it was into the Philadelphia city grid, acquired a number of nicknames over the years. Baker Bowl is the best-known name, and is nearly always referred to by that name in histories of the Phillies.

The prosaic "Philadelphia Baseball Grounds" or "Philadelphia Baseball Park" was the name often used by sportswriters prior to the Baker era. The opening day game program in 1887 called it "Philadelphia Ball Park". Photographs during its later years show the sign on the ballpark's exterior with the equally prosaic label "National League Park". "Huntingdon Street Grounds" was a nickname for a while, after the street running behind the first base line and intersecting Broad Street.

Baker Bowl, also called "Baker Field" in the baseball guides, referred to one-time Phillies owner William F. Baker. The use of "Baker Field" was perhaps confusing, since Columbia University's athletic facility in New York City was also called Baker Field. How it acquired the unique suffix "Bowl" is subject to conjecture. It may have referred to the banked bicycle track that was there for a time, or it may have been used derisively, suggesting non-existent luxuriousness. "The Hump" referred to a hill in center field covering a partially submerged railroad tunnel in the street beyond right field that extended through into center field. Outfielders would occasionally feel the rumblings of the trains passing underneath them.[3]

"The Cigar Box" and "The Band Box" referred to the tiny size of the playing field. After the demise of the Baker Bowl, the terms "cigar box" and "bandbox" were subsequently applied to any "intimate" ballpark (like Boston's Fenway Park or Brooklyn's Ebbets Field) whose configurations were conducive to players hitting home runs.

The first time the term "Baker Bowl" appeared in the Philadelphia Inquirer was in July 1923, and the paper continued to be use that name frequently until the ballpark's demise. The Phillies, for their part, continued to use the formal name "National League Park" in newspaper advertisements of ticket sales, a practice they continued all the way to the final game day, June 30, 1938.

Philadelphia Phillies

During the 51½ seasons the Phillies played there, they managed only one pennant (1915). The 1915 World Series was significant in that it was the first time a sitting president attended a World Series game when President Wilson attended and threw out the first pitch prior to Game 2.[5] The Series was also the first post-season appearance by Babe Ruth, and the last to be played in a venue whose structure predated the modern World Series.

Baker Bowl 1915
Crowd entering the Baker Bowl, 1915

While they were occasionally at least respectable in the dead-ball era, once the lively ball was introduced the Phillies nearly always finished in last place, substantially helping them towards the 10,000-loss "milestone" they reached on July 15, 2007.[6] During its last two decades, the ballpark became heaven for batters (both home and visiting), whereas having to play half their games there every year became hell for the Phillies' pitching staff. For a number of years, a huge advertising sign on the right field wall read "The Phillies Use Lifebuoy", a popular brand of soap. This led to the oft-reported quip that appended "... and they still stink!" In 1936, a vandal sneaked into Baker Bowl one night and actually wrote that phrase on the Lifebuoy ad.[7] Conventional wisdom ties their failures to Baker Bowl, but they remained cellar-dwellers in Shibe Park as well.

Umpires at 1915 World Series
The umpires lined up before a game of the 1915 World Series at the Baker Bowl.

On June 9, 1914, Honus Wagner hit his 3,000th career hit in the stadium. Babe Ruth played his last major league baseball game in Baker Bowl on May 30, 1935.

The ballpark was abandoned during the middle of the 1938 season, as the Phillies chose to move 5 blocks west on Lehigh Avenue to rent the newer and more spacious Shibe Park from the A's rather than remain at the Baker Bowl. Phils president Gerald Nugent cited the move as an opportunity for the Phillies to cut expenses as stadium upkeep would be split between two clubs.[8] The final game was played on the 30th of June, when a crowd of only 1,500 spectators watched the Phillies lose to the New York Giants 14-1.[3]

At Baker Bowl, the Phillies finished with a 30–38–1 record against the A's in City Series exhibition games.[9]

Philadelphia Eagles

Baker Bowl bleachers 1915
Baker Bowl's bleachers in 1915.

Baker Bowl was the first home field of the Philadelphia Eagles who played there from 1933 through 1935. In their three seasons there, they had a record of 9-21-1.

Eagles' owner Bert Bell hoped to play home games at larger Shibe Park, but negotiations with the Athletics were not fruitful, and Bell agreed to a deal with Phillies' owner Gerry Nugent. For Eagles games, 5,000 temporary seats were erected along the right-field wall. The Eagles played their first game at the ballpark on October 3, 1933, a 40–0 pre-season victory over a U.S. Marines team; the game was played at night under rented floodlights. In the first regular-season game on October 18, 1933, 1,750 fans saw the Portsmouth Spartans beat the Eagles, 25–0. Later that season, 17,850 fans watched the Eagles tie the Chicago Bears on Sunday, November 18, 1933. Under Pennsylvania blue laws, Sunday games had been prohibited.[10]

With the ballpark in poor condition, the Eagles left Baker Bowl after the 1935 season for the city-owned Municipal Stadium, which was then only 10 years old and could seat up to 100,000 spectators.

Other tenants

During its tenure, the park also hosted Negro League games, including those of the Hilldale Daisies and Negro League World Series games from 1924–26. The first two games of the 1924 Colored World Series between the Kansas City Monarchs and the local Hilldale Club were hosted at Baker Bowl on October 3 and October 4, owing to its larger capacity.

It was during a 1929 exhibition with a Negro League team that Babe Ruth hit two home runs that landed about halfway into the rail yards across the street in right.[11]

Rodeos were occasionally held at Baker Bowl in order to raise additional revenue. That activity and mindset fit with the reported use of sheep to graze on the field during Phillies road trips, in lieu of buying lawn mowers, until sometime in the 1920s.

In 1923, Phillies Park hosted multiple college football games of Saint Joseph's Hawks football.[12]

Disasters

Shibe Park and Baker Bowl aerial, September 1929
Shibe Park (foreground), and Baker Bowl (background upper right corner)

Fire destroyed the grandstand and bleachers of the original stadium on August 6, 1894. The $80,000 in damage (equal to $2,316,615 today) was covered fully by insurance. The fire also spread to the adjoining properties, causing an additional $20,000 in damage, equal to $579,154 today.[13]

While the Phillies were playing a short road trip and then staging six home games at the University of Pennsylvania Grounds at 39th and Spruce, a building crew worked around the clock to erect temporary bleachers. The makeshift stands were finished in time for a game on August 18.

During the 1894-1895 off-season, the park was fully rebuilt of mostly fireproof materials and an innovative cantilevered upper deck. It also contained a banked bicycle track for a while, exploiting the cycling craze of the late 19th century. In terms of pure design, the ballpark was well ahead of its time, but subsequent problems and the parsimony of the team's owners undermined any apparent positives, as the ballpark soon became rundown and unsafe.

During a game on August 8, 1903, an altercation between two drunken men and two teenage girls in 15th Street caught the attention of bleacher fans down the left field line.[3] Many of them ran to the top of the wooden seating area, and the added stress on that section of the bleachers caused it to collapse into the street, killing 12 and injuring 232. This led to more renovation of the stadium and forced the ownership to sell the team. The Phillies temporarily moved to the Philadelphia Athletics' home field, Columbia Park, while Baker Bowl was repaired.[14] The Phillies played sixteen games at Columbia Park in August and September 1903.[15]

During a game on May 14, 1927, parts of two sections of the lower deck extension along the right-field line collapsed due to rotted shoring timbers, again triggered by an oversize gathering of people, who were seeking shelter from the rain. Miraculously, no one died during the collapse, but one individual did die from heart failure in the subsequent stampede that injured 50.

After both of those catastrophes, the Phils rented from the A's while repairs were being made to the old structure.

Legacy

SEPTA Main-Line-Signal-29x
Looking north from current train depot.
Note former Ford Building in background.

Of all the MLB parks built in the 19th century, the Baker Bowl hung on (by far) the longest, finally hosting its last game on June 30, 1938.[16] (Robison Field in St. Louis, the next-longest-lasting 19th-century big-league ballpark, closed in 1920.)

When Baker Bowl was first opened, it was praised as the finest baseball palace in America. By the time it was abandoned, it had been a joke for years. The Chicago Tribune ran a series of articles on baseball parks during the summer of 1937, and the article about Baker Bowl was merciless in its ridicule of this park.[17]

After the Phillies moved to Shibe Park, the upper deck was peeled off and the stadium was used for sports ranging from midget auto racing to ice skating. Its old centerfield clubhouse served as a piano bar for a while. By the late 1940s, all that stood of the original structure were the four outer walls and a field choked with weeds. What remained of the ballpark was finally demolished in 1950 – coincidentally, the year of the Phils' first pennant since 1915. The site now features a gas station/convenience store where the center-field clubhouse once stood, garages, and a car wash.

The many futile attempts to keep it going, for a dozen years after its abandonment, only added to the ridicule due to the park's "lingering death". The next two Phillies' ballparks, Shibe Park and Veterans Stadium, would similarly undergo the cycle of praise upon opening and disdain upon closure.

A Pennsylvania Historical marker stands on Broad Street just north of West Huntingdon Street, Philadelphia. The marker is titled, "Baker Bowl National League Park" and the text reads,

The Phillies' baseball park from its opening in 1887 until 1938. Rebuilt 1895; hailed as nation's finest stadium. Site of first World Series attended by U.S. President, 1915; Negro League World Series, 1924-26; Babe Ruth's last major league game, 1935. Razed 1950.[18]

The marker was dedicated on August 16, 2000 at Veterans Stadium during an on-the-field pre-game ceremony. The marker was unveiled by former Phillies shortstop Bobby Stevens, who played for the team in 1931, and then–current Phillies pitcher Randy Wolf. The marker was displayed at the Vet through the end of the 2000 season and then moved to the location of the ballpark, just behind where the right field foul pole would be.[19]

Some distinctive buildings visible in vintage photos of the ballpark remain standing and help to mark the ballpark's former location. One is the roughly 10-story-tall, triangular building across Lehigh to the north-northeast, behind what was centerfield. It was originally a Ford Motor Company building, and was completed at some point prior to the 1915 World Series. Another is the neoclassical North Broad Street Station train depot building across Broad Street from what was the end of the first base grandstand. It was built in the 1920s and is visible in later aerial photos of the ballpark. The building itself now houses a homeless shelter. The modern North Broad station serving SEPTA Regional Rail's Lansdale/Doylestown Line and Manayunk/Norristown Line stands nearby.

References

  1. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  2. ^ "PHMC Historical Markers Search" (Searchable database). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Jordan, David (2010). Closing 'Em Down: Final Games at Thirteen Classic Ballparks. USA: McFarland Publishing Company. p. 216. ISBN 9780786449682.
  4. ^ Benson, Michael. Ballparks of North America. McFarland, 1989, p298.
  5. ^ Gordon, Robert (2005). Legends of the Philadelphia Phillies. Sports Publishing LLC. p. 3. ISBN 1-56639-454-6. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
  6. ^ Antonen, Mel (July 16, 2007). "Phillies Are No. 1 in Loss Column". USA Today. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  7. ^ Shields, Gerard (February 28, 2010). "Hope is eternal, even for Phillies fans". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
  8. ^ "Phils Set to Close Deal for Use of Shibe Park". The New York Times. June 26, 1938.
  9. ^ Westcott, Rich (1996). Philadelphia's Old Ballparks. Temple University Press. p. 51. ISBN 1-56639-454-6. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  10. ^ Didinger, Ray; Lyons, Robert S. (2005). The Eagles Encyclopedia. Temple University Press. p. 199. ISBN 1-59213-449-1. Retrieved May 27, 2009.
  11. ^ Jenkinson, Bill (2007). The Year Babe Ruth Hit 104 Home Runs: Recrowning Baseball's Greatest Slugger. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1906-0.
  12. ^ "SATURDAYS COLLEGE". newspapers.com. Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania: Wilkes-Barre Times Leader. 13 October 1923. p. 10. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  13. ^ "Another Baseball Park Fire". The Christian Recorder. August 9, 1894.
  14. ^ Macht, Norman L.; Mack, III, Connie (2007). Connie Mack and the Early Years of Baseball. University of Nebraska Press. p. 316. ISBN 0-8032-3263-2. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  15. ^ "Alternate Site Games Since 1901". Retrosheet. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  16. ^ Boxscore
  17. ^ Baker Bowl / Philadelphia Park (aka Philadelphia Grounds)
  18. ^ "Baker Bowl National League Park". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Archived from the original on May 12, 2005. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  19. ^ Warrington, Bob. "Baker Bowl Honored with Historical Marker at Dedication Ceremony!". Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society. Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2009.

External links

1903 Philadelphia Phillies season

The 1903 Philadelphia Phillies season was a season in American baseball. The team finished seventh in the National League with a record of 49–86, 39½ games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1915 Boston Red Sox season

The 1915 Boston Red Sox season was the fifteenth season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished first in the American League (AL) with a record of 101 wins and 50 losses. The team then faced the National League (NL) champion Philadelphia Phillies in the 1915 World Series, which the Red Sox won in five games to capture the franchise's third World Series.

1915 Major League Baseball season

The 1915 Major League Baseball season.

1915 Philadelphia Phillies season

The 1915 Philadelphia Phillies season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Phillies winning the National League, then going on to lose the 1915 World Series to the Boston Red Sox. This was the team's first pennant since joining the league in 1883. They would have to wait another 35 years for their second.

1915 World Series

In the 1915 World Series, the Boston Red Sox beat the Philadelphia Phillies four games to one.

In their only World Series before 1950, the Phillies won Game 1 before being swept the rest of the way. It was 65 years before the Phillies won their next Series game. The Red Sox pitching was so strong in the 1915 series that the young Babe Ruth was not used on the mound and only made a single pinch-hitting appearance.

1931 Frankford Yellow Jackets season

The 1931 Frankford Yellow Jackets season was their eighth and final in the National Football League. The team failed to improve on their previous season's record of 4–13–1, winning only one league game. The team has the dubious distinction of winning only a single NFL game by a single point, and was held scoreless in seven of their eight league games, including the first five of the season.On July 27, 1931, the team's home, Frankford Stadium, was severely damaged by fire, forcing the team to divide its 1931 home games between Municipal Stadium and the Baker Bowl.

1933 Philadelphia Eagles season

The 1933 Philadelphia Eagles season was the franchise's inaugural season in the National Football League (NFL). The team went 3–5–1, failing to qualify for the playoffs under head coach Lud Wray.

1938 Philadelphia Phillies season

The 1938 Philadelphia Phillies season was a season in American baseball. The team finished in eighth place – last in an eight-team National League – with a record of 45–105, 43 games behind the first-place Chicago Cubs and 24.5 games behind the seventh-place Brooklyn Dodgers. It was the first of five straight seasons in which the Phillies finished in last place. The Phillies wore blue and yellow on their uniforms in honor of the Tercentenary of New Sweden.The Phillies moved from their old home park, Baker Bowl, to Shibe Park midway through the season. Phillies president Gerald Nugent was eager to cut expenses and he cited the move as an opportunity for the Phillies to cut expenses by sharing stadium upkeep with the Philadelphia Athletics.

City Series (Philadelphia)

The City Series was the name of a series of baseball games played between Major League Baseball's Philadelphia Athletics of the American League and Philadelphia Phillies of the National League that ran from 1903 through 1955. After the A's move to Kansas City in 1955, the City Series rivalry came to an end. The teams have since faced each other in Interleague play (since its introduction in 1997) but the rivalry has effectively died in the intervening years since the A's left Philadelphia.

The first City Series was held in 1883 between the Phillies and American Association Philadelphia Athletics. When the Athletics first joined the American League, the two teams played each other in a spring and fall series. No City Series was held in 1901 and 1902 due to legal warring between the NL and AL.

Frankford Stadium

Frankford Stadium, also known as Yellow Jacket Field, was a football field in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that was the home of the Frankford Yellow Jackets football team of the National Football League, which predated the Philadelphia Eagles.

The stadium, located at Frankford Avenue and Devereaux Street, was the Yellow Jackets' home from 1923 through 1930. On July 27, 1931, a fire caused major damage to the structure, forcing the Yellow Jackets to play their remaining home games at the Baker Bowl and Municipal Stadium, before disbanding during the 1931 season. The site was purchased in 1933 by the Franklin Legion Athletic Association, who demolished the structure to build the Franklin Legion Athletic Field. When the Frankford Legion AA reorganized as the Northeast Philadelphia AA later that year, the stadium's name was changed to Yellow Trojan Field. As of 2017, a Dollar Tree store and rowhouses occupy the site.

Gavvy Cravath

Clifford Carlton "Gavvy" Cravath (March 23, 1881 – May 23, 1963), also nicknamed "Cactus", was an American right fielder and right-handed batter in Major League Baseball who played primarily for the Philadelphia Phillies. One of the sport's most prolific power hitters of the dead-ball era, in the seven years from 1913 to 1920 he led the National League in home runs six times, in runs batted in, total bases and slugging percentage twice each, and in hits, runs and walks once each. He led the NL in several offensive categories in 1915 as the Phillies won the first pennant in the team's 33-year history, and he held the team's career home run record from 1917 to 1924. However, he played his home games at Baker Bowl, a park that was notoriously favorable to batting statistics. Cravath hit 92 career homers at Baker Bowl while he had 25 homers in all his games away from home.

List of Boston and Milwaukee Braves Opening Day starting pitchers

The Braves are a Major League Baseball team that was originally based in Boston. They moved to Milwaukee in 1953 before moving to their current home, Atlanta in 1966. They played in the National League since its formation in 1876. At various points in the history in Boston, they were known as the Beaneaters, the Doves, the Rustlers and the Bees. During the 20th century until their move to Milwaukee, they played their home games primarily at two home ball parks – South End Grounds until 1914, and Braves Field from 1915 through 1952. They also played some home games at Fenway Park in 1914 and 1915, including Opening Day of 1915. Their home ball park in Milwaukee was County Stadium. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day.The Braves used 40 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 80 National League seasons they played prior to moving to Atlanta. The Braves won 46 of those games against 42 losses in those Opening Day starts. They also played two tie games.Warren Spahn had the most Opening Day starts for the Boston and Milwaukee Braves with ten between 1952 and 1964. Kid Nichols made six Opening Day starts between 1893 and 1901. Jim Whitney (1881–1885) and John Clarkson (1888–1892) each had five Opening Day starts. Tommy Bond (1877–1880), Vic Willis (1900–1904), Dick Rudolph (1915–1917, 1919), Al Javery (1942–1945) and Johnny Sain (1946–1949) each made four Opening Day starts. Irv Young (1906–1908), Bob Smith (1927–1929) and Ed Brandt (1932, 1934, 1935) each had three such starts. Other pitchers with multiple Opening Day starts for the Boston and Milwaukee Braves were Charles Radbourn, Jack Stivetts, Hub Perdue, Joe Oeschger, Joe Genewich, Danny MacFayden and Lew Burdette.

Prior to moving to Atlanta, the Braves played in the World Series four times. The played in the World Series as the Boston Braves in 1914 and 1948, and as the Milwaukee Braves in 1957 and 1959. They won the World Series in 1914 and 1957. Their Opening Day starting pitchers in World Series years were Lefty Tyler in 1914, Sain in 1948, and Spahn in 1957 and 1958. They lost their Opening Day game in 1914, 1948 and 1958, and won in 1957. In addition, the franchise won the National League championship eight times during the 19th century, prior to the existence of the modern World Series. Nichols was the team's Opening Day starting pitcher in three of those season, Clarkson and Bond in two of those seasons each, and Whitney was the Opening Day starting pitcher in one such season.

Jesse Barnes made an Opening Day start for the Braves against the New York Giants in 1925, after having made an Opening Day start for the Giants against the Braves in 1920. Spahn is the only pitcher to make an Opening Day start for both the Boston Braves and the Milwaukee Braves. Tony Cloninger, who made the last Opening Day start for the Milwaukee Braves in 1965 and the first for the Atlanta Braves in 1966, is the only pitcher to make an Opening Day start for both the Milwaukee and Atlanta Braves.

List of New York Giants Opening Day starting pitchers

The New York Giants were a Major League Baseball team that played in Manhattan, New York until moving to San Francisco in 1958. From 1883 until their move to San Francisco, they played their home games at the Polo Grounds. They played in the National League. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Giants used 33 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 75 seasons they played in New York. The Giants won 39 of those games against 35 losses in those Opening Day starts. They also played one tie game.Carl Hubbell had the most Opening Day starts for the New York Giants with six between 1929 and 1942. Mickey Welch, Amos Rusie and Larry Jansen each had five Opening Day starts for the team. Christy Mathewson, Red Ames, Jeff Tesreau and Bill Voiselle all had four Opening Day starts apiece for the Giants. Ed Doheny and Johnny Antonelli each had three Opening Day starts for the New York Giants and Antonelli also had an Opening Day start for the San Francisco Giants in 1959, giving him a total of four Opening Day starts for the franchise. Antonelli is the only player to have an Opening Day start for both the New York and San Francisco Giants.Other pitchers who had multiple Opening Day starts for the New York Giants were Hal Schumacher with three such starts, and Joe McGinnity, Rube Marquard, Jesse Barnes, Art Nehf, Virgil Barnes, Bill Walker and Sal Maglie with two apiece. Seven Hall of Fame pitchers made Opening Day starts for the New York Giants — Welch, Tim Keefe, Rusie, Mathewson, McGinnity, Marquard and Hubbell.

The New York Giants won the modern World Series five times, in 1905, 1921, 1922, 1933 and 1954. Their Opening Day starting pitchers in those years were Joe McGinnity in 1905, [Phil Douglas (baseball)|Phil Douglas]] in 1921, Art Nehf in 1922, Carl Hubbell in 1933 and Sal Maglie in 1954. In 1904, the Giants won the National League championship but no World Series was played. Christy Mathewson was the Giants' Opening Day starting pitcher that season. The Giants also won the 19th century World Series twice, in 1888 and 1889. Cannonball Titcomb and Mickey Welch were the Giants Opening Day starting pitchers in 1888 and 1889, respectively.

Jesse and Virgil Barnes, who each made two Opening Day starts for the New York Giants, were brothers.

List of Philadelphia Phillies Opening Day starting pitchers

The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball franchise based in Philadelphia. They play in the National League East division. Also known in early franchise history as the "Philadelphia Quakers", the Phillies have used 72 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 128 seasons. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. Where decisions are known, the 72 starters have a combined Opening Day record of 33 wins, 40 losses and 20 no decisions (33–40–20); where decisions are unknown, the team's record was 17–19. No decisions are awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game. It can also result if a starting pitcher does not pitch five full innings, even if his team retains the lead and wins.Hall of Fame left-handed pitcher Steve Carlton has the most Opening Day starts for the Phillies, with 14, compiling a record of 3–9–2. He is followed by Robin Roberts (twelve starts; 5–6–1), Chris Short (six starts; 3–1–2), and Curt Schilling (five starts; 2–0–3). Grover Cleveland Alexander also made five Opening Day starts for the Phillies, equal to Schilling; however, no information on his decisions in those games is available. The team's record in his five Opening Day starts is 4–1.

Roberts holds the Phillies' record for most wins in Opening Day starts with five. Art Mahaffey has the best record in Opening Day starts for the franchise; though many players have won their only Opening Day start, Mahaffey started and won two Opening Day games, for a winning percentage of 1.000; Roy Halladay also has a 1.000 winning percentage, with two wins and a no decision in three starts. Conversely, George McQuillan is the only player to have a .000 winning percentage in more than one Opening Day start (0–2–0 in two starts). Brett Myers has a .000 winning percentage in his three starts, but has accumulated two no decisions (0–1–2). Carlton has the most Opening Day losses for the team, with nine.

The Phillies have played in six home ballparks. Their best overall Opening Day record is at Shibe Park (also known as Connie Mack Stadium), where they won 11 Opening Day games out of 14 played there (11–3). The team also owned an 8–17 Opening Day record at Baker Bowl (initially known as the Philadelphia Baseball Grounds), with 1 tie. Recreation Park's Opening Day record is 1–2, while Veterans Stadium has the lowest winning percentage (.200), with 2 wins and 8 losses. The Phillies currently play at Citizens Bank Park, where they are 1–5 on Opening Day.

The Phillies have played in seven World Series championships in their history, winning in 1980 and 2008. Carlton won his Opening Day start against the Montreal Expos in 1980, while Myers received a no-decision against the same franchise (now the Washington Nationals) in 2008, a game that the Phillies eventually lost, and lost the opening game against the Atlanta Braves in 2009. Carlton also started Opening Day in 1983, the year that the Phillies lost to the Baltimore Orioles in the World Series. Alexander started Opening Day in 1915, the Phillies' first World Series appearance, while Roberts started the first game of 1950, and Terry Mulholland the first game of 1993.

List of baseball parks in Philadelphia

This is a list of venues used for professional baseball in Philadelphia. The information is a synthesis of the information contained in the references listed.

"Athletic(s) grounds" or "the grounds at 15th and Columbia"

Occupant: Athletic 1860s–1870 (amateur/professional)

Site of several celebrated matches between the Athletics and the Atlantics of Brooklyn, on Oct 31, 1865; and on Oct 1 and 22, 1866

Location: Columbia Avenue (now Cecil B. Moore Avenue); 15th Street; other boundaries unknown

Currently: part of the Temple University campusJefferson Street Grounds a.k.a. Jefferson Park a.k.a. Athletics Park

Occupants:

Amateur clubs, including Olympic, beginning 1864

Athletic – NA (1871–1875), NL (1876)

Philadelphia White Stockings – NA (1873–1875)

Athletic – AA (1883–1890?)

Location: Jefferson Street (north); 25th Street (east); Master Street (south); 27th Street (west)

1860s-1870s orientation: 25th (first base); Master (third base); Jefferson (right field)

1880s-1890s orientation: 27th (first base); Jefferson (third base); 26th (left field)

Currently: Residential / commercial / elementary School / Athletic Recreation CenterRecreation Park / Centennial Park

Occupants:

Philadelphia Centennials – NA (1875)

Philadelphia Phillies – NL (1883–1886)

Location: Columbia Avenue (now Cecil B. Moore Avenue) (south); 25th Street (west); Montgomery Street (north); Ridge Avenue a.k.a. Ridge Pike (northeast); 24th or 23rd Street (east) – a few blocks east of the future Columbia Park site

Currently: ResidentialOakdale Park

Occupants:

Amateur clubs beginning about 1866

Athletic – AA (1882)

Location: West Kensington – Huntingdon Street (north); 11th Street (east); Cumberland Street (south); 12th Street (west) – a couple of blocks east of the future Baker Bowl site

Currently: Residential / commercialKeystone Park

Occupant: Keystone – UA (1884)

Location: Broad Street; Wharton Street; 11th Street; Moore[?] Street

Currently: Residential / commercialBaker Bowl (formally National League Park, originally Philadelphia Base Ball Park)

Occupant: Philadelphia Phillies – NL (1887 – mid-1938)

Location: Lehigh Avenue (north, left field); Broad Street (east, right field); Huntingdon Street (south, first base); 15th Street (west, third base)

Currently: CommercialUniversity Grounds

Occupant: Philadelphia Phillies – NL (1894 for 6 games)

Location: "37th and Spruce" – Spruce Street (north), 38th Street (east), Pine Street (south), Woodland Avenue and 37th Street T-intersection (northwest) – normally the home of University of Pennsylvania teams, prior to the opening of Franklin Field a few blocks east [1]

Currently: campus buildings and parkForepaugh Park

Occupant: Athletic – PL (1890), AA (1891)

Location: Broad Street; Dauphin Street – a few blocks south of the Baker Bowl and Oakdale Park sites

Currently: Residential / commercialColumbia Park or Columbia Avenue Grounds

Occupant: Philadelphia Athletics – AL (1901–1908)

Location: Columbia Avenue (now Cecil B. Moore Avenue) (north, left field); North 29th Street (east, right field); Oxford Street (south, first base); North 30th Street (west, third base); Glenwood Avenue (northwest, left field corner), beyond Columbia-30th intersection

Currently: ResidentialShibe Park / Connie Mack Stadium

Occupants:

Philadelphia Athletics – AL (1909–1954)

Philadelphia Phillies – NL (mid-1938 – 1970)

Location: Lehigh Avenue (south, first base); 21st Street (west, third base); Somerset Street (north, left field); 20th Street (east, right field) – a few blocks west of Baker Bowl

Currently: Deliverance Evangelistic ChurchHilldale Park

Occupant: Hilldale – Negro Leagues (ca. 1910–1932)

Location: Darby, Pennsylvania – Chester Avenue; Cedar Avenue

Currently: Residential / commercial / athletic fields44th and Parkside Ballpark

Occupant: Philadelphia Stars (ca. 1935–1950)

Location: Belmont Avenue and Parkside Avenue

Currently: Discovery Charter School and Philadelphia Stars Negro League Memorial ParkVeterans Stadium

Occupant: Philadelphia Phillies – NL (1971–2003)

Location: 3501 South Broad Street – Broad Street (west, third base); South 10th Street (north, left field); Pattison Avenue (south, first base);

Currently: Parking lot just west of Citizens Bank ParkCitizens Bank Park

Occupant: Philadelphia Phillies – NL (2004–present)

Location: 1 Citizens Bank Way – Pattison Avenue (south, home base); South 11th Street (west, third base / left field); South 10th Street (north, center field); South Darian Street (east, first base / right field)

Recreation Park (Philadelphia)

Recreation Park was a baseball park in Philadelphia.

The ballpark was the first home of the Philadelphia Phillies of the National League during the years 1883–1886, prior to the opening of the arena that became known as Baker Bowl.

The park was bounded by 24th Street, Ridge Avenue, 25th Street and Columbia Avenue (which in 1987 was renamed Cecil B. Moore Avenue after the civil-rights leader). The park was not the only one in the area; 14 years later, Columbia Park, the first home of the Philadelphia Athletics, opened eight blocks to the west on Columbia Avenue, though this ballpark was on the opposite side of the avenue.

The field was used at least as early as June 16, 1860, when Equity defeated Pennsylvania 65-52 in what author Charles Peverelly, writing about "the national game", called the "first baseball game played in Pennsylvania."During the Civil War, a cavalry of the Union Army occupied the park. In 1866, with new houses bordering the field, a nine-foot fence was erected and the field was put back in shape for baseball. But it was poorly maintained by 1871 and used less and less.

The Philadelphia Centennials of the National Association leveled and resodded the field, built a 10-foot fence, clubhouse and grandstands in 1875. They called it Centennial Park. The league folded that year, and the park declined.

Alfred J. Reach bought the field in 1882, renaming it "Recreation Park". He cleared the grounds, resodded the field, built a three-section wooden grandstand and fielded the independent team called "Fillies."

There is no historical marker or any indication that a ballpark once stood on this site. As of October 2015, a mini market stands on the corner where home plate was located, and urban housing occupies the area.

Tommy Reis

Thomas Edward (Tommy) Reis (August 6, 1914 – November 6, 2009) was a relief pitcher who played in Major League Baseball in the 1938 season. He batted and threw right-handed.

Born in Newport, Kentucky, Reis was drafted by the Philadelphia Phillies from the Wilkes-Barre team (Eastern) in the 1937 rule V draft. He debuted with Philadelphia in 1938, then was purchased by the Boston Bees during the midseason. In eight appearances, he posted a 0-1 record with six strikeouts and a 12.27 ERA in 11.0 innings.

At the time of his death, Reis was recognized as one of the oldest living MLB players. Reis was the last surviving person who played at Baker Bowl, the home ballpark for the Phillies between May 2, 1895 and June 30, 1938, as a member of the Phillies.

Union Quakers of Philadelphia

The Union Quakers of Philadelphia were a professional independent football team, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1921. The team evolved from a number of pro players who played with the Union Club of Phoenixville during their 1920 season. During their only season of operation, the club won the "Philadelphia City Championship". All of the team's home games were played at the Baker Bowl.

William Baker (baseball)

William Frazer Baker (1866 – December 4, 1930) was the owner of the Philadelphia Phillies of the National League from 1913 through 1930. Baker was appointed New York City Police Commissioner in July 1909 by Mayor George B. McClellan, Jr. During his brief tenure, he was accused of interfering in gambling investigations. He resigned from his position in October 1910. In January 1913, Baker was part of a group led by his nephew, William Locke, that purchased the club. Baker was elected Team President in October 1913, following the death of Locke earlier in the year. He was at the helm two years later when the Phillies played in the 1915 World Series.

Baker was known for being extremely tight-fisted. For most of his tenure as an owner, the Phillies had only one scout, and used a flock of sheep to trim the grass at the Baker Bowl, which was named for him. Baker was so tight-fisted that he sold star pitcher Grover Cleveland Alexander to the Chicago Cubs in 1917 rather than increase his salary. Within a year, the Phillies had fallen to last place—the first of fourteen straight seasons (and thirty out of 31) without a winning record.

He died of a heart attack on December 4, 1930 while attending a league meeting in Montreal and was succeeded as Phillies owner by Gerald Nugent.

Events and tenants
Preceded by
Recreation Park
Home of the Philadelphia Phillies
1887–1938
Succeeded by
Shibe Park
Preceded by
first stadium
Home of the Philadelphia Eagles
1933–1935
Succeeded by
Philadelphia Municipal Stadium
Franchise
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(2)
NL pennants (7)
Divisionchampionships (11)
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League championships (4)
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Defunct stadiums of the National Football League
Early era:
19201940
Merger era:
19411970
Current era:
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