Baja California

Baja California[note 1] (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaxa kaliˈfoɾnja] (listen), English: Lower California), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California), is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California (El Territorio Norte de Baja California). It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California (also known as the "Sea of Cortez"), and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

The state has an estimated population of 3,315,766 (2015)[10] much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south, and similar to San Diego County, California on its north. Over 75% of the population lives in the capital city, Mexicali, in Ensenada, or in Tijuana. Other important cities include San Felipe, Rosarito and Tecate. The population of the state is composed of Mestizos, mostly immigrants from other parts of Mexico, and, as with most northern Mexican states, a large population of Mexicans of Spanish ancestry, and also a large minority group of East Asian, Middle Eastern and indigenous descent. Additionally, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the lower cost of living compared to San Diego. There is also a significant population from Central America. Many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America.

Baja California is the twelfth largest state by area in Mexico. Its geography ranges from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California, where the Picacho del Diablo, the highest point of the peninsula, is located. This mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry and mediterranean. In the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in this area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, the major wine-producing area in Mexico. To the east of the mountain range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives way to the Vizcaino Desert. The state is also home to numerous islands off both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California. The Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are also on the Pacific Shore. On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel de la Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep and narrow Canal de Ballenas.

Baja California

Estado Libre y Soberano
de Baja California
  (Spanish)
Free and Sovereign State of Baja California
Anthem: Canto a Baja California
State of Baja California within Mexico
State of Baja California within Mexico
Coordinates: 30°00′N 115°10′W / 30.000°N 115.167°WCoordinates: 30°00′N 115°10′W / 30.000°N 115.167°W
CountryMexico
CapitalMexicali
Largest cityTijuana
Municipalities5
Admission16 January 1952[1]
Order29th
Government
 • GovernorFrancisco Vega de Lamadrid PAN
 • Senators[2]
  • Gerardo Novelo Osuna Morena Party (Mexico).svg
  • Alejandra del Carmen León Gastélum PRD
  • Gina Andrea Cruz Blackledge PAN
Area
 • Total71,450 km2 (27,590 sq mi)
 Ranked 12th
Population
(2015)[5]
 • Total3,315,766
 • Rank14th
 • Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Density rank19th
Demonym(s)Bajacaliforniano(a)
Time zoneUTC-8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (PDT[a])
Postal code
21, 22
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-BCN
HDIIncrease 0.803 Very high Ranked 6th
GDPUS$29 billion[b]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. 2010 and later. Baja California is the only state to use the US DST schedule state wide, while the rest of Mexico (except for small portions of other northern states) starts DST 3–4 weeks later and ends DST one week earlier.[6] ^ b. The state's GDP was 294.8 billion of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 23.03 billion of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of 3 June 2010).[8]

History

The first people came to the peninsula at least 11,000 years ago. At that time two main native groups are thought to have been present on the peninsula. In the south were the Cochimí. In the north were several groups belonging to the Yuman language family, including the Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cocopa, and Quechan. These peoples were diverse in their adaptations to the region. The Cochimí of the peninsula's Central Desert were generalized hunter-gatherers who moved frequently; however, the Cochimí on Cedros Island off the west coast had developed a strongly maritime economy. The Kiliwa, Paipai, and Kumeyaay in the better-watered northwest were also hunter-gatherers, but that region supported denser populations and a more sedentary lifestyle. The Cocopa and Quechan of northeastern Baja California practiced agriculture in the floodplain of the lower Colorado River.

Another group of people were the Guachimis, who came from the north and created much of the Sierra de Guadalupe cave paintings. Not much is known about them except that they lived in the area between 100 BC and the coming of the Europeans and created World Heritage rock art.[11]

1920 Baja California mission trail
Trail connecting the Spanish missions in the Baja California peninsula.

Europeans reached the present state of Baja California in 1539, when Francisco de Ulloa reconnoitered its east coast on the Gulf of California and explored the peninsula's west coast at least as far north as Cedros Island. Hernando de Alarcón returned to the east coast and ascended the lower Colorado River in 1540, and Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (or João Rodrigues Cabrilho (in Portuguese)) completed the reconnaissance of the west coast in 1542. Sebastián Vizcaíno again surveyed the west coast in 1602, but outside visitors during the following century were few.

The Jesuits founded a permanent mission colony on the peninsula at Loreto in 1697. During the following decades, they gradually extended their sway throughout the present state of Baja California Sur. In 1751–1753, the Croatian Jesuit mission-explorer Ferdinand Konščak made overland explorations northward into the state of Baja California. Jesuit missions were subsequently established among the Cochimí at Santa Gertrudis (1752), San Borja (1762), and Santa María (1767).

After the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1768, the short-lived Franciscan administration (1768–1773) resulted in one new mission at San Fernando Velicatá. More importantly, the 1769 expedition to settle Alta California under Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra resulted in the first overland exploration of the northwestern portion of the state.[12]

The Dominicans took over management of the Baja California missions from the Franciscans in 1773. They established a chain of new missions among the northern Cochimí and western Yumans, first on the coast and subsequently inland, extending from El Rosario (1774) to Descanso (1817), just south of Tijuana.

19th and 20th centuries

The colonial governors were:
  • 1833: Mexican secularization act of 1833
  • 1848: Alta California is annexed by the United States.
  • 1853: Soldier of fortune William Walker captures La Paz, declaring himself President of the Republic of Lower California. The Mexican government forces his retreat after several months.
  • 1884: Luis Huller and George H. Sisson obtain a concession covering much of the present state, in return for promises to develop the area.[13]
  • 1905: The Magonista revolution, an anarchist movement based on the writings of Ricardo Flores Magón and Enrique Flores Magón, begins.
  • 1911: Mexicali and Tijuana are captured by the Mexican Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Mexicano, PLM), but soon surrender to Federal forces.
  • 1917: On 11 December, "[a] prominent Mexican, close friend of President Carranza" offered to U. S. Senator Henry Ashurst to sell Alta California to the U. S. for "fifty million dollars gold."[14]
  • 1930: Baja California is further divided into Northern and Southern territories.
  • 1952: The North Territory of Baja California becomes the 29th state of Mexico, Baja California. The southern portion, below 28°N, remains a federally administered territory.
  • 1974: The South Territory of Baja California becomes the 31st state, Baja California Sur.
  • 1989: Ernesto Ruffo Appel of the PAN becomes the first non-PRI governor of Baja California and the first opposition governor of any state since the Revolution.

Geography

Baja California encompasses a territory, within The Californias region of North America, which exhibits diverse geography for a relatively small area. The Peninsular ranges of the California cordillera run down the geographic center of the state. The most notable ranges of these mountains are the Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de San Pedro Martir. These ranges are the location of forests reminiscent of Southern California's San Gabriel Mountains. Picacho del Diablo is the highest peak in the whole peninsula. Valleys between the mountain ranges are located within a climate zone that are suitable for agriculture. Such valleys included the Valle de Guadalupe and the Valle de Ojos Negros, areas that produce citrus fruits and grapes. The mineral-rich mountain range extends southwards to the Gulf of California, where the western slope becomes wider, forming the Llanos del Berrendo in the border with Baja California Sur. The mountain ranges located in the center and southern part of the state include the Sierra de La Asamblea, Sierra de Calamajué, Sierra de San Luis and the Sierra de San Borja.

Baja coast
Ensenada Municipality coast with Encelia californica, typical of the coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion.

Temperate winds from the Pacific Ocean and the cold California Current make the climate along the northwestern coast pleasant year-round.[15] As a result of the state's location on the California current, rains from the north barely reach the peninsula, thus leaving southern areas drier. South of El Rosario River the state changes from a Mediterranean landscape to a desert one. This desert exhibits diversity in succulent flora species that flourish in part due to the coastal fog.

To the east, the Sonoran Desert enters the state from both California and Sonora. Some of the highest temperatures in Mexico are recorded in or nearby the Mexicali Valley.[note 2] However, with irrigation from the Colorado River, this area has become truly an agricultural center. The Cerro Prieto geothermal province is near Mexicali as well (this area is geologically part of a large pull apart basin); producing about 80% of the electricity consumed in the state and enough more to export to California. Laguna Salada, a saline lake below sea level lying between the rugged Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de los Cucapah, is also in the vicinity of Mexicali. The state government has recently been considering plans to revive Laguna Salada.[note 3] The highest mountain in the Sierra de los Cucapah is the Cerro del Centinela or Mount Signal. The Cucapah are the primary indigenous people of that area and up into the Yuma, Arizona area.

There are numerous islands on the Pacific shore. Guadalupe Island is located in the extreme west of the state's boundaries and is the site of large colonies of sea lions. Cedros Island exists in the southwest of the state's maritime region. The Todos Santos Islands and Coronado Islands are located off the coast of Ensenada and Tijuana respectively. All of the islands in the Gulf of California, on the Baja California side, belong to the municipality of Mexicali.

Baja California obtains much of its water from the Colorado River. Historically the river drained into the Colorado River Delta which flowed into the Gulf of California, but due to large demands for water in the American Southwest, less water now reaches the Gulf. The Tijuana metropolitan area also relies on the Tijuana River as a source of water. Much of rural Baja California depends predominantly on wells, a few dams and even oases. Tijuana also purchases water from San Diego County's Otay Water District. Potable water is the largest natural resource issue of the state.

Climate

Carignan vineyard
Vineyard in Valle de Guadalupe

Baja California's climate varies from Mediterranean to arid. The Mediterranean climate is observed in the northwestern corner of the state where the summers are dry and mild and the winters cool and rainy. This climate is observed in areas from Tijuana to San Quintin and nearby interior valleys. The cold oceanic California Current often creates a low-level marine fog near the coast. The fog occurs along any part of the Pacific Coast of the state.

The change of altitude towards the Sierra de Baja California creates an alpine climate in this region. Summers are cool while winters can be cold with below freezing temperatures at night. It is common to see snow in the Sierra de Juarez and Sierra de San Pedro Martir (and in the valleys in between) from December to April. Due to orographic effects, precipitation is much higher in the mountains of northern Baja California than on the western coastal plain or eastern desert plain. Pine, cedar and fir forests are found in the mountains.

The east side of the mountains produce a rain shadow, creating an extremely arid environment. The Sonoran Desert region of Baja California experiences hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. The Mexicali Valley (which is below sea level), experiences the highest temperatures in Mexico, that frequently surpass 47 °C (116.6 °F) in mid-summer, and have exceeded 50 °C (122 °F) on some occasions.

Further south along the Pacific coast, the Mediterranean climate transitions into a desert climate but it is milder and not as hot as along the gulf coast. Transition climates, from Mediterranean to Desert, can be found from San Quintin to El Rosario. Further inland and along the Gulf of California the vegetation is scarce and temperatures are very high during the summer months. The islands in the Gulf of California also belong to the desert climate. Some oases can be found in the desert in which few towns are located – for instance, Catavina, San Borja and Santa Gertrudis.[16]

Adjacent States

Flora and fauna

Common trees are the Jeffrey Pine, Sugar Pine and Pinon Pine.[17] Understory species include Manzanita. Fauna include a variety of reptiles including the Western fence lizard, which is at the southern extent of its range.[18] The name of the fish genus Bajacalifornia is derived from the Baja California Peninsula.[19]

In the main terrestrial wildlife refuges on the peninsula of Baja California, Constitution 1857 National Park and Sierra de San Pedro Mártir National Park contain several coniferous species; the most abundant are: pinus jeffreyi, pinus ponderosa, pinus cembroide, pinus quadrifolia, pinus monophylla, juniperus, arctostaphylos drupacea, artemisa ludoviciana, and adenostoma esparcifolium. The flora share many species with the Laguna Mountains and San Jacinto Mountains in southwest California. The lower elevations of the Sierra Juárez are characterized by chaparral and desert shrub.

The fauna in the parks exhibit a large number of mammals primarily: mule deer, bighorn sheep, cougar, bobcat, ringtail cat, coyote, rabbit, squirrel and more than 30 species of bats. The park is also home to many avian species like: bald eagle, golden eagle, falcon, woodpecker, black vulture, crow, several species of Sittidae and duck.

Flora and fauna of Baja California
Moss-landing-otter MountainLion California Quail mail in Golden Gate Park Vaquita7 Olson NOAA Gymnogyps californianus -San Diego Zoo-8a
Sea otter Cougar California quail Vaquita California condor
Antilocapra americana White shark Arctocephalus townsendi Crotalus cerastes mesquite springs CA Desert Bighorn Sheep Joshua Tree cropped
Pronghorn Great white shark Guadalupe fur seal Crotalus cerastes Bighorn sheep
Boojum tree 02 California poppy Washingtonia filifera — Mary's Grove — Florian Boyd 001 Coreopsis gigantea 6 Pinus radiata HuckleberryHill1
Fouquieria columnaris Eschscholzia californica Washingtonia filifera Coreopsis gigantea Pinus radiata

2010 earthquakes

At 3:40:41 pm PDT on Easter Sunday, 4 April 2010 a 7.2 magnitude northwest trending strike-slip earthquake hit the Mexicali Valley, with its epicenter 26 km southwest of the city of Guadalupe Victoria, Baja California, Mexico.[20] The main shock was felt as far as the Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas, and in Yuma. At least a half-dozen aftershocks with magnitudes between 5.0 and 5.4 were reported, including a 5.1-magnitude shaker at 4:14 am. that was centered near El Centro.[21] As of 6:31 am PDT, 5 April 2010, two people were confirmed dead.[22]

Government and politics

Presidential elections results[23]
Year PRI PAN PRD
2012 36.99% 446,192 27.2% 328,116 31.15% 375,803
2006 21.38% 203,233 47.35% 450,186 23.59% 224,275
2000 37.04% 319,477 49.76% 429,194 8.97% 77,340
1994 48.92% 402,332 36.18% 297,565 8.35% 68,669

Government

Baja California is subdivided into five municipios (municipalities). These are Ensenada, Mexicali, Tecate, Tijuana and Rosarito.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895 42,875—    
1900 7,583−82.3%
1910 9,760+28.7%
1921 23,537+141.2%
1930 48,327+105.3%
1940 78,907+63.3%
1950 226,965+187.6%
1960 520,165+129.2%
1970 870,421+67.3%
1980 1,177,886+35.3%
1990 1,660,855+41.0%
1995 2,112,140+27.2%
2000 2,487,367+17.8%
2005 2,844,469+14.4%
2010 3,155,070+10.9%
2015 3,315,766[24]+5.1%
Pioneros - panoramio
Los Pioneros monument in Mexicali dedicated to the pioneers that settled the region.

The majority of the population of Baja California is Mestizo, however the state has one of the larger percentages of White (European) Mexicans (about 40%). There are small indigenous communities as well.

Historically, the state has had sizable East Asian immigration. Mexicali has a large Chinese community, as well as many Filipinos from the Philippines who arrived to the state during the eras of Spanish and American rule (1898–1946) in much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Tijuana and Ensenada were a major port of entry for East Asians entering the U.S. ever since the first Asian-Americans were present in California.

Also a significant number of Middle Eastern immigrants such as Lebanese, Syrians and Armenians settle near the U.S. border, and small waves of settlers in the early 20th century, usually members of the Molokan sect of the Russian Orthodox church fled the Russian Revolution of 1917 when the Soviet Union took power, had established a few villages along the Pacific coast south of Ensenada.

Since 1960, large numbers of migrants from southern Mexican states have arrived to work in agriculture (esp. the Mexicali Valley and nearby Imperial Valley, California, US) and manufacturing. The cities of Ensenada, Tijuana and Mexicali grew as a result of migrants, primarily those who sought US citizenship and those temporary residents awaiting their entry into the United States are called Flotillas, which is derived from the Spanish word "flota," meaning "fleet."

There is also a sizable immigrant community from Central and South America, and from the United States and Canada. An estimated 200,000+ American expatriates live in the state, especially in coastal resort towns such as Ensenada, known for affordable homes purchased by retirees who continue to hold US citizenship. San Felipe, Rosarito and Tijuana also have a large American population (second largest in Mexico next to Mexico City), particularly for its cheaper housing and proximity to San Diego.

Some 60,000 Oaxacans live in Baja California, the vast majority being indigenous. Some 40% of them lack proper birth certificates.[26]

According to a Conacyt investigator, a bit under a million people were classified as "poor" in the state, up from 2008 when there were roughly 810,000. Exactly who these people are, whether locals, interstate or international migrants, was not explained.[27]

Education

Baja California offers one of the best educational programs in the country, with high rankings in schooling and achievement.

The State Government provides education and qualification courses to increase the workforce standards, such as School-Enterprise linkage programs which helps the development of labor force according to the needs of the industry.

91.60% of the population from six to fourteen years of age attend elementary school. 61.95% of the population over fifteen years of age attend or have already graduated from high school. Public School is available in all levels, from kindergarten to university.

The state has 32 universities offering 103 professional degrees. These universities have 19 research and development centers for basic and applied investigation in advanced projects of biotechnology, physics, oceanography, computer science, digital geothermal technology, astronomy, aerospace, electrical engineering and clean energy, among others. At this educational level, supply is steadily growing. Baja California has developed a need to be self-sufficient in matters of technological and scientific innovation and to be less dependent on foreign countries. Current businesses demand new production processes as well as technology for the incubation of companies. The number of graduate degrees offered, including Ph.D. programs, is 121. The state has 53 graduate schools.[28]

Economy

Baja Tank ship 16451432420 afa83d8152
Filming of Master and Commander at Baja Film Studios. Located in Rosarito, Baja Film Studios has become one of the premier production facilities with horizon tanks.[29]

As of 2005, Baja California's economy represents 3.3% of Mexico's gross domestic product or US$21,996 million.[30] Baja California's economy has a strong focus on tariff-free export oriented manufacturing (maquiladora). As of 2005, 284,255 people are employed in the manufacturing sector.[30] There are a more than 900 companies operating under the federal Prosec program in Baja California.

Real estate

The Foreign Investment Law of 1973[31][32] allows foreigners to purchase land within the borders and coasts of Mexico by way of a trust, handled through a Mexican bank (Fideicomiso). This trust assures to the buyer all the rights and privileges of ownership, and it can be sold, inherited, leased, or transferred at any time. Since 1994, the Foreign Investment Law stipulates that the Fideicomiso must be to a 50-year term, with the option to petition for a 50-year renewal at any time.[33]

Any Mexican citizen buying a bank trust property has the option to either remain within the Trust or opt out of it and request the title in "Escritura".

Mexico's early history involved foreign invasions and the loss of vast amounts of land; in fear of history being repeated, the Mexican constitution established the concept of the "Restricted Zone".[34] In 1973, in order to bring in more foreign tourist investment, the Bank Trust of Fideicomiso was created, thus allowing non-Mexicans to own land without any constitutional amendment necessary.[35] Since the law went into effect, it has undergone many modifications in order to make purchasing land in Mexico a safer investment.

Infrastructure

See also

Portals

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Notes

  1. ^ Sometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula. While it is a well-established term for the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, however, its usage would not be correct, because Baja California Norte has never existed as a political designation for a state, territory, district or region.
  2. ^ Delta in the northeast, recorded 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) on 3 August 1998.
  3. ^ The state is currently (2008) looking at a plan by SDSU Adj. Professor Newcomb (ICATS) to do this using his geothermal desalination system to supply water locally. SEMARNAT believes this to be the first viable plan presented.

References

  1. ^ "Transformación Política de Territorio Norte de la Baja California a Estado 29" [The Transformation of Baja California] (in Spanish).
  2. ^ "Senadores por Baja California LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Baja California". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  4. ^ "Medio Físico del Estado de Baja California". e-local.gob.mx. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  5. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Around the World 2010". timeanddate.com.
  7. ^ "Sistema de Cuantas Nacionales de Mexico" (PDF). 2010. p. 40. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  9. ^ Saldierna, J. F. Promexico. Editorial Emán. p. 68.
  10. ^ "Principales resultados de la encuesta intercensal 2015" (PDF). COPLADEBC. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  11. ^ UNESCO World Heritage list number 724 http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/714 retrieved 12 June 2015
  12. ^ "Mocavo and Findmypast are coming together - findmypast.com". www.mocavo.com.
  13. ^ de Novelo, Maria Eugenia Bonifaz (1984). "Ensenada: Its background, founding and early development". The Journal of San Diego History. 30 (Winter). Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  14. ^ Henry Fountain Ashurst, A Many-Colored Toga: The Diary of Henry Fountain Ashurst. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1962. p. 74.
  15. ^ "Wayback Machine". 25 June 2007. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007.
  16. ^ Martínez-Ballesté, Andrea; Ezcurra, Exequiel (2018). "Reconstruction of past climatic events using oxygen isotopes in Washingtonia robusta growing in three anthropic oases in Baja California" (PDF). Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana. 70, 1: 79–94.
  17. ^ Katharine Layne Brandegee (1894) Zoe: Volume IV, Zoe Publishing Company, Townshend Stith Brandegee
  18. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) "Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) Archived 13 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine", Globaltwitcher, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  19. ^ C. H. Townsend & J. T. Nichols: Deep sea fishes of the 'Albatross' Lower California Expedition. Bulletin of the AMNH ; v. 52, article 1
  20. ^ "Magnitude 7.2 – BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  21. ^ KTVU (4 April 2010). "At Least Two Die In 7.3-Magnitude Baja Quake". KTVU. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  22. ^ CNN Wire Staff (5 April 2010). "Baja governor seeks emergency declaration after quake". CNN. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  23. ^ "Presidential elections results". Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  24. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  25. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  26. ^ (in Spanish) Con problemas en acta de nacimiento 40% de oaxaqueños en Baja California | Noticiasnet. Noticiasnet.mx (2012-11-28). Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
  27. ^ "Organización Editorial Mexicana". www.oem.com.mx.
  28. ^ State Government of Baja California and Secretariat of Public Education.
  29. ^ Muttalib, Bashirah (22 May 2007). "Twentieth Century Fox sells Baja". Variety. The studio ultimately became one of the industry’s premier water-tank facilities.
  30. ^ a b Industrial Costs in Mexico – A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 86.
  31. ^ "Foreign Investment Law" (PDF). gob.mx. Government of Mexico. 9 March 1973. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  32. ^ Vargas, J. (1994). "Mexico: Foreign Investment Act of 1993". International Legal Materials. 33 (1): 207–224. doi:10.1017/S0020782900027157. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  33. ^ Mexico and Direct Foreign Ownership of Coastal Property, MexiData.info, 12 April 2010 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ Mexico Law Restricted Zone. Mexicolaw.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
  35. ^ Fideicomiso – Bank Trust – Mexican Real Estate – Mexico Constitution – Mario Restrepo. Bajaopenhouse.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-24.

Further reading

  • Castillo-Muñoz, Verónica. The Other California: Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands. University of California Press 2017

External links

Baja California Peninsula

The Baja California Peninsula (English: Lower California Peninsula, Spanish: Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km (775 miles) from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km (25 miles) at its narrowest to 320 km (200 miles) at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km (1,900 miles) of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of California and the Colorado River. There are four main desert areas on the peninsula: the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert.

Baja California Sur

Baja California Sur (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaxa kaliˈfoɾnja suɾ] (listen), English: "South Lower California"), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur (English: Free and Sovereign State of South Lower California), is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Before becoming a state on 8 October 1974, the area was known as the El Territorio Sur de Baja California ("South Territory of Lower California"). It has an area of 73,909 km2 (28,536 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico, and occupies the southern half of the Baja California Peninsula, south of the 28th parallel, plus the uninhabited Rocas Alijos in the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered to the north by the state of Baja California, to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and to the east by the Gulf of California, or the "Sea of Cortés". The state has maritime borders with Sonora and Sinaloa to the east, across the Gulf of California.

The state is home to the tourist resorts of Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo. Its largest city and capital is La Paz.

Cabo San Lucas

Cabo San Lucas (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkaβo san ˈlukas], "Saint Luke Cape"), or simply Cabo, is a resort city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. As of 2015, the population of the city was 81,111 inhabitants. Cabo San Lucas together with San José del Cabo is known as Los Cabos. Together they form a metropolitan area of 305,983 inhabitants.Cabo has been rated as one of Mexico's top 5 tourist destinations; it is known for its beaches, scuba diving locations, balnearios, the sea arch El Arco de Cabo San Lucas, and marine life. The Los Cabos Corridor has become a heavily trafficked vacation destination for tourists, with numerous resorts and timeshares along the coast between Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo.

Cabo houses a range of wildlife, including rays, sharks, birds, and a range of fish, such as mahi-mahi (dorado), and striped marlin.

Comondú complex

The Comondú Complex is an archaeological pattern dating from the late prehistoric period in northern Baja California Sur and southern Baja California. It is associated with the historic Cochimí people of the peninsula.

The complex was defined on the basis of investigations at rock shelters near the town of San Jose de Comondú by archaeologist William C. Massey, beginning in the late 1940s. It has been recognized at sites extending from the Sierra de la Giganta (west of Loreto) in the south to Bahía de los Ángeles in the north.

A key characteristic of the Comondú Complex is the presence of small Comondú Triangular and Comondú Serrated projectile points. These points reflect the introduction of the bow and arrow into the peninsula, perhaps around 500-1000 CE, largely supplanting the earlier atlatl and dart. Other traits include grinding basins and slicks, manos, tubular stone pipes, coiled basketry, and square-knot netting. The region's Great Mural rock art may also be associated with the Comondú Complex.

El Vallecito

El Vallecito is an archaeological site located in the city of La Rumorosa, in the Tecate Municipality, Baja California, Mexico.

It is believed that Baja California had human presence for thousands of years, however the available evidence indicates an occupation approximate from 8000 BCE. Some sites are more recent, it is estimated that they were developed in the last thousand years, though the engravings, more resistant to erosion, could be older.The site was inhabited by the Kumeyaay ethnic group whose territory comprised from Santo Tomas, Baja California, to the San Diego coast in California. The eastern region ranged from the Escondido, California, area up to the mountains and deserts in northern Baja California, including the area of Laguna Salada and part of the sierra Juarez known as La Rumorosa.This site has more than 18 sets of cave painting of which only six may be visited.The Vallecito is considered one of the most important of the region. There are several important archaeological zones; however, officially not yet been appointed by the responsible authorities.The site has many cave paintings or petroglyphs made by the ancient peninsula inhabitants. It is known that the territory was occupied by nomadic groups who lived in the region and that they based their existence in hunting and the harvesting of fruits, seeds, roots and sea food.The decorated rocks with white, black and red figures are pictures made approximately three thousand years ago, when various migratory flows penetrated the Baja California region, known as Yuman or Quechan, which came from what is now the United States.

Ensenada, Baja California

Ensenada (Spanish pronunciation: [enseˈnaða]) is a coastal city in Mexico, the third-largest in Baja California. Lying 125 kilometres (78 mi) south of San Diego on the Baja California Peninsula, it is locally referred to as La Cenicienta del Pacífico, "The Cinderella of the Pacific."One of the first settlements founded in the Californias, Ensenada has emerged as a cruise ship destination, aerospace center, and a jumping-off point for Valle de Guadalupe, a local wine region. It is said that the first Vitis vinifera made it to the region's San Ignacio Mission in 1703, when Jesuit Padre Juan de Ugarte planted the first vineyards there.

Situated on the coastline of Bahía de Todos Santos—an inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the peninsula's Gold Coast—the Port of Ensenada is an important commercial, fishing, and tourist port. The city is home to a navy base, army base, and Ensenada Airport, a military airfield which doubles as an airport of entry into Mexico.

Ensenada is the municipal seat and cultural and commercial center of Ensenada Municipality, one of five into which the state is divided. As of 2015, the municipality had a population of 519,813.Ensenada is backed by small mountain ranges. Proximity to the Pacific and a warm Mediterranean latitude create mild year-round weather. The rainy season during the winter is short and the area is prone to prolonged droughts, which can threaten its grape harvests. The National Park Constitution of 1857 created the Sierra de Juarez and San Pedro Martir National Parks, which maintain one of the best astronomical observatories in the country.

Ensenada is part of UNESCO´s Creative Cities Network since 2015.

Etymology of California

California is a North American place name used by the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. Collectively, these three areas constitute the region formerly referred to as The Californias. The name California is shared by many other places in other parts of the world, whose names derive from the same original.

When Spanish explorers in the 16th century first discovered the Baja California peninsula west of the Sea of Cortez, they believed the peninsula to be a large island. The name "California" was applied to the supposed island, and was probably a reference to a mythical island described in a popular novel of the time: Las Sergas de Esplandián. Several other origins have been suggested for the word "California", including Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, South Asian, and American Indian origins. All of these are disputed.California originally referred to the entire region composed of the Baja California peninsula now known as Mexican Baja California and Baja California Sur, and the upper mainland now known as the U.S. states of California and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Wyoming. After Mexico's independence from Spain, the upper territory became the Alta California province. In even earlier times, the boundaries of the Sea of Cortez and the Pacific Ocean coastlines were only partially explored and California was shown on early maps as an island. The Sea of Cortez is also known as the Gulf of California.

Gulf of California

The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez, Sea of Cortés (named for Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés) or Vermilion Sea; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or Mar Bermejo or Golfo de California) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa with a coastline of approximately 4,000 km (2,500 mi). Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Fuerte, Mayo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the Yaqui. The gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi). Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in the deepest parts. The Gulf is thought to be one of the most diverse seas on the planet, and is home to more than 5,000 species of micro-invertebrates. Home to over a million people, Baja California is the second-longest peninsula in the world, after the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Parts of the Gulf of California are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

La Paz, Baja California Sur

La Paz (pronounced [la ˈpas] (listen), Peace) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur and an important regional commercial center. The city had a 2015 census population of 244,219 inhabitants, making it the most populous city in the state. Its metropolitan population is somewhat larger because of the surrounding towns, such as El Centenario, Chametla and San Pedro. It is in La Paz Municipality, which is the fourth-largest municipality in Mexico in geographical size and reported a population of 290,286 inhabitants on a land area of 20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi).The population of La Paz has grown greatly since the 2000s. The growth is largely because the city has one of the highest standards of living and security in Mexico.La Paz is served by the Manuel Márquez de León International Airport with flights to the most important cities of Mexico: Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey. Airlines flying into La Paz include Aeroméxico Connect, Volaris and VivaAerobus. Two ferry services operate from the port of Pichilingue outside the city, connecting the Baja California peninsula to the mainland at Mazatlán and Topolobampo, near Los Mochis.

List of states of Mexico

The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States. There are 31 states and one federal entity in Mexico. Mexico City is a federal entity with a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state, but is not a state itself.The states are further divided into municipalities.

Los Cabos Municipality

Los Cabos (Spanish pronunciation: [los ˈkaβos]) is a municipality located at the southern tip of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula, in the state of Baja California Sur. It encompasses the two towns of Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo (the municipal seat) linked by a twenty-mile Resort Corridor of beach-front properties and championship golf courses. The area was remote and rural until the latter 20th century, when the Mexican government began to develop Cabo San Lucas for tourism, which then spread east to the municipal seat. The main draw is the climate and geography, where desert meets the sea, along with sport fishing, resorts and golf. This tourism is by far the main economic activity with over two million visitors per year. Over 1 million visit from the United States.

Mexicali

Mexicali (English: ; Spanish: [mexiˈkali] (listen)) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Municipality of Mexicali. The City of Mexicali has a population of 689,775, according to the 2010 census, while the population of the entire metropolitan area reaches 996,826; making the city and metropolitan area the second most populous in Baja California.

The city maintains a highly educated and skilled population, as it has modernized and become an important population center in the desert region.

Mexicali's economy has been historically based on agricultural products, and they remain a large sector of the economy. However, its economy has gradually gone from being agricultural to include industry, mainly maquiladoras—duty-free factories in which parts from the United States are imported, assembled, and then returned to the United States as finished products. International companies including Honeywell, GKN Aerospace, Kellogg's, Gulfstream, UTC Aerospace Systems, SunPower, Rockwell Collins, LG Electronics, National Oilwell Varco, Mitsubishi, Autolite, Nestlé, Coca-Cola, Robert Bosch, and Goodrich Corporation have built maquiladora plants in the city.

Mexicali became the national center for the aerospace industry in Mexico when Rockwell Collins established an operation there in 1966. Rockwell Collins is the oldest company under the maquiladora program nationwide.

Founded on March 14, 1903, Mexicali is situated on the Mexico–United States border adjacent to its sister city Calexico, California, with which it forms a dual-state, international population center, Calexico–Mexicali.

Operation Baja California

Operation Tijuana or Operation Baja California ( Spanish: Operativo Tijuana or Operación Baja California) of the Government of Mexico is taking place in Tijuana and the surrounding areas of Baja California and Baja California Sur. This operation is part of the Joint Operation Against Drug Trafficking.

Peninsular Ranges

The Peninsular Ranges (also called the Lower California province) are a group of mountain ranges that stretch 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula; they are part of the North American Coast Ranges, which run along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Elevations range from 500 to 10,834 feet (152 to 3,302 m).

Rey Misterio

Miguel Ángel López Díaz (born January 8, 1958) is a Mexican retired professional wrestler and trainer, better known by his ring name, Rey Misterio ("Mystery King"). He is also referred to as Rey Misterio Sr. to distinguish him from his nephew.

Rock Paintings of Sierra de San Francisco

The Rock Paintings of Sierra de San Francisco are prehistoric rock art pictographs found in the Sierra de San Francisco mountain range in Mulegé Municipality of the northern region of Baja California Sur state, in Mexico.

Rosarito Beach

Rosarito is a coastal resort city in the Mexican state of Baja California located approximately 10 miles south of the U.S. border in Rosarito Beach Municipality. Often mistakenly called Rosarito Beach because of the well-known Rosarito Beach Hotel, the town of Rosarito is one part of the municipality named Playas de Rosarito ("Beaches of Rosarito").

Its beaches and dance clubs are a popular destination for young people from the United States during the Memorial Day and Labor Day weekends. Rosarito Beach is the seat of the municipality of Rosarito Beach. The city is the second largest in the Tijuana metropolitan area and southern beach city of the San Diego–Tijuana international metropolitan region.

It is the westernmost municipal seat in Mexico, slightly farther west than neighboring Tijuana, which lies inland to its north-northeast. As of 2010, the city had a population of 65,278.

Tijuana

Tijuana ( TEE-ə-WAH-nə; Spanish: [tiˈxwana]) is the largest city of both Baja California State and the Baja Peninsula. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana transborder urban agglomeration and the larger Southern California megalopolis. As the 6th-largest city in Mexico and center of the 6th-largest metro area in Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence in education and politics – across Mexico, in transportation, culture and art – across both Californias (the U.S. state and Baja), and in manufacturing and as a migration hub – across the North American continent. Currently one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status. As of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,641,570.Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, and is the municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality (Mexican states are divided into municipalities, rather than counties as in the U.S.). Tijuana covers 70% of the territory of the municipality and 80% of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America. Tijuana is also a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most visited border city in the globe; sharing a border of about 24 km (15 mi) with its sister city San Diego. More than fifty million people cross the border between these two cities every year. This metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone.Tijuana is the 45th largest city in the Americas and is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city (locality) itself was 6th largest and the municipality (administrative) 3rd largest nationally. The international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, and the largest bi-national conurbation that is shared between US and Mexico. Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego.

Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias. As the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded on July 11, 1889 as urban development began. Often known by its supposed initials, T.J., and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has historically served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s.

Tijuana metropolitan area

The Tijuana metropolitan area, and in Spanish the Zona Metropolitana de Tijuana, is located on the Pacific Ocean in Mexico. The 2010 census placed the Tijuana metropolitan area as the fifth largest in the country with 1,751,302 persons. The census bureau defined metropolitan area comprises two municipalities: Tijuana and Rosarito Beach. Yet sources commonly include Tecate Municipality in the metropolitan area as the urban area between Tijuana and Tecate grows, the commuting populace increases - ultimately further developing the southern areas of San Diego–Tijuana, and the three municipalities maintain strong relationships and cooperation.

Places adjacent to Baja California
Baja California State of Baja California
Major cities
Regions
Metro areas
Municipalities

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