Baiji, Iraq

Baiji (Arabic: بيجي‎; also spelled Bayji) is a city of about 200,000 inhabitants in northern Iraq. It is located some 130 miles north of Baghdad, on the main road to Mosul. It is a major industrial centre best known for its oil refinery, the biggest in Iraq, and has a large power plant. With regards to transport in the area, Baiji is a junction of the national railway network.



Bayji Fertiliser Plant, February 2008
Bayji Fertiliser Plant, February 2008
Baiji is located in Iraq
Baiji's location inside Iraq
Coordinates: 34°55′45″N 43°29′35″E / 34.92917°N 43.49306°E
Country Iraq
GovernorateSalah ad Din
410 ft (125 m)
 • Total200,000


After the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, dozens of British civilians taken captive in Kuwait were held at the Baiji oil refinery, apparently as human shields. The city was bombed during the 1991 Gulf War and about 80% of the oil refinery was destroyed. It was quickly rebuilt and was back in action only a couple of months after the war's end. However, a lack of maintenance and spare parts resulting from the United Nations trade embargo against Iraq caused the deterioration of the city's oil refinery, which by the late 1990s was in a very poor condition and was seriously polluting the surrounding area.

Iraq War (2003–2008)

Baiji was captured with little or no fighting during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It was briefly thought in late April 2003 that barrels of chemicals found in a storage area near the town contained the nerve agent cyclosarin. Soon afterwards, United States troops discovered an underground oil refinery at Baiji which was initially suspected to be a chemical weapons plant. Both leads eventually proved to be false alarms in the search for Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.

Following the invasion, Baiji subsequently became the scene of a number of insurgent attacks. The town is at one end of the "Sunni Triangle" region which provided the bedrock of Saddam Hussein's support. The sprawling oil refinery and pipelines have been particularly difficult to protect against guerrillas. There have been repeated attacks on the oil pipelines and other elements of the oil infrastructure.

In October 2003, violent riots broke out in the town in protest against the US-backed police force, which was accused of corruption. US troops restored order, wounding four Iraqis in the process, and sacked the town's police chief, replacing him with a local man elected by tribal elders. A US soldier was killed in the town on October 12. US troops subsequently conducted a number of raids in the town to root out guerrillas, who were publicly supported by some of Baiji's clergy. It was also thought that Saddam Hussein might be hiding in Baiji, prompting raids to find him, before he was eventually captured in December 2003 in the nearby village of ad-Dawr.

In May 2007, a Joint Security Station (JSS) was established in Baiji named "JSS Arvanitis-Sigua" after two US Paratroopers who lost their lives in combat in Bayji.[1]

In April 2009, the Joint Coordination Center (JCC) opened within the JSS. The function of the JCC is to enable the coordination of Iraqi municipal agencies thereby building the Government's capacity to provide essential services to the approximately 250,000 residents of the greater Baiji area.

2014 ISIS offensive

On 11 June 2014, ISIL insurgents advanced into Baiji, seizing the main court house and police station and setting them on fire. The militants, who were travelling in a group of around 60 vehicles, also took control of the Baiji prison and freed all the inmates within. Local residents told members of the media that ISIS sent a group of local tribal chiefs ahead of them to convince the 250 guards at the oil plant to withdraw, while soldiers and police had been warned to leave as well.[2] Later in the day, militants reportedly retreated from Baiji either due to persuasion from local tribal leaders[3] or due to reinforcements from the Iraqi Army's Fourth Armored Division arriving in the city.[4] However, the next day it was confirmed ISIL was still in control of the town, except the refinery which was surrounded.[5]

On 18 June, ISIL attacked the refinery with mortars and machine guns.[6] An official from inside the refinery stated the militants had captured 75 percent of the facility, while a military spokesman claimed the attack had been repelled with 40 insurgents being killed.[7]

On 19 June, Iraqi government forces claimed to have regained full control of the Baiji oil refinery, after heavy fighting with that left 100 militants dead.[8] An Iraqi witness who drove past the Baiji refinery told the Associated Press that ISIL had hung their banners from the watch towers and created checkpoints surrounding the facility, despite government claims of control.[9][10]

On 20 June, the town was still under complete control of the militants while the oil refinery was surrounded by ISIL forces and had once again come under attack.[11]

2014 Army counteroffensive

On 7 November, Iraqi forces retook control of most of the strategic city Baiji from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. So now government troops hold more than 70 percent of the city—including neighborhoods in the south, east and north—and are battling to capture the rest.[12]

On 14 November, Iraqi officials say their forces have driven out ISIL fighters from the oil refinery town of Baiji, 200km (130 miles) north of Baghdad. Gen Abdul-Wahab al-Saadi told Iraqi state TV that the town "had been completely liberated". There are still reports of heavy fighting around the oil refinery, which is Iraq's largest. ISIL seized Baiji in June during a lightning advance through northern Iraq and laid siege to the refinery. The group, which also controls large parts of northern Syria, has been the target of a US-led military campaign since August.



Baiji as a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). Most rain falls in the winter. The average annual temperature in Baiji is 22.0 °C (71.6 °F). About 205 mm (8.07 in) of precipitation falls annually.

Climate data for Kut
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14.1
Average low °C (°F) 4.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36

See also


  1. ^ Bayji a safer place with new station.
  2. ^ "Half a million flee unrest in Iraq's Mosul". Al Jazeera. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  3. ^ "Iraq army capitulates to Isis militants in four cities". The Irish Times. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  4. ^ "Iraqi city of Tikrit falls to ISIL fighters". Al Jazeera. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  5. ^ Raseed, Ahmed; Coles, Isabella. "Obama warns of U.S. action as jihadists push on Baghdad". Reuters. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  6. ^ "Sunni militants attacked on Iraq`s largest oil refinery in Baiji". Patrika Group. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Iraq crisis: Battle grips vital Baiji oil refinery". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Iraq Forces 'Retake' Oil Refinery From ISIS". Sky News. 19 June 2014.
  9. ^ "ISIS Militants' Black Banners Hang at Beiji Refinery: AP Witness". NBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  10. ^ "Baiji oil refinery battle can be seen from space - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  11. ^ "Iraq crisis: Fierce battles for Baiji and Tal Afar". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  12. ^ "Iraqi Forces Advance in Jihadist-Held Baiji". Naharnet. 7 November 2014.

External links

Coordinates: 34°55′45″N 43°29′35″E / 34.92917°N 43.49306°E

327th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 327th Infantry Regiment (Bastogne Bulldogs) is an infantry regiment of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) of the United States Army. During World War II, the 327th was a glider-borne regiment of the 101st Airborne Division. It fought during World War I as part of the 82nd Division. It has also been deployed to: The Dominican Republic 1965; Vietnam, 7/29/65 – 3/10/72; Grenada, 1983; Panama, 1989; Desert Storm, 1990; and most recently to Iraq and Afghanistan. The song "Glider Rider" describes (humorously) some of the slights that glider-borne troops felt they received from the Army during World War II; though the regiment's public fame rose with the 1949 movie Battleground about the Siege of Bastogne in late 1944.

Baiji (disambiguation)

Baiji may refer to:

Baiji, the Yangtze River dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer)

Baiji, Iraq, a city

Baiji District, Iraq

Baiji Township, Xiuning County (白际乡), Anhui, China

Baiji Township, Nanning (百济乡), in Yongning District, Nanning, Guangxi, China

An ancient kingdom in the southern Korean peninsula, called Baekje in Korean

Baiji oil refinery

The Baiji oil refinery is the largest oil refinery in Iraq and produces a third of the country's oil output. The refinery is 130 miles north of Baghdad, about halfway between Baghdad and Mosul, near the city of Baiji. In 2008, 500 tanker trucks filled with fuel used to leave the refinery per day. It was a target of intense fighting between the Islamic State and the Iraqi government in 2014 and 2015.

Battle of Baiji

Battle of Baiji may refer to:

Battle of Baiji (October–December 2014), in which ISIL captured the city of Baiji, Iraq

Battle of Baiji (2014–15), in which the Iraqi Army and allied Shi'ite militias captured Baiji and the surrounding region

Battle of Baiji (2014)

The Battle of Baiji (October–December 2014) was a battle that took place in Baiji, Iraq. In mid-November 2014, Iraqi forces retook the city of Baiji, and re-entered the Baiji Oil Refinery. However, clashes continued in the region, and on 21 December 2014, ISIL forces captured Baiji and put the Baiji Oil Refinery under siege once again.

Battle of Baiji (2014–15)

The Battle of Baiji (2014–15) was a battle that took place in Baiji, Iraq, lasting from late December 2014 to late October 2015. It gave Iraqi forces complete control of the highway stretching from Baghdad to Baiji, and will allow Iraqi forces to use Baiji as a base for launching a future assault on Mosul.

Fall of Baiji

The Fall of Baiji was a battle that took place in and around Baiji, Iraq in June 2014. It was fought between Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) forces and those of the Iraqi government. Its first stage included clashes in the city from 11 to 18 June. The second stage was fighting over the control of Baiji oil refinery from 18 to 21 June. ISIL captured both the town and the refinery. On 19 June 2014, the Iraqi Army retook the a refinery in a counter-attack. Fighting continued in Baiji until October 2014, when government forces finally established control, which they have maintained since.

Foreign hostages in Iraq

Members of the Iraqi insurgency began taking foreign hostages in Iraq beginning in April 2004. Since then, in a dramatic instance of Islamist kidnapping they have taken captive more than 200 foreigners and thousands of Iraqis; among them, dozens of hostages were killed and others rescued or freed. In 2004, executions of captives were often filmed, and many were beheaded. However, the number of the recorded killings decreased significantly. Many hostages remain missing with no clue as to their whereabouts. The United States Department of State Hostage Working Group was organized by the U.S. Embassy, Baghdad, in the summer of 2004 to monitor foreign hostages in Iraq.

The motives for these kidnappings include:

influencing foreign governments with troops in Iraq to withdraw

influencing foreign companies with workers in Iraq to leave the country

ransom money

discouraging travel to Iraq

prisoner exchangeThe following is a list of known civilian foreign hostages in Iraq.

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ISIL beheading incidents

Beginning in 2014, a number of people from various countries were beheaded by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a radical Sunni Islamist group operating in Iraq and parts of Syria.

In January 2015, a copy of an ISIL penal code surfaced describing the penalties it enforces in areas under its control, including beheadings. Beheading videos have been frequently posted by ISIL members to social media. Several of the videoed beheadings were conducted by Mohammed Emwazi, whom the media had referred to as "Jihadi John" before his identification.

The beheadings received wide coverage around the world and attracted international condemnation. Political scientist Max Abrahms posited that ISIL may be using well-publicized beheadings as a means of differentiating itself from Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), and identifying itself with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the al-Qaeda member who beheaded Daniel Pearl. The publicised beheadings represent a small proportion of a larger total of people killed following capture by ISIL.

Ibrahim Sabawi Ibrahim

Ibrahim Sabawi Ibrahim (Arabic: أيمن سبعاوي إبراهيم‎) (October 25, 1983 - May 20, 2015, Baghdad) was Saddam Hussein's half-nephew and an ISIL guerrilla.Ibrahim's father was Sabawi Ibrahim Hassan al-Tikriti, Saddam's half-brother, the 'Six of Diamonds' in the U.S. 'Most Wanted' playing card deck due to his leading Iraqi secret intelligence. Sabawi Ibrahim Hassan al-Tikriti and at least two sons (Ibrahim Sabawi Ibrahim and his older brother, Ayman Sabawi Ibrahim) were captured by Iraqi and coalition forces near Saddam's hometown of Tikrit in February, 2005. Ibrahim Sabawi Ibrahim escaped from a prison near Mosul the following year while serving sentences for illegal weapons possession and the manufacture of explosive devices used in terror attacks. His father died from cancer in a Baghdad hospital in 2013.

List of terrorist incidents in April 2016

This is a timeline of terrorist incidents which took place in April 2016, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives.

List of terrorist incidents in August 2018

This is a list of some of the terrorist, alleged terrorist or suspected terrorist incidents which took place in August 2018, including incidents by violent non-state actors for political, religious, or ideological motives.

List of terrorist incidents in July 2018

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List of terrorist incidents in October 2018

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This is a list of tributaries of the Tigris by order of entrance.

The Tigris originates in Turkey, forms a part of the borders of Turkey-Syria and flows through Iraq. It joins the Euphrates forming Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf.

Mil Mi-24

The Mil Mi-24 (Russian: Миль Ми-24; NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship, attack helicopter and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers. It is produced by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and has been operated since 1972 by the Soviet Air Force and its successors, along with more than 30 other nations.

In NATO circles, the export versions, Mi-25 and Mi-35, are denoted with a letter suffix as "Hind D" and "Hind E". Soviet pilots called the Mi-24 the "flying tank" (летающий танк; letayushchiy tank), a term used historically with the famous World War II Soviet Il-2 Shturmovik armored ground attack aircraft. More common unofficial nicknames were "Galina" (or "Galya"), "Crocodile" (Крокодил; Krokodil), due to the helicopter's camouflage scheme and "Drinking Glass" (Стакан; Stakan), because of the flat glass plates that surround earlier Mi-24 variants' cockpits.

Military history of Georgia

The country of Georgia has known a rich military history, both as a battlefield of empires and as an independent political and military power. The strategic significance and natural wealth of its territory made it the target of many invasions, and the country's independence was preserved against multiple enemies by a succession of states. Before the unification of the country by the Bagrationi dynasty in the 10th century, several states, such as Iberia and Colchis had managed to subsist between the Roman empire (later Byzantine Empire in the West) and the Sassanid Empire (later replaced by the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates). Between the 11th and 15th centuries, the Kingdom of Georgia was a major regional power, which withstood invasions by the Great Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, and Timurid Empire, before its fragmentation and submission to the Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Many Georgians fought in the armies of the empires that ruled the country from the 16th century, be it the Safavids (and successive Afsharids and Qajars), the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union, and the nation kept a reputation for military valour and skill. Since 1991, the newly independent Georgia has taken part in many conflicts: its conflicts with Russia culminated in the 2008 Russo–Georgian War, while its alliance with the United States led to Georgia's participation in the Afghan and Iraq Wars.

Timeline of the Iraq War (2015)

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