Baiji, Iraq

Baiji (Arabic: بيجي‎; also spelled Bayji) is a city of about 200,000 inhabitants in northern Iraq. It is located some 130 miles north of Baghdad, on the main road to Mosul. It is a major industrial centre best known for its oil refinery, the biggest in Iraq, and has a large power plant. With regards to transport in the area, Baiji is a junction of the national railway network.

Baiji

بيجي

Bayji
Bayji Fertiliser Plant, February 2008
Bayji Fertiliser Plant, February 2008
Baiji is located in Iraq
Baiji
Baiji
Baiji's location inside Iraq
Coordinates: 34°55′45″N 43°29′35″E / 34.92917°N 43.49306°E
Country Iraq
GovernorateSalah ad Din
Elevation
410 ft (125 m)
Population
 • Total200,000

History

After the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, dozens of British civilians taken captive in Kuwait were held at the Baiji oil refinery, apparently as human shields. The city was bombed during the 1991 Gulf War and about 80% of the oil refinery was destroyed. It was quickly rebuilt and was back in action only a couple of months after the war's end. However, a lack of maintenance and spare parts resulting from the United Nations trade embargo against Iraq caused the deterioration of the city's oil refinery, which by the late 1990s was in a very poor condition and was seriously polluting the surrounding area.

Iraq War (2003–2008)

Baiji was captured with little or no fighting during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It was briefly thought in late April 2003 that barrels of chemicals found in a storage area near the town contained the nerve agent cyclosarin. Soon afterwards, United States troops discovered an underground oil refinery at Baiji which was initially suspected to be a chemical weapons plant. Both leads eventually proved to be false alarms in the search for Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.

Following the invasion, Baiji subsequently became the scene of a number of insurgent attacks. The town is at one end of the "Sunni Triangle" region which provided the bedrock of Saddam Hussein's support. The sprawling oil refinery and pipelines have been particularly difficult to protect against guerrillas. There have been repeated attacks on the oil pipelines and other elements of the oil infrastructure.

In October 2003, violent riots broke out in the town in protest against the US-backed police force, which was accused of corruption. US troops restored order, wounding four Iraqis in the process, and sacked the town's police chief, replacing him with a local man elected by tribal elders. A US soldier was killed in the town on October 12. US troops subsequently conducted a number of raids in the town to root out guerrillas, who were publicly supported by some of Baiji's clergy. It was also thought that Saddam Hussein might be hiding in Baiji, prompting raids to find him, before he was eventually captured in December 2003 in the nearby village of ad-Dawr.

In May 2007, a Joint Security Station (JSS) was established in Baiji named "JSS Arvanitis-Sigua" after two US Paratroopers who lost their lives in combat in Bayji.[1]

In April 2009, the Joint Coordination Center (JCC) opened within the JSS. The function of the JCC is to enable the coordination of Iraqi municipal agencies thereby building the Government's capacity to provide essential services to the approximately 250,000 residents of the greater Baiji area.

2014 ISIS offensive

On 11 June 2014, ISIL insurgents advanced into Baiji, seizing the main court house and police station and setting them on fire. The militants, who were travelling in a group of around 60 vehicles, also took control of the Baiji prison and freed all the inmates within. Local residents told members of the media that ISIS sent a group of local tribal chiefs ahead of them to convince the 250 guards at the oil plant to withdraw, while soldiers and police had been warned to leave as well.[2] Later in the day, militants reportedly retreated from Baiji either due to persuasion from local tribal leaders[3] or due to reinforcements from the Iraqi Army's Fourth Armored Division arriving in the city.[4] However, the next day it was confirmed ISIL was still in control of the town, except the refinery which was surrounded.[5]

On 18 June, ISIL attacked the refinery with mortars and machine guns.[6] An official from inside the refinery stated the militants had captured 75 percent of the facility, while a military spokesman claimed the attack had been repelled with 40 insurgents being killed.[7]

On 19 June, Iraqi government forces claimed to have regained full control of the Baiji oil refinery, after heavy fighting with that left 100 militants dead.[8] An Iraqi witness who drove past the Baiji refinery told the Associated Press that ISIL had hung their banners from the watch towers and created checkpoints surrounding the facility, despite government claims of control.[9][10]

On 20 June, the town was still under complete control of the militants while the oil refinery was surrounded by ISIL forces and had once again come under attack.[11]

2014 Army counteroffensive

On 7 November, Iraqi forces retook control of most of the strategic city Baiji from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. So now government troops hold more than 70 percent of the city—including neighborhoods in the south, east and north—and are battling to capture the rest.[12]

On 14 November, Iraqi officials say their forces have driven out ISIL fighters from the oil refinery town of Baiji, 200km (130 miles) north of Baghdad. Gen Abdul-Wahab al-Saadi told Iraqi state TV that the town "had been completely liberated". There are still reports of heavy fighting around the oil refinery, which is Iraq's largest. ISIL seized Baiji in June during a lightning advance through northern Iraq and laid siege to the refinery. The group, which also controls large parts of northern Syria, has been the target of a US-led military campaign since August.

Geography

Climate

Baiji as a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). Most rain falls in the winter. The average annual temperature in Baiji is 22.0 °C (71.6 °F). About 205 mm (8.07 in) of precipitation falls annually.

Climate data for Kut
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
16.9
(62.4)
21.2
(70.2)
27.2
(81.0)
34.7
(94.5)
40.4
(104.7)
43.5
(110.3)
43.2
(109.8)
39.3
(102.7)
32.5
(90.5)
23.5
(74.3)
16.3
(61.3)
29.4
(84.9)
Average low °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
5.4
(41.7)
8.6
(47.5)
13.2
(55.8)
18.6
(65.5)
23.0
(73.4)
25.8
(78.4)
25.2
(77.4)
21.0
(69.8)
15.6
(60.1)
9.8
(49.6)
5.1
(41.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.4)
32
(1.3)
36
(1.4)
22
(0.9)
7
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
6
(0.2)
28
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
205
(8.1)
Source: climate-data.org

See also

References

  1. ^ Bayji a safer place with new station.
  2. ^ "Half a million flee unrest in Iraq's Mosul". Al Jazeera. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  3. ^ "Iraq army capitulates to Isis militants in four cities". The Irish Times. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  4. ^ "Iraqi city of Tikrit falls to ISIL fighters". Al Jazeera. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  5. ^ Raseed, Ahmed; Coles, Isabella. "Obama warns of U.S. action as jihadists push on Baghdad". Reuters. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  6. ^ "Sunni militants attacked on Iraq`s largest oil refinery in Baiji". Patrika Group. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Iraq crisis: Battle grips vital Baiji oil refinery". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Iraq Forces 'Retake' Oil Refinery From ISIS". Sky News. 19 June 2014.
  9. ^ "ISIS Militants' Black Banners Hang at Beiji Refinery: AP Witness". NBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  10. ^ "Baiji oil refinery battle can be seen from space - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  11. ^ "Iraq crisis: Fierce battles for Baiji and Tal Afar". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  12. ^ "Iraqi Forces Advance in Jihadist-Held Baiji". Naharnet. 7 November 2014.

External links

Coordinates: 34°55′45″N 43°29′35″E / 34.92917°N 43.49306°E

327th Infantry Regiment (United States)

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Baiji (disambiguation)

Baiji may refer to:

Baiji, the Yangtze River dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer)

Baiji, Iraq, a city

Baiji District, Iraq

Baiji Township, Xiuning County (白际乡), Anhui, China

Baiji Township, Nanning (百济乡), in Yongning District, Nanning, Guangxi, China

An ancient kingdom in the southern Korean peninsula, called Baekje in Korean

Baiji oil refinery

The Baiji oil refinery is the largest oil refinery in Iraq and produces a third of the country's oil output. The refinery is 130 miles north of Baghdad, about halfway between Baghdad and Mosul, near the city of Baiji. In 2008, 500 tanker trucks filled with fuel used to leave the refinery per day. It was a target of intense fighting between the Islamic State and the Iraqi government in 2014 and 2015.

Battle of Baiji

Battle of Baiji may refer to:

Battle of Baiji (October–December 2014), in which ISIL captured the city of Baiji, Iraq

Battle of Baiji (2014–15), in which the Iraqi Army and allied Shi'ite militias captured Baiji and the surrounding region

Battle of Baiji (2014)

The Battle of Baiji (October–December 2014) was a battle that took place in Baiji, Iraq. In mid-November 2014, Iraqi forces retook the city of Baiji, and re-entered the Baiji Oil Refinery. However, clashes continued in the region, and on 21 December 2014, ISIL forces captured Baiji and put the Baiji Oil Refinery under siege once again.

Battle of Baiji (2014–15)

The Battle of Baiji (2014–15) was a battle that took place in Baiji, Iraq, lasting from late December 2014 to late October 2015. It gave Iraqi forces complete control of the highway stretching from Baghdad to Baiji, and will allow Iraqi forces to use Baiji as a base for launching a future assault on Mosul.

Fall of Baiji

The Fall of Baiji was a battle that took place in and around Baiji, Iraq in June 2014. It was fought between Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) forces and those of the Iraqi government. Its first stage included clashes in the city from 11 to 18 June. The second stage was fighting over the control of Baiji oil refinery from 18 to 21 June. ISIL captured both the town and the refinery. On 19 June 2014, the Iraqi Army retook the a refinery in a counter-attack. Fighting continued in Baiji until October 2014, when government forces finally established control, which they have maintained since.

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Ibrahim Sabawi Ibrahim

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