Bahian Carnival (Portuguese: Carnaval baiano) is the annual carnival festival celebrated in the Brazilian state of Bahia, mainly in its capital, Salvador. The event lasts officially for six full days: it starts on a Thursday, then follows the usual five days of carnival (from Friday to Wednesday at noon). The term may also be used to comprise related events that happen immediately before or after the carnival in Bahia. Therefore, extending the duration for up to twelve days.
The festival happens simultaneously in many sites, being the most famous the Campo Grande track (in the upper part of the city), Barra-Ondina track (by the shore), and Pelourinho (the historical neighborhood). It features many different rhythms and has performances of several music groups. The most traditional presentations are the trio elétrico parades, and Afro blocks presentations. Estimations state that approximately 2.5 million people (being 1.5 million tourists) participate in the festivities every year. Economic reports show that the festival has a large impact at Salvador’s local economy.
|Also called||"The biggest carnival in the world"(Portuguese: O maior carnaval do mundo)|
|Significance||Celebration prior to fasting season of Lent.|
|Celebrations||Parades, parties, open-air performances|
|Begins||Thursday before Ash Wednesday (52 days to Easter)|
|Ends||Ash Wednesday noon (46 days before Easter)|
|2018 date||Afternoon, February 8 –|
midday, February 14
|2019 date||Afternoon, February 28 –|
midday, March 6
|2020 date||Afternoon, February 20 –|
midday, February 26
|2021 date||Afternoon, February 11 –|
midday, February 17
|Related to||Carnival, Brazilian Carnival, Ash Wednesday, Lent, Micareta|
In 1950, Adolfo Dodô Nascimento and Osmar Álvares Macêdo, better known as Dodô and Osmar created the Fobica, an open float adapted for musical presentations, and the trio elétrico was born. By 1952, the term trio elétrico had become generic, in reference to a truck or bus carrying musicians around during Bahian carnival. In 1969, Caetano Veloso's song "Atrás do trio-elétrico" (Behind the trio-elétrico) popularized the Trio Elétrico sound nationwide. Today, the presence of Trio Elétrico trucks is one of the main attractions of the Carnaval da Bahia.
Starting from the new year's eve, several events loosely related to the carnival happen in Salvador. The most traditional is "Lavagem da Escadaria do Bonfim" (English: Washing of the stairways of Bonfim church), which happens since 1745 on the second Thursdays of January. A more recent event is the Salvador Summer Festival, a music festival which usually happens on late January.
Some events that are closely related to carnival take place few days before the official opening. The most traditional is the party for the nomination of the year's Carnival's Queen and King Momo. Moreover, the ensaios de carnaval (English: carnival rehearsals) have become a tradition since the 1990s. Typically, these are private events with informal presentations from the artists that will perform in the carnival.
The official carnival opening in Salvador happens in the Thursday immediately before the Ash Wednesday. It happens exactly one day before the traditional carnival calendar, which starts on Friday. The anticipation happens for commercial reasons only. The official opening follows the tradition as in the rest of Brazil: there is a ceremony where the city major gives a symbolic key of the city to King Momo, whom declares that carnival celebrations are officially opened. Parades already happen in the early evening of Thursday.
Parades and other events happen during the six official days of carnival, for an average of 16 hours a day. The municipality defines the ordering, starting and ending times for each carnival block to parade. Delays may result in fines. The components of a block have a predefined meeting time in the beginning of their track, called concentração (English: concentration). After the parade concludes its official track, the trio elétricos go to a special place called dispersão (English: dispersion), where there is no longer separation between members of blocks and the audience. It is not infrequently that artists that were playing in the parade extend their presentations at the dispersion area.
Concurrently to the parades happen the informal "abadá" business. There, merrymakers sell, buy and exchange "abadás" for the different blocks and VIP cabins. Scalpers are present in significant quantity and act freely. The two most common sites are the Aeroclube Mall and Shopping Barra.
It became a tradition in 2000s that the last regular block to parade is Voa Voa, starting in the morning dawn of Wednesday.
Arrastão (English: big trawler) is the last official event before the carnival ending. It starts on Wednesday early morning, and finishes before noon. There trio-elétricos parade the Barra-Ondina track in backward direction (from Ondina, towards the Barra Lighthouse). There is no separation between the block and the audience. The carnival is officially over at Wednesday noon.
Ressaca de Carnaval (English: Carnival Hangover) are the celebrations following immediately after the carnival ending. Porto Seguro, in the south of Bahia, became prominent site for ressaca. Its format is similar to the trio elétrico street parades in Salvador, with a significant overlap in the performing acts. Morro de São Paulo is another popular site, where there is no official (governmental) organization, and most parties are private.
Within one month after the official ending, some media groups host award gala events to recognize outstanding achievement in the carnival. The most traditional accolades are Dodô and Osmar Trophy (Grupo A Tarde), Band Folia Trophy (Rede Bandeirantes) and Troféu Bahia Folia (Rede Bahia de Televisão). Categories vary between the events. Common ones include best artist, best new artist, best bloco and best song (considered the most prestigious).
Meanwhile, the carnaval blocos began to evolve and branch out into various currents of aesthetic, musical, and even religious manifestations. While members of the afoxés brought their Afro-Brazilian religious cosmology to the Carnaval procession by maintaining their African roots with the puxada do ijexá (a rhythm played in honor of the orixás or Afro-Brazilian deities), the flourishing middle-class blocos mostly relied on carnaval music styled on Rio de Janeiro's samba-enrredos.
Then the Afro-blocos emerged with an aesthetical proposal extrapolated from the Indian blocos, introducing some fundamental innovations in the process: parades revolved around themes and music was tailored to fit the occasion. During this phase, Bahia’s street carnaval was infused with the glamour and elitism propagated by carnaval clubs, initiating a slight reversal of the egalitarian ideal.
With the emergence of new Bahian talent who continued to popularize regional rhythms, Carnaval became more of an organized affair though it somehow retained its informality and contagious spontaneity. The success of Luiz Caldas, Sara Jane, and Chiclete com Banana, along with the evolution of Ilê Aiyê and the emergence of Olodum played a part in transforming Salvador’s Carnaval into the biggest, longest, most itinerant open-air show in the world. The upper and middle classes finally succumbed to the Carnaval–inspired ideal of racial harmony and by the end of the 1980s the pre-Lent celebration entered a process of irreversible debauchery. Street carnaval came to represent the collective identity of Bahian Carnaval.
By the start of a new decade, Bahia's Carnaval became an institutionalized talent factory. The success of precursors such as Luis Caldas, Chiclete com Banana, Ilê Aiyê, Margareth Menezes, and Olodum heralded the convergence of Carnaval and commercial music. Slowly the northeastern and national music markets began to open.
Between 1992 and 1993 Bahian Carnaval became the stage for the greatest success in Brazil's musical landscape yet: Daniela Mercury landed the number-one spot in radio stations throughout Brazil with her samba-reggae hit "O Canto da Cidade". Her show broke public attendance records from Oiapoque to Chuí and she became the first exponent of the new Bahian sound to have a television special on her musical career transmitted on a national station, Rede Globo. Mercury's stunning success radically tore down the preconceptions and barriers that Brazil's musical epicenters had imposed on Bahian music with origins entrenched in carnaval. Ironically, Mercury's huge success on a national scale transformed her into Bahian Carnaval's main artist. She achieved that distinction long after having conquered a niche in Bahia and having participated in many carnavals.
Axé (Portuguese pronunciation: [a'ʃɛ]) is a popular music genre originated in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil in the 1980s, fusing different Afro-Caribbean genres, such as marcha, reggae, and calypso. It also includes influences of Brazilian music such as frevo, forró and carixada. The word Axé comes from the Yoruba term às̩e̩, meaning “soul, light, spirit or good vibrations”. Axé is also present in the Candomblé religion, as “the imagined spiritual power and energy bestowed upon practitioners by the pantheon of orixás”.Brazilian Carnival
The Carnival of Brazil (Portuguese: Carnaval do Brasil, IPA: [kaʁnaˈvaw]) is an annual Brazilian festival held between the Friday afternoon before Ash Wednesday and Ash Wednesday at noon, which marks the beginning of Lent, the forty-day period before Easter. During Lent, Roman Catholics and some other Christians traditionally abstained from the consumption of meat and poultry, hence the term "carnival", from carnelevare, "to remove (literally, "raise") meat."Rhythm, participation, and costumes vary from one region of Brazil to another. In the southeastern cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Vitória, huge organized parades are led by samba schools. Those official parades are meant to be watched by the public, while minor parades (blocos) allowing public participation can be found in other cities, like Belo Horizonte, also in the southeastern region. The northeastern cities of Recife, Olinda, Salvador, and Porto Seguro have organized groups parading through streets, and public interacts directly with them. This carnival is also influenced by African-Brazilian culture. It is a six-day party where crowds follow the trios elétricos through the city streets, dancing and singing. Also in northeast, Olinda carnival features unique characteristics, heavily influenced by local folklore and cultural manifestations, such as Frevo and Maracatu.
The typical genres of music of Brazilian carnival are, in the Southeast Region in general, mostly cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo: the samba-enredo, the samba de bloco, the samba de embalo and the marchinha; and in the Northeast Region including Pernambuco (mostly cities of Olinda and Recife): frevo and maracatu, and Bahia (mostly the city of Salvador): samba-reggae, pagode (also a type of Samba) and the main genre axé music; all of which are linked back to Afro-Brazilian culture.
Carnival is the most famous holiday in Brazil and has become an event of huge proportions. Except for industrial production, retail establishments such as malls, and carnival-related businesses, the country unifies completely for almost a week and festivities are intense, day and night, mainly in coastal cities. Rio de Janeiro's carnival alone drew 4.9 million people in 2011, with 400,000 being foreigners.This cultural manifestation is generally an extension of Afro-Brazilian culture, though could also be historically traced to the Portuguese Age of Discoveries when their caravels passed regularly through Madeira, a territory which already celebrated emphatically its carnival season, and where they were loaded with goods but also people and their ludic and cultural expressions.Daniel J. Crowley
Daniel J. Crowley (November 27, 1921 – February 24, 1998) was an American art historian and cultural anthropologist who focused on the cultural expressions of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, with particular focus on the interconnectedness of carnivals, festivals, the arts and folklore. Crowley also became a strong advocate for disability studies in anthropology.Daniela Mercury
Daniela Mercury (born Daniela Mercuri de Almeida on July 28, 1965) is a Brazilian singer, songwriter, dancer, producer, actress and television host. In her solo career, Mercury has sold over 20 million records worldwide and had 24 Top 10 singles in the country, with 14 of them reached #1. Winner of a Latin Grammy for her album Balé Mulato – Ao Vivo, she also received six Brazilian Music Award, an APCA award, three Multishow Brazilian Music Awards and two awards at VMB: Best Music Video and Photography.
In 1991, Mercury released her self-titled album, which was followed by O Canto da Cidade a year later, boosting her career as a national artist and taking the axé music to the evidence. Over the years, Mercury released several albums, generating great singles like "Swing da Cor", "O Canto da Cidade", "À Primeira Vista", "Rapunzel", "Nobre Vagabundo", "Ilê Pérola Negra", "Mutante", "Maimbê Dandá", "Levada Brasileira", "Oyá Por Nós", among others. She recorded a commemorative DVD of Cirque du Soleil's 25th anniversary, and was part of the Montreal Jazz Festival. In addition, Mercury was invited to participate in the Alejandro Sanz's DVD, and sing with Paul McCartney in Oslo, Norway, during the delivery of the Nobel Peace Prize.
In 2009 she released her album called Canibália, along with the album, Daniela launched an international tour. The album spawned three singles: "Preta" with Seu Jorge, "Oyá Por Nós" with Margareth Menezes and "Sol do Sul". That same year, writer and intellectual Camille Paglia, who had an intellectual "passion" for Madonna, said Daniela Mercury is the artist who Madonna would like to be.
In 2011 the American TV channel CBS, elected Daniela Mercury as the "Carmen Miranda of the new times". The Canibália album was released in the United States yielded a critique of The New York Times saying: "Daniela Mercury goes beyond the concepts that were stressed during her career (...) with a contemporary pop, embracing ethnic and cultural diversity of Brazil (particularly african-Brazilian culture, while Daniela Mercury is white), remembering the past and transforming it."Fernanda Paes Leme
Fernanda Miranda Paes Leme de Abreu (born June 4, 1983) is a Brazilian actress.Frevo
Frevo is a dance and musical style originating from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, traditionally associated with Brazilian Carnival. The word frevo is said to come from frever, a variant of the Portuguese word ferver (to boil). It is said that the sound of the frevo will make listeners and dancers feel as if they are boiling on the ground. The word frevo is used for both the frevo music and the frevo dance.Gusttavo Lima
Nivaldo Batista Lima (born 3 September 1989), better known by his stage name Gusttavo Lima, is a Brazilian singer of sertanejo. Known in his country with many hits, like "Rosas, Versos e Vinhos", "Inventor dos Amores", "Cor de Ouro" and gained international fame and success through the song "Balada". He is often compared to the sertanejo singers Luan Santana and Michel Teló.Henri Castelli
Henri Lincoln Fernandes Nascimento (born February 10, 1978), known as Henri Castelli, is a Brazilian actor.Ilê Aiyê
The Afro-Brazilian group Ilê Aiyê was founded in 1974 by Antônio Carlos “Vovô” and Apolônio de Jesus in the neighborhood of Liberdade, the largest black population area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The expression stems from Yoruba language (ilê - home; aiyê - life) from may also be interpreted as 'eternal heaven'.
Ilê Aiyê works to raise the consciousness of the Bahian black community. Persecuted by the police and the media during its first years, and still controversial for only allowing blacks to parade with the group, Ilê Aiyê is a renowned element of Bahia’s carnival. The group pioneered the type of carnival group known as the bloco afro, featuring themes from global black cultures and history, and celebrating the aesthetic beauty of black people. All other blocos afros borrow elements originally created by Ilê Aiyê, including such groups founded shortly afterwards, such as Olodum and Malê Debalê.During Bahian carnival, the group includes hundreds of musicians, dozens of dancers, and thousands of members. They traditionally begin their procession on the Saturday night of Carnaval at the home of the Dos Santos family, where for many years Mãe Hilda de Jitolu, the mother of co-founder Vovô presided as spiritual mother to the group and formal leader of a candomblé. As Ilê Aiyê passes, carnival crowds sing along by the thousands to songs about the importance of African and Afro-Brazilian culture and religion.Index of Brazil-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil).Micareta
Micaretas are off-season celebrations similar to Brazilian Carnival. The micaretas are similar to the Bahian Carnival and very different from the samba school parades that are popular in Rio de Janeiro. The central feature of a micareta is a large truck called a "trio elétrico." The trio elétrico is wired with loudspeakers and has a band performing on the truck's trailer. The truck drives slowly along the streets or sits parked in an enclosed space and a crowd follows the trio elétrico singing, dancing, and jumping to the sound of the music. To be allowed to follow the truck, one must buy admittance to one of the several "blocos" (block). A bloco is an enterprise which obtains permission to participate in the micareta, hires the band, sells admittance, and controls access.
Brazil has several micaretas that take place throughout the year in various cities. They are conducted either in the streets (traditional micareta) or in enclosed spaces (indoor micareta). The first micareta took place in Feira de Santana, the second largest city of the state of Bahia. That micareta started because rain destroyed what had been prepared to celebrate carnival. Following the cancellation of their Carnival celebrations, the city's inhabitants celebrated a micareta at a later date. The resulting Micareta de Feira is one of the most important micaretas of Brazil. Carnatal is the largest micareta in Brazil. It is held annually in December in the city of Natal in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.Nicole Bahls
Nicole Mariana Bahls (born November 15, 1985) is a Brazilian model and television presenter.Rafael Y. Herman
Rafael Yossef Herman (born 1974 in Be'er Sheva רפאל י. הרמן) is an artist best known for his breakthrough photography project Bereshit - Genesis. Recalling the Genesis Creation story, this photography research project, of Israeli desert Negev trees, marked for the first time in photography history, a nocturnes photos that looks like taken in day light, using just the "moon-light", with no electronic or digital manipulation. The night, like never seen before, with monochromatic but full colored of its "colors of the night". This lighted night, nearly divined, without shadow, creates a new surreal reality, one that our eye can not see and does not know.
The Bereshit project was exposed for the first time to public in Dec. 2006, in Milano Italy, in the prestigious "Sala delle Cariatidi" of Palazzo Reale's museum of art. Bereshit photos, were one out of four fragments of Israel, that Rafael showed, under the title Magà. The exhibition attracted the attention of the public and media, and above all, of the Milan's assessor of culture, Vittorio Sgarbi, that wrote: "...His images are mirror of Creation, beyond which there is no more to say, revelation that only conceives the contemplative dimension, mixing spirit, mystery and material. Like this Herman wins the darkness." This occasion brought to Herman the invitation present the project to Pompidou Center, Paris. In November 2007, in a personal exhibition titled Bereshit, in Studio Guastalla, Rafael Y. Herman discovered by the prestigious art historian, writer and collector Arturo Schwarz that wrote on Herman's project "...this black light, is the responsible of the intense poetical aura, of this photos serial...". Newspaper and Magazine titled the exhibition like; The Voice Of The Moon (Arte), Symbolic Research (Elle), The Trees Of Herman (TG), The Beginning Of All (Bolletino). During this exhibition period, Rafael lost his father Maxim (b. 1937 Bucharest d. 2007 19 Kislev ) just before finishing to write a documentary/romance book on his father's family story during the second world war.
Rafael Y. Herman showed his works in South America, Europe, and Asia in collective and personal exhibitions. He was collaborating with Amnesty International and Behia's government at Bahian Carnival 2002. Herman was graduate in Economy and Management from Tel Aviv University, and as a child had musical education for 13 years. Today he lives in Italy and spend his life between Europe, America, and Israel. Currently his multiform photographic projects roam from fashion to reportage, from editorial and movie set photography to experimental photo research.Rodrigo (musician)
Rodrigo Alejandro Bueno (Spanish: [roˈdɾiɡo aleˈxandɾo bweˈno]; May 24, 1973 – June 24, 2000), also known by his stage name Rodrigo or his nickname "El Potro" ("the Colt"), was an Argentine singer of cuarteto music. He is widely regarded as the best, most famous and most influential singer in the history of the quartet. Bueno's style was marked by his on-stage energy and charisma. His short, dyed hair and casual clothes differed from typical cuarteto singers with strident colors and long curly hair. During his career, Bueno expanded cuarteto music to the Argentine national scene, remaining one of the main figures of the genre.
The son of Eduardo Alberto Bueno, a record shop owner and music producer, and Beatriz Olave, a songwriter and newsstand owner, Rodrigo Bueno was born into the cuarteto musical scene in Córdoba, Argentina. He first appeared on television at the age of two, on the show Fiesta de Cuarteto, along with family friend Juan Carlos "La Mona" Jiménez. With the help of his father, he recorded an album of children's songs, Disco Baby, at the age of five. During his preteen years he informally joined the local band Chébere during live performances. He dropped out of school at the age of twelve and successfully auditioned for the band Manto Negro. After five years without success in Córdoba, Bueno's father decided to try to launch his son's career as a soloist in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1990 Bueno released his first record, La Foto de tu Cuerpo, on Polygram Records. Bueno introduced his next album, Aprendiendo a Vivir, with a live performance at the nightclub Fantástico Bailable. The performance brought him his first recognition in the tropical music scene.
In 1995, Bueno signed a contract with Sony Music that lasted only for the release of the album Sabroso; the next year he signed a contract with Magenta Records that granted him one percent of his record sales. He discarded salsa and merengue from his repertoire, recording and performing exclusively cuarteto. His first release with the label, Lo Mejor del Amor, became an instant radio hit, earning him national fame and an ACE Award for Best Musical Act. The success was followed by La Leyenda Continúa (certified gold by CAPIF) and Cuarteteando. His 1999 release A 2000 became the theme of a series of concerts begun in the Astral Theater and held the following year in the Luna Park Arena under the name of Cuarteto Característico Rodrigo A 2000 ("Characteristic Cuarteto, Rodrigo to 2000"). The show sold out the stadium thirteen times, while the album A 2000 was certified quadruple platinum.
Bueno's schedule at the time included twenty-five to thirty shows weekly. Due to his demanding tours, Bueno began consuming beer to excess, which began to interfere with his performing. His stress level was further increased from receiving multiple death threats. Following a concert at the nightclub Escándalo in La Plata, Bueno was returning to the city of Buenos Aires on the evening of June 24, 2000. After his path was blocked by another driver who had passed him on the turnpike, Bueno tried to chase the vehicle to move in front of it again. In the process, he lost control of his SUV and crashed against a barrier. He was ejected from the SUV and he died instantly. His death caused an immediate sensation in the Argentine media, with speculation about a possible murder conspiracy. After a short trial, the driver of the other vehicle was found not guilty; the judge considered Bueno to have been responsible for driving imprudently.Rouge 15 Anos
The Turnê 15 anos (English: 15 Year Tour) is the headlining concert tour by Brazilian girl group Rouge, in celebration to the fifteen years of existence of the group, supporting all four releases: Rouge (2002), C'est La Vie (2003), Blá Blá Blá (2004) and Mil e Uma Noites (2005). It began on January 27, 2018, in Fortaleza, Ceará and concluded on August 11, 2018, in Recife, Pernambuco.Salvador, Bahia
Salvador, also known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos (English: Savior; Saint Savior from the Bay of All Saints) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2017), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília.
Founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, Salvador is one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas. A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town (Cidade Baixa) from its Upper Town (Cidade Alta) by some 85 meters (279 ft). The Elevador Lacerda, Brazil's first urban elevator, has connected the two since 1873. The Pelourinho district of the upper town, still home to many examples of Portuguese colonial architecture and historical monuments, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985. The city's cathedral is the see of the primate of Brazil and its Carnival celebration has been reckoned as the largest party in the world. Salvador was one of the first slave ports in the Americas and the African influence of the slaves' descendants makes it a center of Afro-Brazilian (negro) culture. The city is noted for its cuisine, music, dance and architecture. Porto da Barra Beach in Barra has been named one of the best beaches in the world. Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova was the site of the city's games during the 2014 Brazilian World Cup and 2013 Confederations Cup.
Salvador forms the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural and industrial maritime district, and continues to be a major Brazilian port. Its metropolitan area, housing 3 899 533 people (2018) forms the wealthiest one in Brazil's Northeast Region (2015).Samba reggae
Samba-reggae is a music genre from Bahia, Brazil. Samba reggae, as its name suggests, was originally derived as a blend of Brazilian samba with Jamaican reggae as typified by Bob Marley.Tatá Werneck
Talita Werneck Arguelhes (born August 11, 1983), best known as Tatá Werneck, is a Brazilian actress, comedian, presenter, reporter, musician and former-VJ.Trio elétrico
Trio elétrico (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈtɾiw eˈlɛtɾiku], electric trio) is a kind of truck or float equipped with a high-power sound system and a stage for music performance on the top, playing for the crowd as it drives through the cities. It was created in Bahia specifically for Carnival and it is now used in similar events in other districts and countries. This setup is used in Brazilian Carnival inside the blocos carnavalescos and other festivals in Brazil, specially in micaretas. The idea was introduced in 1949 during a carnival in Bahia by the duo Dodô e Osmar (Adolfo Nascimento and Osmar Macedo).
Some Brazilian artists have been known to sing on a Trio, such as Elba Ramalho, Daniela Mercury, Ivete Sangalo, Saulo Fernandes, Cláudia Leitte, Carlinhos Brown (from Timbalada), Asa de Águia and Chiclete com Banana.
Carnival around the world