Bahía Kino

Bahía de Kino is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora, Hermosillo (municipality), on the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California); it was named after Eusebio Kino. The name also applies to the adjacent bay between Tiburón Island and Punta San Nicolás, Sonora. The names Bahía de Kino, Bahía Kino and Kino Bay are used interchangeably.

Isla Alcatraz Kino
View of Isla del Alcatraz and Kino Nuevo.
Bahía de Kino
Native name:
Spanish: Bahía de Kino, Bahía Kino
Mexico - Tiburón Island
Location of Bahía de Kino
Bahía de Kino is located in Mexico
Bahía de Kino
Bahía de Kino
Location in Mexico
Geography
LocationGulf of California
Coordinates28°49′00″N 111°56′00″W / 28.81667°N 111.93333°W
Administration
Mexico
StateSonora
Demographics
Population7,000 (2008)
Kino beach stroll
Kino beach stroll
Pelican at Kino Bay, SON
Pelican at Kino Bay
Hasteecöla
Hasteecöla peaks which overlook west end of New Kino

History

The historic residents of the Bahía de Kino region were probably first documented in notes taken by Padre Eusebio Kino during his travels to the region in 1685 when he believed he visited the bay and named it Bahia San Juan Bautista (Doode 1999). The local indigenous population was widely dispersed in small hunter-gatherer groups ranging from the Guaymas area as far north as present day Puerto Libertad. They called themselves Comcaac (Seri). The harsh environment of the coastal region dictated that the Comcaac live with a high degree of flexibility and resourcefulness, a characteristic that allowed them to remain free of contact with, and exploitation by, the Spaniards.

Although later Spanish expeditions to the region undertook to develop contacts with the various Comcaac groups, it is apparent from the record that the Comcaac remained autonomous and were never formally conquered (Griffen 1959). It was not until they formed economic bonds out of necessity – probably the need to purchase gasoline for outboard motors used on their small wooden boats during the late 1950s – that they started down the path of social and economic integration into wider Mexican culture (Felger & Moser 1991, Weaver et al. 2003). Wandering groups of Comcaac routinely passed through the Kino area, using cave shelters in the vicinity though there is scant evidence of any permanent presence in the immediate area.

The first Mestizo settlers in the Bahia de Kino area arrived in the early 1920s to establish a small fishing camp near the site of the present day town. Fishing activity centered on the Totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) a species much sought after and reported as abundant around nearby Isla Alcatraz (Chute, 1928, Bahre 2000, Doode 1999).

In 1922, Yates Holmes, an American, secured a federal concession for almost 6,000 acres (24 km2) of land in Bahia de Kino and developed a hunting and fishing camp that became known as the Kino Bay Club. It operated through 1931(Bowen 2000). The Kino Bay Club marked the beginning of a long history of association between the Mexican residents of Bahia de Kino and visitors from the United States.

In 1935 the first fisher cooperative – La Sociedad Cooperativa de Produccíon Pesquera Lázaro Cárdenas – was formed with 25 members (probably comprising most of the adult male population on Bahia de Kino at the time).

The late 1930s saw the rapid development of the shark fishery that supplied shark liver oil to the U.S. for use in the production of vitamin A supplements (Doode 1999, Bahre & Bourillon 2002). By 1945 the population had grown considerably to about 500 inhabitants all of whom were involved primarily with fisheries (Weaver et al. 2003). The region in general was growing as well. The establishment of the local Distrito de Colonización Presidente Miguel Alemán between Hermosillo and Bahia de Kino coupled with the recent availability of subterranean water pumping technology allowed for large scale, regional agrarian development.

The mid-1940s marked the beginning the industrial shrimp fishery in the Gulf of California. Shrimp boats, usually displacing less than 100 tons, and operating primarily out of Guaymas, began trawling for shrimp in the waters of Bahia de Kino. These boats were generally crewed by fishers from Guaymas and, initially at least, had little interaction with fishers from the Kino area (Weaver et al. 2003).

Felger and Moser report that by 1952 Kino Bay “…was a fishing village with less than a hundred inhabitants, several bars, no school and no electricity.” (1985, p. 17).

In 1953, the road to Hermosillo was paved (Bowen 2000) allowing for increased sales of fisheries products and easier access to lucrative state and national markets. 245 hectares of federal land were set aside that year for the growth of the village while an additional 868 hectares was designated to be developed into lots for tourist infrastructure. It was hoped that this would generate employment opportunities outside the fishery for Kino residents in the construction and service sectors of the local economy (Wong 1999).

The 1960s witnessed the early development of the scallop (callo) fishery in the bay. The sand banks in the south of the bay were a primary source of callo with fishers free diving from their boats to harvest the abundant callo beds in the immediate area. Around 1974, the first air compressor diving rigs were developed (Cudney-Bueno 2000). The use of air compressors allowed fishers to operate at greater depths and for longer periods of time, increasing productivity per outing (Doode 1999).

The 1970s saw a dramatic increase in the population of Bahia de Kino during which the town grew from just a few hundred residents to several thousand. Most of the new residents were immigrants to the region, some from as far south as Michoacán, other from the deserts of Chihuahua and Coahuila. Most had little fishing or boating experience, the developing fishery offered steady employment at a time when many of Mexico’s rural ejidos or cooperative farming and ranching communities were suffering economic setbacks and low productivity (Simon 1997). In 1975, the Mexican government placed a ban on totoaba fishing – the fishery had been decimated, primarily due to over-fishing at spawning grounds at the mouth of the Colorado River (Bahre & Bourillon 2002).

In the late 1970s a plan was proposed to build a marina and marine service center in the nearby Laguna Santa Cruz. A dock and ramp were constructed, a trailerpark developed and a channel dredged through the barrier bars across the mouth of the laguna. The project is said to have bankrupted itself. Remains of the dredge are still visible in the laguna. The dredged channel is still usable by vessels drawing less than 1.5 meters but local knowledge is essential for entry as there are no aids to navigation associated with the canal.

From the early 1980s through until the late 1990s the Bahia de Kino fishery increased both in intensity and extent. More fishers in more boats operating over an ever-increasing area kept regional production levels in positive growth. The national economic crisis during this period resulted in a new influx of immigrants to the area (Doode 1999).

Trapping for crab (Callinectes bellicosus) became an important addition to Kino fishing effort starting about 1990 (Weaver et al. 2003). It is unclear if Kineño fishers had utilized benthic trapping technology prior to the development of the crab fishery .

Several shrimp mariculture operations began operations around the Bahía de Kino area in the late 1990s and into the present. The local socioeconomic impact of these operations has not been studied. It is unknown if local fishers have interacted with these operations in any economically meaningful way.

In 2006, a plan for development of a marina in Kino Bay was approved by the state governor's office. The location was centered on the existing ramp facilities north of Kino Nuevo. Little development of this plan has occurred however. The ramps have been rebuilt several times after sustaining damage from hurricanes over the years.

Climate

Bahía de Kino has a desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh).

Present

KinoSunset
Summer sunset at Kino beach

Bahia de Kino is home to between 6,000 and 8,000 permanent residents. The area is visited by both local and international tourists. There is a small, but active population of foreign residents, many of whom have built homes in town.

The town is administered as part of the municipality of Hermosillo. It is located on land that was part of the traditional territory of the Comcaac (Seri) people who now live to the north on their communal property.

Despite the town's location and economic importance, there are no harbor or port facilities (other than the Port Captain's office). All fishing activities are based off the beach to the southwest of town. Two public boat ramps are available; one South-east of town at Laguna La Cruz and a second 6 miles (9.7 km) north-west of town, called 'Playa Estela'. The historic ramp at the Islandia Marina camp in Kino Viejo has fallen into disrepair and is non-functional. There is open anchorage located to the south of Isla Alcatraz. The large Laguna La Cruz to the south east of town offers excellent anchoring and protection with access to town via a well maintained dirt road. An unmarked channel allows vessels drawing less than 2 meters easy access to this anchorage from the bay.

Local people differentiate between Kino Viejo ('Old Kino', the site of the original village and main commercial center today) and Kino Nuevo ('New Kino'). The latter refers to the homes, motels, RV parks, and restaurants that line the coast for several miles north-west of Kino Viejo.

References

Bahre, Conrad J. and Luis Bourillón. 2002. Human Impact in the Midriff Islands. In: A New Island Biogeography of the Sea of Cortés. Case, Ted J., Martin L. Cody & Exequiel Ezcurra (eds.). 2002. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bourillón, Luis. 1996. Actividad Humana en la region de las grandes Islas del Golfo de California, Mexico. Tesis de Maestría. Centro de Conservación a Aprovechamiento de los Recursos Naturales. ITESM – Campus Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.

Bowen, Thomas. 2000. Unknown Island: Seri Indians, Europeans, and San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press

Case, Ted J., Martin L. Cody & Exequiel Ezcurra (eds.). 2002. A New Island Biogeography of the Sea of Cortés. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chute, G.R. 1928. The Totoava fishery in the Gulf of California. California Fish and Game Bulletin 14:275-281

COBI (Cominidad y Biodiversidad, A. C.) 2004. Memoria de la Reunión De Pescador a Pescador: Buscando mejorar la pesca a través de las reserves marinas. Bahía de Kino, Sonora 21-24 de Marzo de 2003. Guaymas, Son.: Comunidad y Biodiversidad, A.C.

Doode, M.S. 1999. La Pesca de Pequena Escala: Principales obstáculos para su regulación. El case de Bahía de Kino, Sonora. Programa Golfo de California. Presentado a Conservación International A. C. Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A. C. Mexico

Felger, R. S. and M. B. Moser. 1991. People of the desert and sea. Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. Tucson: University of Arizona. 2nd edition.

Griffen, William. B. 1959. Notes on Seri Indian Culture, Sonora, Mexico. Latin American Monographs 10. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

McGee, W. J. Trails to Tiburón: The 1894 and 1895 Field Diaries of W J McGee, transcribed by Hazel McFeely Fontana, annotated and with an introduction by Bernard L. Fontana. 2000

Moreno Rivera, César & Amy Hudson Weaver, Luis Bourillón Moreno, Jorge Torre, Cosío, Janitzio Égido Villareal, Mario Rojo Amaya. 2005. Diagnóstico Ambiental y Socioeconómico de la Región Marina Costera de Bahía de Kino, Isla Tiburón, Sonora México: Documento de trabajo y discusión para promover un desarrollo sustentable. Guaymas, Sonora: Comunidad y Biodiversidad

Simon, Joel. 1997. Endangered Mexico. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Weaver, Amy H., Janitzio Égido, Luis Bourillón Moreno, César Moreno Rivera and Jorge Torre Cosio. 2003. Estudio Previo Justicativo para Proponer Establecimiento de un Área Natural Protegida en Bahía de Kino, Sonora (Primera Edición). Guaymas, Sonora: Comunidad y Biodiversidad.

Wong, P. 1999. H. Propuesta Téchnica del Programa de Desarrollo Sustenable de Kino-Isla Tiburón. Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C.

Ziebell, Martin. 2007. Ninety Years of Fishing: The Small-scale Fishing Fleet of Bahia de Kino, Sonora, Mexico. Prescott, Arizona: Prescott College Masters Thesis.

Notes
  1. ^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  2. ^ "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Bahía de Kino 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved April 28, 2017.

External links

  • es:Bahía de Kino Spanish version - more information and history
  • [1] Prescott College Center for Cultural and Ecological Studies, Bahía de Kino, Prescott College A.C.
  • [2] Weather and climate data for Bahia de Kino

Coordinates: 28°59′N 111°56′W / 28.983°N 111.933°W

Eusebio Kino

Eusebio Francisco Kino (Italian: Eusebio Francesco Chini, Spanish: Eusebio Francisco Kino; 10 August 1645 – 15 March 1711) was a Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer born in the Territory of the Bishopric of Trent, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the region then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico and southern Arizona in the United States. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono O'Odham, Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas (country chapels or visiting stations).

Giant hawkfish

The giant hawkfish, Cirrhitus rivulatus is a species of hawkfish. It is a marine fish and the largest of the hawkfish family with maximum size of 60 cm (24 in) in total length. It is known for its social behavior towards scuba divers and its uncanny ability to perch on its pectoral fins. This particular species can be found mainly along the Gulf of California, reaching as far as northern Colombia and the Galapagos Islands. It is a predator, mostly feeding on other small fish and crustaceans.

Gulf of California

The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez, Sea of Cortés (named for Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés) or Vermilion Sea; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or Mar Bermejo or Golfo de California) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa with a coastline of approximately 4,000 km (2,500 mi). Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Fuerte, Mayo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the Yaqui. The gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi). Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in the deepest parts. The Gulf is thought to be one of the most diverse seas on the planet, and is home to more than 5,000 species of micro-invertebrates. Home to over a million people, Baja California is the second-longest peninsula in the world, after the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Parts of the Gulf of California are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Hermosillo

Hermosillo (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾmoˈsiʝo] (listen)), formerly called Pitic (as Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic), is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the main economic center for the state and region. As of 2015, the city has a population of 812,229 inhabitants, making it the 16th largest city in Mexico. The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry.

Hermosillo was ranked as one of the 5 best cities to live in in Mexico, as published in the study "The Most Livable Cities of Mexico 2013" by the Strategic Communications Cabinet of the Federal Government. Hermosillo also ranked as the seventh most competitive city in the country according to the Mexican Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO) based on factors such as its economic diversification, geographical location, access to education, government, innovation and international relations, according to the urban combativity analysis released by that institution in 2016. The major manufacturing sector is automobiles, which was begun in the 1980s.

Hermosillo features a subtropical hot desert climate (BWh). Temperatures can reach 48 °C or 118.4 °F in the summer months, making it one of the hottest cities in the country.

Hermosillo Municipality

Hermosillo is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat is the city of Hermosillo.

As municipal seat, the city of Hermosillo is the local government of over 3,800 other localities, with a combined territory of 14,880.2 km2. Other important communities include Miguel Alemán, San Pedro el Saucito, Bahía Kino, La Victoria and La Manga.

The municipality borders the municipalities of Carbó Municipality, San Miguel de Horcasitas Municipality, Ures Municipality, Mazatán Municipality, La Colorada Municipality, Guaymas Municipality and Pitiquito Municipality, with the Gulf of California to the southwest.The municipality is mostly flat with sloping towards the sea. There are isolated mountain peaks that reach to only 300 meters above sea level and include Tepoaca, Bacoachito, Lopez, Tonuco, Seri, Batamote, Goguz, Bronces, SantaTeresa, La Palma, Siete Cerros and La Campana. These are located mostly in the eastern section of the municipality. The two most important rivers are the Rio Sonora and the Rio San Miguel. Both of these are used for irrigation purposes with the Abelardo L. Rodriguez dam located on the San Miguel River. The population increase of the municipality, currently at 2.5% annually puts pressure on the infrastructure of the city, especially its water supply. Decades of overpumping of ground water has led to the aquifer levels being lower than sea levels, and sea water creeping in as an "artificial recharge."The municipality is with two arid climate regions. The first is that next to the sea, which is desert with fairly cold winters and hot summers. The rest of the municipality is very dry desert with larger temperature variations than the coastal area. Temperatures can range from as low as freezing in January and February to 48 °C in July and August. Rains for both climates falls mostly between June and September, with annual precipitation between 75 and 300 millimeters, depending on location. Most of the vegetation here consists of mesquite trees as well as trees such as the desert ironwood, palo verde and the huisache. Dune vegetation exists at Bahia de Kino. Desert animals such as the desert tortoise, rattlesnakes, bighorn sheep and lynx are the most notable species.

Hurricane Isis (1998)

Hurricane Isis was the only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. The ninth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isis developed on September 1 from an interaction between a tropical wave and a large surface circulation to the southwest of Mexico. It moved northward, striking the extreme southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California. Isis made landfall at Topolobampo in the Mexican state of Sinaloa on September 3, and quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted for several days before dissipating in the U.S. state of Idaho.

In Mexico, Isis destroyed over 700 houses and killed 14 people; this is primarily due to its heavy rainfall which peaked at over 20 inches (500 mm) in southern Baja California Sur. The rainfall caused widespread damage to roads and railways, stranding thousands of people. Moisture from the remnants of Isis extended into the southwestern United States, resulting in light rainfall, dozens of traffic accidents, and power outages to thousands of residents in San Diego County, California.

Hurricane Newton (2016)

Hurricane Newton was the first hurricane to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula since Odile in 2014. The fifteenth named storm and the ninth hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Newton formed as a tropical depression out of an area of low pressure off of the coast of Mexico on September 4. Despite only moderately favorable conditions, the storm quickly intensified while moving north and became a hurricane roughly a day after being designated. Attaining peak intensity early on September 6, Newton then proceeded to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula shortly afterwards. It quickly weakened and degenerated into a remnant low on September 7, before dissipating the next day.

Ahead of the storm, several preparations were made to avoid a calamity similar to what Odile had caused two years prior. The hurricane was

responsible for at least nine deaths, mainly attributed to flooding; and US$95.7 million in damages.

Hurricane Nora (1997)

Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm, and one of the rare cyclones to make landfall in Baja California. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by the 1997–98 El Niño event, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.

Nora took an unusual path, making landfall twice as a hurricane in the Baja California Peninsula. Weakening quickly after landfall, its remnants lashed the Southwestern United States with tropical-storm-force winds, torrential rain and flooding. The storm was blamed for two direct casualties in Mexico, as well as substantial beach erosion on the Mexican coast, flash flooding in Baja California, and record precipitation in Arizona. It persisted far inland and eventually dissipated near the Arizona–Nevada border.

Kino

Kino may refer to:

In film and theatre: from the Norwegian, German, Polish, South Slavic (Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian, Bulgarian) and the Russian spelling of cine for cinema

Kino (movement), a group of amateur filmmakers

Kino Flo, a manufacturer of lighting equipment for use in motion pictures.

Kino International, a movie theater in Berlin

Kino International (company), a U.S.-based film distributor

Kino-Pravda ("Film Truth"), a newsreel series by Dziga Vertov, Elizaveta Svilova, and Mikhail Kaufman

The (usually colloquial) word for a movie or movie theatre in several languages

Stargate Universe: Kino, a series of webisodesKino, a data-gathering device from the science fiction series Stargate UniverseOperation Kino, a fictional political coup to assassinate Adolf Hitler in the 2009 film Inglourious BasterdsIn music:

Kino (band), a Soviet rock group led by Viktor Tsoi

Kino (UK rock band), a British progressive rock quintet

"Kino", a song by Nena from the album 99 Luftballons

"Kino", a song by The Knife from the album The Knife

"Kino", a song by Cabaret VoltaireIn botany:

Kino (botany), a gum produced by eucalypt and Pterocarpus trees

Pterocarpus erinaceus, African kino tree

Pterocarpus marsupium, Indian kino tree or Malabar kinoPeople:

Eusebio Kino (1644–1711), Jesuit missionary

Kazuyoshi Kino (紀野 一義, 1922–2013), Japanese Buddhist scholar

Kino, from South Korean boy group PentagonFictional characters:

Kino Asakura, a character in the anime and manga series Shaman King

Makoto Kino (or Lita Kino), from the Sailor Moon manga and anime

Kino, a character in the novel and anime Kino's Journey

Kino, a character in the video game Chrono Trigger

The protagonist of John Steinbeck's short story The PearlOther:

KINO, a radio station in Arizona, USA

Kino (software), video editing software

Bahía Kino (Kino Bay), Mexico

Kino, Kentucky, United States

Indian kino tree or Malabar kino (Pterocarpus marsupium)

Kino mutai, a component of some Filipino martial arts

Jino, an ethnic group in China

kinesthetics

List of eastern shore communities on the Gulf of California

A List of eastern shore communities on the Gulf of California.

North

Sonora

Puerto Peñasco

El Desemboque

Punta Chueca

Puerto Libertad

Kino Nuevo

Bahía Kino

San Carlos, Sonora

Guaymas

San Carlos Nuevo Guaymas

Bácum

Empalme, Sonora

San Ignacio Río Muerto

Villa Juárez

Huatabampo

Punta Rosa Yávaros

Los Bocas

Sonora

Sinaloa

Higuera de Zaragoza

Ahome

Ahome, Sinaloa

Los Mochis

Topolobampo

Las Glorias

La Reforma

Navolato, Sinaloa

Altata

El Dorado, Sinaloa

La Cruz, Sinaloa

Dimas

Mazatlán

SinaloaSouth

Puerto Peñasco

Puerto Peñasco is a resort town located in Puerto Peñasco Municipality in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora, 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the border with the U.S. state of Arizona. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 62,177 inhabitants. It is located on the northern shores of the Sea of Cortez on the small strip of land that joins the Baja California Peninsula with the rest of Mexico. The area is part of the Altar Desert, one of the driest and hottest areas of the larger Sonoran Desert.Since the late 1990s, there has been a push to develop the area for tourism. It is now one of the most important tourist destinations in northern Mexico. Puerto Peñasco is often called "Rocky Point" in English, and has been nicknamed "Arizona’s Beach" as it is the closest beach to cities such as Phoenix, Tucson, and Yuma.

The Mar de Cortés International Airport serves Puerto Penasco, but currently has no regularly-scheduled flights in or out. The new highway shortens the drive from California by 160 km (100 mi). Tourism and fishing are the most important economic activities for the city. Development to date includes over one hundred restaurants, forty-two hotels and motels, and fourteen RV facilities. The new "Home Port del Mar de Cortes" (Sea of Cortez) cruise ship terminal is currently under construction between Sandy Beach and Cholla Bay (La Choya), northwest of the central city.

San Pedro Mártir Island

San Pedro Mártir is the name of an island of Mexico, located in the Gulf of California, about halfway between the coast of Baja California and Sonora. San Pedro Mártir is located in the center of the Gulf of California and is the most remote island in the Sea of Cortez. It is located 51 km from Baja California and 53 km off the coast of Sonora. The island is 2 km long and 1.5 km maximum width, with a total of 2,729 km2 of total area (272 hectares). The island is uninhabited and is 60 km from Bahía Kino, the nearest city in the state of Sonora on the west coast.

San Pedro Martir is also unique in the area for its year-round quantity of birds. The island is the only island in the area with a perpetually swirling cloud of sea birds. The large bird population deposits enormous quantities of guano on the island, resulting white appearance of the island with sparse vegetation. The blue-footed booby is common on the island, using the island as nesting grounds. Sea lion rockeries also ring the island.The Seri Indians created benches to attract nest building and ease of egg collection, the sole evidence of human intervention visible on the island. In the late 19th and early 20th century guano was heavily mined off the island and shipped as far as Europe for use as fertilizer. Mining boats brought the black rat as an invasive species to the island. The rats were eradicated in the fall of 2007 by spraying rat poison on the island.San Pedro Martir is seldom visited, having near vertical sides leaving only questionable fair weather anchorages in two locations. Landing access was possible near a small isthmus in the southeast of the island, but is now forbidden. In 2005, the island was classified along with 244 others as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, and included in the Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California.

Seri people

The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property (Spanish, ejido), in the towns of Punta Chueca (Seri: Socaaix) and El Desemboque (Seri: Haxöl Iihom) on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island (Tahejöc) and San Esteban Island (Cofteecöl and sometimes Hast) were also part of their traditional territory. They were historically seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most strongly maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures.

The Seri people are not related culturally or linguistically to other groups that have lived in the area, such as the Opata, Yaqui (sg.: Yequim, pl.: Yectz), O'odham (sg.: Hapaay), or Cochimí. The Seri language is distinct from all others in the region and is considered a language isolate.Beside the Apache (sg.: Hapats, pl.: Hapatsoj) and Yaqui, the Seri are best known as fierce warriors for their fierce resistance against subjugation by the Spanish (sg.: Casopin) and later Mexicans (sg./pl.: Cocsar).

The name Seri is an exonym of uncertain origin. (Claims that it is from Opata or from Yaqui were nineteenth-century speculations based on similarity to words in those languages and not with clear evidence.) Their name for themselves is Comcaac (phonemically /kom'kɑːk/, phonetically [koŋˈkɑːk]); singular: Cmiique (phonemically /'kmiːkɛ/), phonetically [ˈkw̃ĩːkːɛ]).

Sonora

Sonora (Spanish pronunciation: [soˈnoɾa] (listen)), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora (English: Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo.

Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Sonora's natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state; plains and rolling hills in the center; and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation.

Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, the O’odham, the Yaqui, and Seri. It has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef), and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican–American War. With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory. From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico.

Thomas Sheridan (anthropologist)

Thomas E. Sheridan (born 5 September 1951) is an anthropologist of Sonora, Mexico and the history and culture of the US South West. He is Distinguished Outreach Professor at the University of Arizona, affiliated with the Department of Anthropology and the Southwest Center since 2003.

Tourism in Mexico

Tourism in Mexico is a very important industry. Since the 1960s, it has been heavily promoted by the Mexican government, as "an industry without smokestacks." Mexico has traditionally been among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization, and it is the second-most visited country in the Americas, after the United States. In 2017, Mexico was ranked as the sixth-most visited country in the world for tourism activities. Mexico has a significant number of UNESCO World Heritage sites with the list including ancient ruins, colonial cities, and natural reserves, as well as a number of works of modern public and private architecture. Mexico has attracted foreign visitors beginning in the early nineteenth century, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts. The nation's temperate climate and unique culture – a fusion of the European and the Mesoamerican are attractive to tourists. The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and Spring break, when many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.

The majority of tourists come to Mexico from the United States and Canada. Other visitors come from Europe and Asia. A small number of tourists also come from other Latin American countries.

Tropical Storm Georgette (2010)

Tropical Storm Georgette was a short-lived tropical storm that struck the Baja California Sur in September 2010. Georgette originated from an area of disturbed weather over the eastern Pacific on September 20. The next day, the system was upgraded into a tropical storm a short distance south of Baja California Sur. As the storm moved over the peninsula, it weakened to a tropical depression. It continued north and as such made landfall on mainland Mexico on September 22. Georgette dissipated early the next day while located inland over Sonora. Although officials noted the threat for heavy rainfall across northwest Mexico and Baja California, damage was minimal and no deaths were reported in the country. However, remnant moisture moved into New Mexico, producing flooding that killed one person.

Tropical Storm Lidia (2017)

Tropical Storm Lidia was a large tropical cyclone that produced flooding in Baja California Peninsula and parts of western Mexico. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and twelfth named storm of the 2017 Pacific hurricane season, Lidia developed from a large area of disturbed weather west of the Pacific Coast of Mexico on August 31. The storm intensified while moving generally northward or northwestward, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) later that day. On September 1, Lidia made landfall in Mexico near Puerto Chale, Baja California Sur, at peak intensity. The storm weakened while traversing the peninsula, ultimately emerging over the Pacific Ocean on September 3, where the storm degenerated into a remnant low. The system brought thunderstorms and wind gusts to Southern California, before dissipating on September 4.

In anticipation of the storm, several tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in the Baja California Peninsula and other areas along the Gulf of California. Flooding in Mexico City resulted in water entering hundreds of homes, while sinkholes formed on some roads. Overall, there were twenty fatalities, including two from electrocution and two from drowning.

Climate data for Bahía de Kino, Sonora (1981–2010, extremes (1974-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
30.0
(86.0)
33.0
(91.4)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104.0)
47.0
(116.6)
42.0
(107.6)
41.5
(106.7)
42.0
(107.6)
38.0
(100.4)
35.0
(95.0)
29.0
(84.2)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F) 19.5
(67.1)
21.3
(70.3)
22.7
(72.9)
25.2
(77.4)
27.3
(81.1)
30.9
(87.6)
32.6
(90.7)
33.5
(92.3)
33.0
(91.4)
28.8
(83.8)
23.7
(74.7)
20.3
(68.5)
26.6
(79.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
14.4
(57.9)
15.7
(60.3)
18.2
(64.8)
20.5
(68.9)
24.7
(76.5)
28.1
(82.6)
28.7
(83.7)
27.5
(81.5)
22.2
(72.0)
17.0
(62.6)
13.8
(56.8)
20.3
(68.5)
Average low °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
7.5
(45.5)
8.7
(47.7)
11.2
(52.2)
13.6
(56.5)
18.5
(65.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.9
(75.0)
22.1
(71.8)
15.7
(60.3)
10.2
(50.4)
7.2
(45.0)
14.1
(57.4)
Record low °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
5.5
(41.9)
9.0
(48.2)
17.0
(62.6)
16.0
(60.8)
12.0
(53.6)
7.0
(44.6)
2.0
(35.6)
0.0
(32.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.5
(0.49)
7.0
(0.28)
3.1
(0.12)
1.2
(0.05)
0.4
(0.02)
2.2
(0.09)
15.3
(0.60)
50.9
(2.00)
23.0
(0.91)
12.5
(0.49)
5.5
(0.22)
27.7
(1.09)
161.3
(6.35)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.5 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.3 2.5 3.3 1.9 0.9 1.3 2.5 17.6
Source: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional[1][2]

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