Bahá'í calendar

The Bahá'í Calendar, also called the Badíʿ Calendar (Badíʿ means wondrous or unique),[1] is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days". Years begin at Naw-Rúz, on the day of the vernal equinox in Tehran, Iran, coinciding with March 20 or 21.

The first year is dated from 21 March 1844 CE, the year during which the Báb proclaimed his religion.[2] Years are annotated with the date notation of BE (Bahá'í Era),

The year 176 BE will start on the day of the vernal equinox (in Tehran) in 2019, that is on 21 March 2019.

History

The Bahá'í Calendar started from the original Badíʿ Calendar, created by the Báb in the Kitabu'l-Asmá'[3] and the Persian Bayán (5:3) in the 1840s.[4] An early version of the calendar began to be implemented during his time.[5] It used a scheme of 19 months of 19 days (19×19) for 361 days, plus intercalary days to make the calendar a solar calendar. The first day of the early implementation of the calendar year was Nowruz,[6] while the intercalary days were assigned differently than the later Bahá'í implementation. The calendar contains many symbolic meanings and allusions[7] including connections to prophecies of the Báb about the next Manifestation of God termed He whom God shall make manifest.[8]

Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, who claimed to be the one prophesied by the Báb, confirmed and adopted this calendar. Around 1870, he instructed Nabíl-i-A`zam, the author of The Dawn-Breakers, to write an overview of the Badíʿ calendar.[9] In the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (1873) Bahá'u'lláh made Naw-Rúz the first day of the year, and also clarified the position of the Intercalary days to immediately precede the last month.[4][10] Bahá'u'lláh set Naw-Rúz to the day on which the sun passes into the constellation Aries. Bahá'ís interpret this formula as a specification of the vernal equinox, though where that should be determined was not defined.[10]

The calendar was first implemented in the West in 1907.[11]

The Bahá'í scriptures left some issues regarding the implementation of the Badíʿ calendar to be resolved by the Universal House of Justice before the calendar can be observed uniformly worldwide. On 10 July 2014 the Universal House of Justice announced provisions that will enable the common implementation of the Badíʿ calendar worldwide, beginning at sunset 20 March 2015,[12] coinciding with the completion of the ninth cycle of the calendar (see below).[13]

Before Naw-Rúz 2015

The Bahá'í Calendar in western countries was synchronized to the Gregorian calendar, meaning that the extra day of a leap year occurred simultaneously in both calendars. The intercalary days stretched from 26 February to 1 March, automatically including the Gregorian leap day. There were 4 intercalary days in a regular year, and 5 in a leap year.[14]

The practice in western countries was to start the year at sunset on March 20, regardless of when the vernal equinox technically occurs.

For eastern countries where the Islamic lunar calendar was used, the Bahá'í Calendar synchronized with the Islamic Lunar calendar. For example, the births of The Báb and of Bahá'u'lláh were commemorated according to their corresponding lunar calendar dates, which were the 1st and 2nd days, respectively, of the month of Muharram. Thus, the commemoration of these anniversaries would drift backwards about 11 days each year, and could therefore be gradually celebrated at any season (spring, winter, autumn, summer) of the year.

From Naw-Rúz 2015

In 2014, the Universal House of Justice selected Tehran, the birthplace of Bahá'u'lláh, as the location to which the date of the vernal equinox is to be fixed, thereby "unlocking" the Badíʿ calendar from the Gregorian calendar. For determining the dates, astronomical tables from reliable sources are used.[9][12][15]

In the same message the Universal House of Justice decided that the birthdays of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh will be celebrated on "the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz" (also with the use of astronomical tables) and fixed the dates of the Bahá'í Holy Days in the Bahá'í Calendar, standardizing dates for Bahá'ís worldwide. By this decision, the Badíʿ calendar was "unlocked" from the Islamic lunar calendar, as the celebration of the birthdays of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh are no longer connected to the month of Muharram, and therefore do not drift continually backward by about 11 days, from year to year.

These changes came into effect as of sunset on 20 March 2015.[9][16]

Significance

As the name Badíʿ (wondrous or unique) suggests, the Bahá'í Calendar is indeed a unique institution in the history of human culture. Sociologist Eviatar Zerubavel notes that the 19-day cycle creates a distinctive rhythm which enhances group solidarity. (Zerubavel argues that the 19 day cycle is more properly defined as a week, rather than a month, because it bears "no connection whatsoever" to the lunar cycle.) Furthermore, by finding the closest approximation of the square root of the annual cycle, Bahá'ís "have managed to establish the most symmetrical relationship possible between the week and the year, which no one else throughout history has ever managed to accomplish."[17]

Years

Years in the Bahá'í Calendar are counted from Thursday 21 March 1844, the beginning of the Bahá'í Era or Badíʿ Era (abbreviated BE or B.E.).[18] Year 1 BE thus began at sundown 20 March 1844.

The length of each year is strictly defined as the number of days between the opening and closing days of the year, with the number of intercalary days adjusted as needed. The year ends on the day before the following vernal equinox.

Vernal Equinox

The first day of each year (Naw-Rúz) is the day (from sunset to sunset) in Tehran containing the moment of the vernal equinox. This is determined in advance by astronomical computations from reliable sources.[12]

Since the Gregorian calendar is not tied to the equinox, the Gregorian calendar shifts around by a day or two each year, as shown in the following table.[19]

Bahá'í Year Gregorian date
corresponding to Naw-Rúz
174 20 March 2017
175 21 March 2018
176 21 March 2019
177 20 March 2020
178 20 March 2021
179 21 March 2022
180 21 March 2023
181 20 March 2024
182 20 March 2025
183 21 March 2026
184 21 March 2027

Months

The Bahá'í Calendar is composed of 19 months, each with 19 days.[2] The Nineteen Day Fast is held during the final month of ‘Alá’, and is preceded by the intercalary days, known as Ayyám-i-Há. The month of fasting is followed by Naw-Rúz, the new year.

Month names

The names of the months were adopted by the Báb from the Du'ay-i-Sahar, a Ramadan dawn prayer by Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam of Twelver Shi'ah Islam.[20][21] These month names are considered to be referring to attributes of God.

In the Persian Bayan the Báb divides the months in four groups, of three, four, six and six months respectively.[22] Robin Mirshahi suggests a possible link with four realms described in Bahá'í cosmology.[7]

The days of the month have the same names as the names of the month – the 9th day of the month for example is the same as the 9th month – Asmá, or "Names". In the following table, the Gregorian date indicates the first full day of the month. The month begins at sunset of the Gregorian date previous to the one listed, after which time that month's Nineteen Day Feast may be celebrated.

Month Usual Gregorian dates
(when Naw-Rúz coincides with 21 March)[2]
Arabic name [2] Arabic script English name [2] Additional meanings in authorized English translations of Bahá'í scripture [7]
1 21 March
– 8 April
Bahá بهاء Splendour glory, light, excellence
2 9 April
– 27 April
Jalál جلال Glory majesty
3 28 April
– 16 May
Jamál جمال Beauty charm
4 17 May
– 4 June
‘Aẓamat عظمة Grandeur glory, majesty, dominion, greatness
5 5 June
– 23 June
Núr نور Light radiance, brightness, splendour, effulgence, illumination
6 24 June
– 12 July
Raḥmat رحمة Mercy blessing, grace, favour, loving kindness, providence, compassion
7 13 July
– 31 July
Kalimát كلمات Words utterance, the word of God
8 1 August
– 19 August
Kamál كمال Perfection excellence, fullness, consummation, maturity
9 20 August
– 7 September
Asmá’ اسماء Names titles, attributes, designations
10 8 September
– 26 September
‘Izzat عزة Might glory, power, exaltation, honour, majesty, grandeur, strength, sovereignty, magnificence
11 27 September
– 15 October
Mashíyyat مشية Will purpose, the primal will, the will of God
12 16 October
– 3 November
‘Ilm علم Knowledge wisdom, divine knowledge, revelation
13 4 November
– 22 November
Qudrat قدرة Power might, authority, dominion, celestial might, omnipotence, transcendent power, indomitable strength, all-pervading power, ascendancy, divine power
14 23 November
– 11 December
Qawl قول Speech words, testimony
15 12 December
– 30 December
Masá’il مسائل Questions principles, truths, matters, mysteries, subtleties, obscurities, intricacies, problems
16 31 December
– 18 January
Sharaf شرف Honour excellence, glory
17 19 January
– 6 February
Sulṭán سلطان Sovereignty king, lord, majesty, sovereign, monarch, authority, potency, the power of sovereignty, the all-possessing, the most potent of rulers
18 7 February
– 25 February
Mulk ملك Dominion sovereignty, kingdom, realm, universe
26 February
– 1 March
Ayyám-i-Há ايام الهاء The Days of Há
19 2 March
– 20 March
(Month of fasting)
‘Alá’ علاء Loftiness glory

Ayyám-i-Há

The introduction of intercalation marked an important break from Islam, as under the Islamic calendar the practice of intercalation had been specifically prohibited in the Qur'an.[4]

The number of the intercalary days is determined in advance to ensure that the year ends on the day before the next vernal equinox. This results in 4 or 5 intercalary days being added. These days are inserted between the 18th and 19th months, falling around the end of February in the Gregorian calendar. The number of days added is unrelated to the timing of the Gregorian leap year.

Weekdays

The Bahá'í week starts on Saturday, and ends on Friday.[23] Like Judaism and Islam, days begin at sunset and end at sunset of the following solar day. Bahá'í writings indicate that Friday is to be kept as a day of rest.[24][25] The practice of keeping Friday as a day of rest is currently not observed in all countries; for example, in the UK, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís confirmed it does not currently keep this practice.[26]

Arabic Name[2] Arabic Script English Translation[23] Day of the Week[2]
Jalál جلال Glory Saturday
Jamál جمال Beauty Sunday
Kamál كمال Perfection Monday
Fiḍál فضال Grace Tuesday
‘Idál عدال Justice Wednesday
Istijlál استجلال Majesty Thursday
Istiqlál استقلال Independence Friday

Cycles

Also existing in the Bahá'í Calendar system is a 19 year cycle called Váḥid and a 361 year (19×19) supercycle called Kull-i-Shay’ (literally, "All Things").[23] Each of the 19 years in a Vahid has been given a name as shown in the table below.[23]

The 10th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay' started on 21 March 2015, and the 11th Váḥid will begin in 2034.[27]

The current Bahá'í year, year 175 BE (21 March 2018 – 20 March 2019), is year Dál (D) of the 10th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay'.[27] The 2nd Kull-i-Shay' will begin in 2205.[27]

The concept of a 19-year cycle has existed in some form since the 4th century BCE. The Metonic cycle represents an invented measure that approximately correlates solar and lunar markings of time and which appears in several calendar systems.

Years in a Váḥid
No. Persian Name Arabic Script English Translation
1 Alif ألف A
2 Bá' باء B
3 Ab أب Father
4 Dál دﺍﻝ D
5 Báb باب Gate
6 Váv وﺍو V
7 Abad أبد Eternity
8 Jád جاد Generosity
9 Bahá بهاء Splendour
10 Ḥubb حب Love
11 Bahháj بهاج Delightful
12 Javáb جواب Answer
13 Aḥad احد Single
14 Vahháb وﻫﺎب Bountiful
15 Vidád وداد Affection
16 Badíʿ بدیع Beginning
17 Bahí بهي Luminous
18 Abhá ابهى Most Luminous
19 Váḥid واحد Unity

See also

References

  1. ^ Buck, Christopher and Melton, J. Gordon (2011). "Bahā’ī Calendar and Rhythms of Worship." Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. By J. Gordon Melton, with James A. Beverley, Christopher Buck, and Constance A. Jones. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. (1:79–86.).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Smith, Peter (2000). "calendar". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 98–100. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6.
  3. ^ Lambden, Stephen (2018). Kitab al-asma' – The Book of Names. Lambden states that the "source did not, however, give precise details about where the calendral materials were located in the Kitab al-asma'."
  4. ^ a b c Taylor, John (2000-09-01). "On Novelty in Ayyám-i-Há and the Badí Calendar". bahai-library.org. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
  5. ^ MacEoin, Denis (1994). Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism. Pembroke Persian Papers. Volume 2 (illustrated‌ ed.). British Academic Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-85043-654-6.
  6. ^ Mottahedeh, Negar (1998). "The Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'AynTahirah's Unveiling and the Iranian Massacre of the Babis". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 18 (2): 43. doi:10.1215/1089201X-18-2-38.
  7. ^ a b c Mihrshahi, Robin (2013). A Wondrous New Day: The Numerology of Creation and 'All Things' in the Badíʿ Calendar.
  8. ^ Mihrshahi, Robin (2004) [1991]. "Symbolism in the Badíʿ Calendar". Baha'i Studies Review. 12 (1). doi:10.1386/bsre.12.1.15 (inactive 2018-11-09). ISSN 1354-8697. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
  9. ^ a b c Momen, Moojan (2014). The Badí` (Bahá'í) Calendar: An Introduction.
  10. ^ a b Universal House of Justice (1992). Notes of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-0-85398-999-8..
  11. ^ Cameron, Glenn; Momen, Wendy (1996). A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-85398-404-7.
  12. ^ a b c The Universal House of Justice (2014-07-10). "To the Bahá'ís of the World". Retrieved 2014-07-10.
  13. ^ Nakhjavani, Ali (January 2015). "The ninth cycle of the Bahá'í Calendar". The American Bahá'í: 23–27.
  14. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Ayyám-i-Há". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6.
  15. ^ For calculating the dates, data provided by HM Nautical Almanac Office in the United Kingdom is used by the Bahá'í World Centre. The World Geodetic System 1984 is used to determine the point of reference for Tehran.
  16. ^ Purushotma, Shastri Baha'is to Implement New Calendar Worldwide. Huffington Post. 2014-14-07.
  17. ^ Zerubavel, Eviatar (1985). The Seven-Day Circle. New York: The Free Press. pp. 48–50. ISBN 978-0029346808.
  18. ^ Curtis, Larry (2004-03-06). "A Day in the Bahá'í Calendar". bcca.org. Archived from the original on 2 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
  19. ^ Bahá'í Dates 172 to 221 B.E. (2015 – 2065; prepared by the Baha'i World Centre) (pdf)
  20. ^ Taherzadeh, A. (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853–63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 116–7. ISBN 978-0-85398-270-8.
  21. ^ Stephen N. Lambden. The Du'á Sahar or Supplication of Glory-Beauty (al-bahá')
  22. ^ Saiedi, Nader (2008). Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb. Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 327–328. ISBN 978-1-55458-056-9.
  23. ^ a b c d Effendi, Shoghi (1950). The Bahá'í Faith: 1844–1950. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Committee.
  24. ^ "Letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer". Bahá'í News (162, April 1943): 5. 1939-07-10. In Effendi, Shoghi; Bahá'u'llah; 'Abdu'l-Bahá; The Universal House of Justice (1983). Hornby, Helen, ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. New Delhi, India: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 109. ISBN 978-81-85091-46-4. Retrieved 2009-03-15. III. Bahá'í: E. Miscellaneous Subjects: 372. Friday is Day of Rest in Bahá'í Calendar.
  25. ^ Bellenir, Karen (2004). Religious Holidays and Calendars: An Encyclopedic Handbook (3rd ed.). Omnigraphics. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-7808-0665-8.
  26. ^ National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United Kingdom. Letter from the NSA to the Bahá’í Council for Wales Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  27. ^ a b c Bolhuis, Arjen (2006-03-23). "The first Kull-i-Shay' of the Bahá'í Era". Retrieved 2006-09-23.

Further reading

Primary sources

Secondary sources

External links

Ayyám-i-Há

Ayyám-i-Há refers to a period of intercalary days in the Bahá'í calendar, when Bahá'ís celebrate the Festival of Ayyám-i-Há. The four or five days of this period are inserted between the last two months of the calendar (Mulk and `Alá'). The length of Ayyám-i-Há varies according to the timing of the following vernal equinox so that the next year always starts on the vernal equinox.

The 2019 dates for this observance are from sunset on Monday, February 25, to sunset on Friday, March 1.

Bahá'í Faith and Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is recognized in the Bahá'í Faith as one of nine known religions and its scriptures are regarded as predicting the coming of Bahá'u'lláh. Zoroaster is included in the succession of Manifestations of God. The authenticity of the Zend Avesta (Zoroastrian scriptures) is seen as uncertain.

Bahá'í Holy Days

The Bahá'í Faith has eleven holy days, which are important anniversaries in the history of the religion. On nine of these holy days, work is suspended. There is no fixed format for any of the holy days, and Bahá’í communities organize their own commemorative meetings.All but two of the holy days are scheduled annually on fixed dates in the Badí‘ Calendar. The Twin Holy Birthdays are scheduled annually according to a lunar calculation.Besides the eleven holy days, Bahá'ís also celebrate Ayyám-i-Há, a period of several extra days in the calendar (followed by the Nineteen Day Fast).

Bahá'í Naw-Rúz

Naw-Rúz (Persian: نوروز‎, translit. Nowruz) is the first day of the Bahá'í calendar year and one of nine holy days for adherents of the Bahá'í Faith. It occurs on the vernal equinox, on or near March 21.Nowruz, historically and in contemporary times, is the celebration of the traditional Iranian new year holiday and is celebrated throughout the countries of the Middle East and Central Asia such as in Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, Georgia, Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, and Tajikistan Kurdistan. Since ancient times it has been a national holiday in Iran and was celebrated by more than one religious group. The Báb, the founder of Bábism, and then Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, adopted the day as a holy day and associated it with the Most Great Name of God.

Birth of Bahá'u'lláh

The Birth of Bahá'u'lláh is one of nine holy days in the Bahá'í calendar that is celebrated by Bahá'ís and during which work is suspended. The holy day celebrates the birth of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. The 2017 date is October 22.Bahá'u'lláh was born on 12 November 1817 in Tehran, Iran, and this holy day was instituted in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, his book of laws, where Bahá'u'lláh first refers to four great festivals: the Festival of Ridván, the Declaration of the Báb, the birth of the Báb—who is considered to be a Manifestation of God, and who foretold the coming of Bahá'u'lláh—and the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. In questions submitted to Bahá'u'lláh after writing the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Bahá'u'lláh states that the two days commemorating the births of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh are seen to be one in the "sight of God" and are referred to as the "Twin Birthdays".`Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, stated that during the holy day the community should rejoice together to increase the unity of the community. Bahá'ís usually observe the holy day with community gatherings where prayers are shared and the birth of Bahá'u'lláh is celebrated. Bahá'u'lláh stated that in communities where the majority of the population are Shi'a Muslims, such as Iran, his followers should exercise caution in celebrating the twin birthdays so that they do not upset the majority of the population who are mourning during the Islamic month of Muharram.In the Islamic calendar, which is a lunar calendar, the two holy days fall on consecutive days: the birth of the Báb is on the first day of Muharram in 1235 AH (20 October 1819), and the birth of Bahá'u'lláh is on the second day of Muharram in 1233 AH (12 November 1817). Bahá'u'lláh stated that if the holy days occur during the Bahá'í month of fasting, Bahá'ís need not observe the fast those days.Since the Bahá'í calendar is a solar calendar, the decision to celebrate the Twin Holy Birthdays in a solar or lunar basis remains to the Universal House of Justice. Until March 20, 2015, in most of the world, the holy day was celebrated according to the solar year on 12 November, and the birth of the Báb was celebrated on 20 October. Since days in the Bahá'í calendar start at sunset, the holy day started on the evening of 11 November and proceeded until sunset on 12 November.

However, in 2014, the Universal House of Justice decided to celebrate the twin holy days on the first and second day following the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz, starting from March 20, 2015 onwards. Thus from March 20, 2015 onward the day where the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh is celebrated will change from year to year.

Báb

The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (; Persian: سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی‎; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.

The Báb was a merchant from Shiraz in Qajar Iran who in 1844, at the age of twenty-four, claimed to be a messenger of God. He took on the title of the Báb (; Arabic: باب‎), meaning "Gate" or "Door", a reference associated with the promised Twelver Mahdi or al-Qá'im. He faced opposition from the Persian government, which eventually executed him and thousands of his followers, who were known as Bábís.

The Báb composed numerous letters and books in which he stated his claims and defined his teachings. He introduced the idea of He whom God shall make manifest, a messianic figure who would bring a greater message than his own.To Bahá'ís, the Báb fills a similar role as Elijah or John the Baptist; a predecessor or forerunner who paved the way for their own religion. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, was a follower of the Báb and claimed in 1863 to be the fulfillment of the Báb's prophecy, 13 years after the former's death.

Intercalation (timekeeping)

Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendars may require intercalations of both days and months.

International Astrology Day

International Astrology Day (most often observed on either March 20 or March 21) is an annual observance/holiday celebrated by astrologers and astrology enthusiasts. It is seen by astrologers as the beginning (first day) of the astrological year. It is the first full day of the astrological sign of Aries and thus marks the beginning of the tropical Zodiac.

International Astrology Day is celebrated/observed depending on the exact day that the Northward equinox actually occurs. This varies year to year between March 19–22, though it usually falls on March 20 or March 21.

The date of the holiday occurs at the same time of the Iranian new year (Norouz), which is celebrated in many places throughout the Middle East and Central Asia. It also corresponds with the beginning of the Bahá'í calendar, which is celebrated as Bahá'í Naw-Rúz. Other holidays occurring around this time include Ostara (amongst neopagans), Chunfen in China, and Vernal Equinox Day (a public holiday in Japan), among others.

Leap year

A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting (also called intercalating) an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

For example, in the Gregorian calendar, each leap year has 366 days instead of 365, by extending February to 29 days rather than the common 28. These extra days occur in years which are multiples of four (with the exception of centennial years not divisible by 400). Similarly, in the lunisolar Hebrew calendar, Adar Aleph, a 13th lunar month, is added seven times every 19 years to the twelve lunar months in its common years to keep its calendar year from drifting through the seasons. In the Bahá'í Calendar, a leap day is added when needed to ensure that the following year begins on the vernal equinox.

The name "leap year" probably comes from the fact that while a fixed date in the Gregorian calendar normally advances one day of the week from one year to the next, the day of the week in the 12 months following the leap day (from March 1 through February 28 of the following year) will advance two days due to the extra day (thus "leaping over" one of the days in the week). For example, Christmas Day (December 25) fell on a Sunday in 2016, Monday in 2017, and Tuesday in 2018, then will fall on Wednesday in 2019 but then "leaps" over Thursday to fall on a Friday in 2020.

The length of a day is also occasionally changed by the insertion of leap seconds into Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), owing to the variability of Earth's rotational period. Unlike leap days, leap seconds are not introduced on a regular schedule, since the variability in the length of the day is not entirely predictable.

March 21

March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 285 days remaining until the end of the year.

In astrology, the day of the equinox is the first full day of the sign of Aries. It is also the traditional first day of the astrological year. In the 21st century, the equinox usually occurs on March 19 or 20, being on March 21 only in 2003 and 2007. The next year in which the equinox occurs on March 21 is 2102.

Martyrdom in the Bahá'í Faith

Martyrdom in the Bahá'í Faith is the act of sacrificing one's life in the service of humanity and in the name of God. In Hidden Words, Bahá'u'lláh's revelation incites believers towards martyrdom: "O son of being! Seek a martyr's death in My path, content with My pleasure […] To tinge thy hair with thy blood is greater in My sight than the creation of the universe and the light of both worlds. Strive then to attain this, O servant!"[1]

However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life, and instead offered the explanation that martyrdom is devoting oneself to service for humanity. `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son and appointed interpreter, explained that the truest form of martyrdom is a lifelong sacrifice to serve humanity in the name of God. While the Bahá'í Faith exalts the station of its martyrs, martyrdom is not something that Bahá'ís are encouraged to pursue; instead one is urged to value and protect one's life.In the history of the Bahá'í Faith there are many who are considered martyrs. The Bahá'í Faith grew out of a separate religion, Bábism, which Bahá'ís see as part of their own history. In Bábism, martyrdom had the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life and was seen as a public declaration of sincerity and devotion to God.

During the 1840s and 1850s the Báb claimed to be the return of the Mahdi and gained a strong following. The Persian clergy tried to stop the spread of the Bábí movement by denouncing the Bábís as apostates; these denouncements led to public executions of the Bábís, troop engagements against the Bábís, and an extensive pogrom where thousands of Bábís were killed. In addition, the Báb himself was publicly executed in 1850. The Bábís that were killed during these times are seen as martyrs by Bahá'ís, and the date of execution of the Báb, who Bahá'ís see as a Manifestation of God equal to that of Bahá'u'lláh, is considered a holy day in the Bahá'í calendar as the Martyrdom of the Báb. Also among the Bábí executions was the poet Táhirih, one of the Báb's eighteen disciples, who Bahá'ís consider the first woman suffrage martyr.After Bahá'u'lláh abstracted the meaning of martyrdom, gave it a new meaning, and abolished holy war, the Bábís who became Bahá'ís stopped seeking martyrdom as a public declaration of devotion. However, Bahá'ís continue to be persecuted in predominantly Muslim countries, especially in Iran where over 200 Bahá'ís were executed between 1978 and 1998. Among these executions include two sets of nine people who were part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran, the national governing body of the Bahá'ís, who were arrested and killed solely for their religious beliefs. Such deaths are also considered martyrdom. Mona Mahmudnizhad, one of the martyrs, is the subject of the Mark Perry play A Dress for Mona and Doug Cameron's song "Mona With the Children".

Month

A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of Moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.

New moon

In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude. At this phase, the lunar disk is not visible to the unaided eye, except when silhouetted during a solar eclipse. Daylight outshines the earthlight that dimly illuminates the new moon. The actual phase is usually a very thin crescent.The original meaning of the term new moon, which is still sometimes used in non-astronomical contexts, was the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. This crescent moon is briefly visible when low above the western horizon shortly after sunset and before moonset.

A lunation or synodic month is the average time from one new moon to the next. In the J2000.0 epoch, the average length of a lunation is 29.530588 days (or 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 2.8 seconds). However, the length of any one synodic month can vary from 29.26 to 29.80 days due to the perturbing effects of the Sun's gravity on the Moon's eccentric orbit. In a lunar calendar, each month corresponds to a lunation. Each lunar cycle can be assigned a unique lunation number to identify it.

Nineteen Day Feast

Nineteen Day Feasts are regular community gatherings, occurring on the first day of each month of the Bahá'í calendar (and are often nineteen days apart from each other). Each gathering consists of a Devotional, Administrative, and Social part. The devotional part of the Nineteen Day Feast can be compared to Sunday Services in Christianity, Friday Prayers in Islam, or Sautrday Prayers in Judaism, though the non-congregational nature of the Bahá'í Faith and that the Faith has no clergy limits the usefulness of the comparison.

Ridván

Riḍván (Arabic: رضوان‎ Riḍwán; Persian transliteration: Riḍván, Persian pronunciation: [ɾezvɒːn]) is a twelve-day festival in the Bahá'í Faith, commemorating Bahá'u'lláh's declaration that he was a Manifestation of God. In the Bahá'í Calendar, it begins at sunset on the 13th of Jalál, which translates to the 20th or 21st of April, depending on the date of the March equinox (exactly one month on the Gregorian calendar after the equinox). On the first, ninth and twelfth days of Ridván, work and school should be suspended."Ridván" means paradise, and is named for the Garden of Ridván outside Baghdad, where Bahá'u'lláh stayed for twelve days after the Ottoman Empire exiled him from the city and before commencing his journey to Constantinople.It is the holiest Bahá'í festival, and is also referred to as the "Most Great Festival" and the "King of Festivals".

Seventh day

The seventh day may refer to:

Saturday in some calendars

Sunday in other calendars

Friday in the Bahá'í calendar

Shabbat in Judaism

Sabbath in seventh-day churches

Qixi Festival, a Chinese festival that falls on the seventh day of the 7th month on the Chinese calendar

Twin Holy Birthdays

The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays or the Twin Holy Birthdays refers to two successive holy days in the Bahá'í Calendar that celebrate the births of two central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. The two holy days are the birth of the Báb on the first day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar (20 October 1819) and the birth of Bahá'u'lláh on the second day of Muharram (two years prior, on 12 November 1817).They are observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz, as determined in advance by astronomical tables using Tehran as the point of reference. This results in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Bahá'í calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November in to the Gregorian calendar.Prior to 2015 and a decision by the Universal House of Justice, these two holy days had been observed on the first and second days of Muharram in the Islamic lunar calendar in the Middle East, while other countries observed them according to the Gregorian calendar on 20 October (for the birth of the Báb) and 12 November (for the birth of Bahá'u'lláh).In 174 B.E. (2017) and 176 B.E. (2019) the bicentennial anniversaries of the Birth of Bahá’u’lláh and the Birth of the Báb will be celebrated. In October 2017 the Universal House of Justice sent a letter to "all who celebrate the Glory of God", on the meaning of Bahá'u'lláh's life and current Bahá'í activities, inspired by the 200th anniversary of his birth.

Week (disambiguation)

A week is a time unit equal to seven days.

The word week may also refer to time cycles in other calendars, such as:

the eight-day week

the nine-day week

the Chinese ten-day week

for the 19-day Bahá'í "week" see Bahá'í calendarWeek as a proper noun may also refer to:

"Week" (Do As Infinity song), a 2001 song by Do As Infinity

Week, Devon, a village in England

The Week, a British news magazine, with US and Australian editions, founded in 1995.

The Week (1933), a radical and antifascist weekly published by Marxist Claud Cockburn until 1941.

The Week (1964) a socialist newsweekly edited by Pat Jordan and published from 1964 until 1968.

The Week (Canadian magazine), a literary and political magazine

The Week (Indian magazine), a news magazine

The Week (Brisbane), a former Australian newspaper (1876–1934)WEEK may refer to:

WEEK-TV, a television station licensed to Peoria, Illinois, United States

WEEK-DT2, a digital subchannel service of WEEK-TV

WEEK-DT3, a digital subchannel service of WEEK-TV

WOAM, an AM radio station licensed to Peoria, Illinois, United States, which held the call sign WEEK until 1960

WPIA, an FM radio station licensed to Eureka, Illinois, United States, which held the call sign WEEK-FM from 1997 to 1999

Systems
Nearly universal
In wide use
In more
limited use
Historical
By specialty
Proposals
Fictional
Displays and
applications
Year naming
and
numbering

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