Baghdad

Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بغداد[baɣˈdaːd] (listen)) is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000,[note 1] making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran, Iran).

Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions (e.g., House of Wisdom), as well as hosting multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning".,

Baghdad was the largest city of the Middle Ages for much of the Abbasid era, peaking at a population of more than a million.[5] The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state (formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia) in 1938, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture.

In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgency attacks. The war had resulted in a substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts as well. As of 2018, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, ranked by Mercer as the worst of 231 major cities as measured by quality-of-life.[6]

City of Baghdad

مدينة بغداد
ܒܲܓ݂ܕܵܕ
Clockwise from top: Aerial view of the Green Zone; Al-Mustansiriya University; Al-Kadhimiya Mosque; Swords of Qadisiyah monument; and the National Museum of Iraq
Official seal of City of Baghdad

Seal
Nickname(s): 
The City of Peace (مدينة السلام)[1]
City of Baghdad is located in Baghdad
City of Baghdad
City of Baghdad
Location of Baghdad within Iraq
City of Baghdad is located in Iraq
City of Baghdad
City of Baghdad
City of Baghdad (Iraq)
City of Baghdad is located in Asia
City of Baghdad
City of Baghdad
City of Baghdad (Asia)
Coordinates: 33°20′N 44°23′E / 33.333°N 44.383°ECoordinates: 33°20′N 44°23′E / 33.333°N 44.383°E
(33°20′N 44°23′E / 33.333°N 44.383°E)
Country Iraq
GovernorateBaghdad
Established762 AD
Founded byAbu Jafar al-Mansur
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyBaghdad City Advisory Council
 • MayorZekra Alwach
Area
 • Metropolis, Capital City204.2 km2 (78.8 sq mi)
Elevation
34 m (112 ft)
Population
 • Estimate 
(2016)[note 1]
8,765,000
 • Rank1st
 • Urban
11,500,000
 • Metro
13,500,000
Demonym(s)Baghdadi
Time zoneUTC+3 (Arabian Standard Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (No DST)
Postal code
10001 to 10090
WebsiteMayoralty of Baghdad

Etymology

The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, and its origin is disputed.[7] The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian[8][9] hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis.[10]

Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name, generally looked for its roots in Persian.[7] They suggested various meanings, the most common of which was "bestowed by God".[7] Modern scholars generally tend to favor this etymology,[7] which views the word as a compound of bagh (Baghpahlavi.png) "god" and dād (Dadpahlavi.png) "given",[11][12] In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god",[13] while the second can be traced to dadāti.[14] A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "gift of Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor[13]). There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan or a village called Bagh-šan in Iran.[15] The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins.[16][17]

A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian (spelled with a sign that can represent both bag and hu), and the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha".[7][18][19] Some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations.[7]

When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the official name on coins, weights, and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name.[20][21] By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis.

History

Foundation

PARSONS(1808) p008 View of Bagdad on the Persian side of the Tigris
A view of Baghdad from the print collection in Travels in Asia and Africa, etc. (ed. J. P. Berjew, British Library)

After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (and also just north of where ancient Babylon had once stood), and on 30 July 762[22] the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids.[23] Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward".[24]

The city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, and it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, which was very uncommon during this time.

Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, which was located some 30 km (19 mi) to the southeast. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad. Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire, which had earlier replaced the city of Babylon.

According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received. The residents are mostly Hanbal. Bagdad is also home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it. The Sultan of Bagdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tartar king who embraced Islam.[25]

In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise.[26] It took four years to build (764–768). Mansur assembled engineers, surveyors, and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans; many were distributed salaries to start the building of the city.[27] July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahvazi and Mashallah, believed that the city should be built under the sign of the lion, Leo.[28] Leo is associated with fire and symbolises productivity, pride, and expansion.

The bricks used to make the city were 18 inches (460 mm) on all four sides. Abu Hanifah was the counter of the bricks and he developed a canal, which brought water to the work site for both human consumption and the manufacture of the bricks. Marble was also used to make buildings throughout the city, and marble steps led down to the river's edge.

Baghdad 150 to 300 AH
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 AD

The basic framework of the city consists of two large semicircles about 19 km (12 mi) in diameter. The city was designed as a circle about 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". The original design shows a single ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring inside the first.[29] Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and promenades.[30] In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. The Sasanian city of Gur in Fars, built 500 years before Baghdad, is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the centre of the city. This style of urban planning contrasted with Ancient Greek and Roman urban planning, in which cities are designed as squares or rectangles with streets intersecting each other at right angles.

Surrounding walls

The four surrounding walls of Baghdad were named Kufa, Basra, Khurasan, and Syria; named because their gates pointed in the directions of these destinations. The distance between these gates was a little less than 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Each gate had double doors that were made of iron; the doors were so heavy it took several men to open and close them. The wall itself was about 44 m thick at the base and about 12 m thick at the top. Also, the wall was 30 m high, which included merlons, a solid part of an embattled parapet usually pierced by embrasures. This wall was surrounded by another wall with a thickness of 50 m. The second wall had towers and rounded merlons, which surrounded the towers. This outer wall was protected by a solid glacis, which is made out of bricks and quicklime. Beyond the outer wall was a water-filled moat.

Golden Gate Palace

The Golden Gate Palace, the residence of the caliph and his family, was in the middle of Baghdad, in the central square. In the central part of the building, there was a green dome that was 39 m high. Surrounding the palace was an esplanade, a waterside building, in which only the caliph could come riding on horseback. In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer's residences. Near the Gate of Syria, a building served as the home for the guards. It was made of brick and marble. The palace governor lived in the latter part of the building and the commander of the guards in the front. In 813, after the death of caliph Al-Amin, the palace was no longer used as the home for the caliph and his family.[31] The roundness points to the fact that it was based on Arabic script.[32] The two designers who were hired by Al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran.[33]

Center of learning (8th to 9th centuries)

المدرسة المستنصرية في بغداد (3)
Courtyard of Mustansiriya madrasa, established by Al-Mustansir in 1227

Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce. The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun.[34] Baytul-Hikmah or the "House of Wisdom" was among the most well known academies,[35] and had the largest selection of books in the world by the middle of the 9th century. Notable scholars based in Baghdad during this time include translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq, mathematician al-Khwarizmi, and philosopher Al-Kindi.[35] Although Arabic was used as the international language of science, the scholarship involved not only Arabs, but also Persians, Syriacs,[36] Nestorians, Arab Christians,[37][38] and people from other ethnic and religious groups native to the region.[39][40][41][42][43] These are considered among the fundamental elements that contributed to the flourishing of scholarship in the Medieval Islamic world.[44][45][46][47] Baghdad was also a significant center of Islamic religious learning, with Al-Jahiz contributing to the formation of Mu'tazili theology, as well as Al-Tabari culminating the scholarship on the Quranic exegesis.[34] Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when it tied with Córdoba.[48] Several estimates suggest that the city contained over a million inhabitants at its peak.[49] Many of the One Thousand and One Nights tales, widely known as the Arabian Nights, are set in Baghdad during this period.

Among the notable features of Baghdad during this period were its exceptional libraries. Many of the Abbasid caliphs were patrons of learning and enjoyed collecting both ancient and contemporary literature. Although some of the princes of the previous Umayyad dynasty had begun to gather and translate Greek scientific literature, the Abbasids were the first to foster Greek learning on a large scale. Many of these libraries were private collections intended only for the use of the owners and their immediate friends, but the libraries of the caliphs and other officials soon took on a public or a semi-public character.[50] Four great libraries were established in Baghdad during this period. The earliest was that of the famous Al-Ma'mun, who was caliph from 813 to 833. Another was established by Sabur ibn Ardashir in 991 or 993 for the literary men and scholars who frequented his academy.[50] Unfortunately, this second library was plundered and burned by the Seljuks only seventy years after it was established. This was a good example of the sort of library built up out of the needs and interests of a literary society.[50] The last two were examples of madrasa or theological college libraries. The Nezamiyeh was founded by the Persian Nizam al-Mulk, who was vizier of two early Seljuk sultans.[50] It continued to operate even after the coming of the Mongols in 1258. The Mustansiriyah madrasa, which owned an exceedingly rich library, was founded by Al-Mustansir, the second last Abbasid caliph, who died in 1242.[50] This would prove to be the last great library built by the caliphs of Baghdad.

Stagnation and invasions (10th to 16th centuries)

AlKhulafa Mosque Iraq
Al Khulafa mosque retains an Abbasid-era minaret
Baghdad-Zumurrud-Khaton
Zumurrud Khaton Tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD), photo of 1932

By the 10th century, the city's population was between 1.2 million[51] and 2 million.[52] Baghdad's early meteoric growth eventually slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135).

The Seljuks were a clan of the Oghuz Turks from Central Asia that converted to the Sunni branch of Islam. In 1040, they destroyed the Ghaznavids, taking over their land and in 1055, Tughril Beg, the leader of the Seljuks, took over Baghdad. The Seljuks expelled the Buyid dynasty of Shiites that had ruled for some time and took over power and control of Baghdad. They ruled as Sultans in the name of the Abbasid caliphs (they saw themselves as being part of the Abbasid regime). Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs.[53]

Sieges and wars in which Baghdad was involved are listed below:

In 1058, Baghdad was captured by the Fatimids under the Turkish general Abu'l-Ḥārith Arslān al-Basasiri, an adherent of the Ismailis along with the 'Uqaylid Quraysh.[54] Not long before the arrival of the Saljuqs in Baghdad, al-Basasiri petitioned to the Fatimid Imam-Caliph al-Mustansir to support him in conquering Baghdad on the Ismaili Imam's behalf. It has recently come to light that the famed Fatimid da'i, al-Mu'ayyad al-Shirazi, had a direct role in supporting al-Basasiri and helped the general to succeed in taking Mawṣil, Wāsit and Kufa. Soon after,[55] by December 1058, a Shi'i adhān (call to prayer) was implemented in Baghdad and a khutbah (sermon) was delivered in the name of the Fatimid Imam-Caliph.[55] Despite his Shi'i inclinations, Al-Basasiri received support from Sunnis and Shi'is alike, for whom opposition to the Saljuq power was a common factor.[56]

DiezAlbumsFallOfBaghdad
Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 CE.

On 10 February 1258, Baghdad was captured by the Mongols led by Hulegu, a grandson of Chingiz Khan (Genghis Khan), during the siege of Baghdad.[57] Many quarters were ruined by fire, siege, or looting. The Mongols massacred most of the city's inhabitants, including the caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city. The canals and dykes forming the city's irrigation system were also destroyed. During this time, in Baghdad, Christians and Shia were tolerated, while Sunnis were treated as enemies.[58] The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate.[59] It has been argued that this marked an end to the Islamic Golden Age and served a blow from which Islamic civilisation never fully recovered.[60]

Timur reconstruction03
Central Asian Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur sacked the city and spared almost no one.

At this point, Baghdad was ruled by the Ilkhanate, a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, ruling from Iran. In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by the Central Asian Turkic conqueror Timur ("Tamerlane").[61] When his forces took Baghdad, he spared almost no one, and ordered that each of his soldiers bring back two severed human heads.[62] Baghdad became a provincial capital controlled by the Mongol Jalayirid (1400–1411), Turkic Kara Koyunlu (1411–1469), Turkic Ak Koyunlu (1469–1508), and the Iranian Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties.

Ottoman era (16th to 19th centuries)

Baghdad Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (1609)

Baghdad Eyalet in 1609 CE.

Baghdad Vilayet, Ottoman Empire (1900)

Baghdad Vilayet in 1900 CE.

Market-Place of Bagdad.jpeg

Souk in Baghdad, 1876 CE.

In 1534, Baghdad was captured by the Ottoman Turks. Under the Ottomans, Baghdad continued into a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Iranian Safavids, which did not accept the Sunni control of the city. Between 1623 and 1638, it returned to Iranian rule before falling back into Ottoman hands.

Baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague and cholera,[63] and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out.[64]

For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. The city saw relative revival in the latter part of the 18th century under a Mamluk government. Direct Ottoman rule was reimposed by Ali Rıza Pasha in 1831. From 1851 to 1852 and from 1861 to 1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha.[65] The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000.

20th and 21st centuries

Shahbandar Cafe
The Shabandar Café in Baghdad, 1923

Baghdad and southern Iraq remained under Ottoman rule until 1917, when captured by the British during World War I. In 1920, Baghdad became the capital of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia and after receiving independence in 1932, the capital of the Kingdom of Iraq. The city's population grew from an estimated 145,000 in 1900 to 580,000 in 1950. During the Mandate, Baghdad's substantial Jewish community comprised a quarter of the city's population.[66]

On 1 April 1941, members of the "Golden Square" and Rashid Ali staged a coup in Baghdad. Rashid Ali installed a pro-German and pro-Italian government to replace the pro-British government of Regent Abdul Ilah. On 31 May, after the resulting Anglo-Iraqi War and after Rashid Ali and his government had fled, the Mayor of Baghdad surrendered to British and Commonwealth forces.

On 14 July 1958, members of the Iraqi Army, under Abd al-Karim Qasim, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq. King Faisal II, former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said, former Regent Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, members of the royal family, and others were brutally killed during the coup. Many of the victim's bodies were then dragged through the streets of Baghdad.

20160102-Tahrir square Baghdad
Freedom Monument,Tahrir square in Downtown Baghdad

During the 1970s, Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleum, Iraq's main export. New infrastructure including modern sewerage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. The masterplans of the city (1967, 1973) were delivered by the Polish planning office Miastoprojekt-Kraków, mediated by Polservice.[67] However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed. Iran launched a number of missile attacks against Baghdad in retaliation for Saddam Hussein's continuous bombardments of Tehran's residential districts.

In 1991 and 2003, the Gulf War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused significant damage to Baghdad's transportation, power, and sanitary infrastructure as the US-led coalition forces launched massive aerial assaults in the city in the two wars. Also in 2003, the minor riot in the city (which took place on 21 July) caused some disturbance in the population.

The historic "Assyrian Quarter" of the city, Dora, which boasted a population of 150,000 Assyrians in 2003, made up over 3% of the capital's Assyrian population then. The community has been subject to kidnappings, death threats, vandalism, and house burnings by Al-Qaeda and other insurgent groups. As of the end of 2014, only 1,500 Assyrians remained in Dora.[68]

Main sights

Al-Mutanabbi Statue in Baghdad(Cropped)
Al-Mutanabbi Statue at the end of Mutanabbi Street beside the Tigris.

Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose priceless collection of artifacts was looted during the 2003 invasion, and the iconic Hands of Victory arches. Multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether the arches should remain as historical monuments or be dismantled. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam's command.

Mutanabbi Street

Mutanabbi Street (Arabic: شارع المتنبي) is located near the old quarter of Baghdad; at Al Rasheed Street. It is the historic center of Baghdadi book-selling, a street filled with bookstores and outdoor book stalls. It was named after the 10th-century classical Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi.[69] This street is well established for bookselling and has often been referred to as the heart and soul of the Baghdad literacy and intellectual community.

Baghdad Zoo

The zoological park used to be the largest in the Middle East. Within eight days following the 2003 invasion, however, only 35 of the 650 animals in the facility survived. This was a result of theft of some animals for human food, and starvation of caged animals that had no food. South African Lawrence Anthony and some of the zoo keepers cared for the animals and fed the carnivores with donkeys they had bought locally.[70][71] Eventually, Paul Bremer, Director of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq from 11 May 2003 to 28 June 2004 ordered protection of the zoo and U.S. engineers helped to reopen the facility.[70]

Grand Festivities Square

Grand Festivities Square is the main square where public celebrations are held and is also the home to three important monuments commemorating Iraqi's fallen soldiers and victories in war; namely Al-Shaheed Monument, the Victory Arch and the Unknown Soldier's Monument.[72]

Al-Shaheed Monument

Al-Shaheed Monument (Arabic: نصب الشهيد‎), also known as the Martyr's Memorial, is a monument dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran–Iraq War. However, now it is generally considered by Iraqis to be for all of the martyrs of Iraq, especially those allied with Iran and Syria currently fighting ISIS, not just of the Iran–Iraq War. The Monument was opened in 1983, and was designed by the Iraqi architect Saman Kamal and the Iraqi sculptor and artist Ismail Fatah Al Turk. During the 1970s and 1980s, Saddam Hussein's government spent a lot of money on new monuments, which included the al-Shaheed Monument.[73]

Iraq baghdad 04

Al-Shaheed, (Martyr's Monument), Zawra Park, Baghdad

Swords of Qādisīyah (7112414819)

The Victory Arch (officially known as the Swords of Qādisīyah

Qushla

Qishla Building 3
Qushla clock tower

Qushla (or Qishla, Arabic: قشلة‎) is a public square and the historical complex located in Rusafa neighborhood at the riverbank of Tigris. Qushla and its surroundings is where the historical features and cultural capitals of Baghdad are concentrated, from the Mutanabbi Street, Abbasid-era palace and bridges, Ottoman-era mosques to the Mustansariyah Madrasa. The square developed during the Ottoman era as a military barracks. Today, it is a place where the citizens of Baghdad find leisure such as reading poetry in gazebos.[74] It is characterized by the iconic clock tower which was donated by George V. The entire area is currently submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Tentative list.[75]

Masjid of the Kadhimain

Al-Kadhimiyyah Masjid is a shrine that is located in the Kādhimayn suburb of Baghdad. It contains the tombs of the seventh and ninth Twelver Shi'ite Imams, Musa al-Kadhim and Muhammad at-Taqi respectively, upon whom the title of Kāẓimayn (Arabic: كَـاظِـمَـيـن‎, "Two who swallow their anger") was bestowed.[76][77][78] Many Shi'ites travel to the mosque from far away places to commemorate.

Masjid of Abu Hanifah

A'dhamiyyah is a predominantly Sunni area with a Masjid that is associated with the Sunni Imam Abu Hanifah. The name of Al-A‘ẓamiyyah (Arabic: الأَعـظَـمِـيَّـة‎) is derived from Abu Hanifah's title, al-Imām al-A‘ẓam (Arabic: الإِمَـام الأَعـظَـم‎, the Great Imam).[79][80]

Firdos Square

Firdos Square is a public open space in Baghdad and the location of two of the best-known hotels, the Palestine Hotel and the Sheraton Ishtar, which are both also the tallest buildings in Baghdad.[81] The square was the site of the statue of Saddam Hussein that was pulled down by U.S. coalition forces in a widely televised event during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Administrative divisions

Bagdad-sat
Baghdad as seen from the International Space Station

Administratively, Baghdad Governorate is divided into districts which are further divided into sub-districts. Municipally, the governorate is divided into 9 municipalities, which have responsibility for local issues. Regional services, however, are coordinated and carried out by a mayor who oversees the municipalities. There is no single city council that singularly governs Baghdad at a municipal level. The governorate council is responsible for the governorate-wide policy.

These official subdivisions of the city served as administrative centres for the delivery of municipal services but until 2003 had no political function. Beginning in April 2003, the U.S. controlled Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began the process of creating new functions for these. The process initially focused on the election of neighbourhood councils in the official neighbourhoods, elected by neighbourhood caucuses.

The CPA convened a series of meetings in each neighbourhood to explain local government, to describe the caucus election process and to encourage participants to spread the word and bring friends, relatives and neighbours to subsequent meetings. Each neighbourhood process ultimately ended with a final meeting where candidates for the new neighbourhood councils identified themselves and asked their neighbours to vote for them.

Once all 88 (later increased to 89) neighbourhood councils were in place, each neighbourhood council elected representatives from among their members to serve on one of the city's nine district councils. The number of neighbourhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighbourhood's population. The next step was to have each of the nine district councils elect representatives from their membership to serve on the 37 member Baghdad City Council. This three tier system of local government connected the people of Baghdad to the central government through their representatives from the neighbourhood, through the district, and up to the city council.

The same process was used to provide representative councils for the other communities in Baghdad Province outside of the city itself. There, local councils were elected from 20 neighbourhoods (Nahia) and these councils elected representatives from their members to serve on six district councils (Qada). As within the city, the district councils then elected representatives from among their members to serve on the 35 member Baghdad Regional Council.

The first step in the establishment of the system of local government for Baghdad Province was the election of the Baghdad Provincial Council. As before, the representatives to the Provincial Council were elected by their peers from the lower councils in numbers proportional to the population of the districts they represent. The 41 member Provincial Council took office in February 2004 and served until national elections held in January 2005, when a new Provincial Council was elected.

This system of 127 separate councils may seem overly cumbersome; however, Baghdad Province is home to approximately seven million people. At the lowest level, the neighbourhood councils, each council represents an average of 75,000 people.

The nine District Advisory Councils (DAC) are as follows:[82]

The nine districts are subdivided into 89 smaller neighborhoods which may make up sectors of any of the districts above. The following is a selection (rather than a complete list) of these neighborhoods:

Geography

The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris river. The Tigris splits Baghdad in half, with the eastern half being called "Risafa" and the Western half known as "Karkh". The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river.

Panoramic view of the Tigris as it flows through Baghdad
Panoramic view of the Tigris as it flows through Baghdad

Climate

Baghdad has a subtropical desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh), featuring extremely hot, dry summers and mild, damp winters. In the summer, from June through August, the average maximum temperature is as high as 44 °C (111 °F), accompanied by blazing sunshine. Rainfall has, in fact, been recorded on fewer than half a dozen occasions at this time of year and has never exceeded 1 millimetre (0.04 in).[90] Even at night temperatures in summer are seldom below 24 °C (75 °F). Baghdad's record highest temperature of 51 degrees Celsius (124 degrees Fahrenheit) was reached in July 2015.[91] The humidity is typically under 50% in summer due to Baghdad's distance from the marshy southern Iraq and the coasts of Persian Gulf, and dust storms from the deserts to the west are a normal occurrence during the summer.

Winters boast temperatures typical of subtropical climates. From December through February, Baghdad has maximum temperatures averaging 15.5 to 18.5 °C (59.9 to 65.3 °F), though highs above 21 °C (70 °F) are not unheard of. The average January low is 3.8 °C (38.8 °F), but lows below freezing occur a couple of times per year on average.[92]

Annual rainfall, almost entirely confined to the period from November through March, averages approximately 150 mm (5.91 in), but has been as high as 338 mm (13.31 in) and as low as 37 mm (1.46 in).[93] On 11 January 2008, light snow fell across Baghdad for the first time in 100 years.[94]

Climate data for Baghdad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.8
(76.6)
27.1
(80.8)
30.9
(87.6)
38.6
(101.5)
43.5
(110.3)
48.8
(119.8)
51.1
(124.0)
49.9
(121.8)
47.7
(117.9)
40.2
(104.4)
35.6
(96.1)
25.3
(77.5)
51.1
(124.0)
Average high °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
18.5
(65.3)
23.6
(74.5)
29.9
(85.8)
36.5
(97.7)
41.3
(106.3)
44.0
(111.2)
43.5
(110.3)
40.2
(104.4)
33.4
(92.1)
23.7
(74.7)
17.2
(63.0)
30.6
(87.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
12.0
(53.6)
16.6
(61.9)
22.6
(72.7)
28.3
(82.9)
32.3
(90.1)
34.8
(94.6)
34.0
(93.2)
30.5
(86.9)
24.7
(76.5)
16.5
(61.7)
11.2
(52.2)
22.8
(73.0)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
5.5
(41.9)
9.6
(49.3)
15.2
(59.4)
20.1
(68.2)
23.3
(73.9)
25.5
(77.9)
24.5
(76.1)
20.7
(69.3)
15.9
(60.6)
9.2
(48.6)
5.1
(41.2)
14.9
(58.8)
Record low °C (°F) −11.0
(12.2)
−10.0
(14.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
8.3
(46.9)
14.6
(58.3)
22.4
(72.3)
20.6
(69.1)
15.3
(59.5)
6.2
(43.2)
−1.5
(29.3)
−8.7
(16.3)
−11.0
(12.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 27.2
(1.07)
19.1
(0.75)
22.0
(0.87)
15.6
(0.61)
3.2
(0.13)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
3.3
(0.13)
12.4
(0.49)
20.0
(0.79)
122.8
(4.83)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.001 mm) 8 7 8 6 4 0 0 0 0 4 6 7 50
Average relative humidity (%) 71 61 53 43 30 21 22 22 26 34 54 71 42
Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.2 203.3 244.9 255.0 300.7 348.0 347.2 353.4 315.0 272.8 213.0 195.3 3,240.8
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN)[95]
Source #2: Climate & Temperature[96]

Demographics

Baghdad's population was estimated at 7.22 million in 2015. The city historically had a predominantly Sunni population, but by the early 21st century around 82% of the city's population were Iraqi Shia. At the beginning of the 21st century, some 1.5 million people migrated to Baghdad, most of them Shiites and a few Sunnis.Sunni muslims make up 30-35% of Iraq's population and they still majority in west and north Iraq.

As early as 2003, about 20 percent of the population of the city was the result of mixed marriages between Shi'ites and Sunnis: they are often referred to as "Sushis".[97] Following the sectarian violence in Iraq between the Sunni and Shia militia groups during the U.S. occupation of Iraq, the city's population became overwhelmingly Shia. Despite the government's promise to resettle Sunnis displaced by the violence, little has been done to bring this about. The Iraqi Civil War following ISIS' invasion in 2014 caused hundreds of thousands of Iraqi internally displaced people to flee to the city. The city currently has Sunni, Shia, Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriacs, Armenians and mixed neighborhoods.

Economy

فندق بغداد روتانا
View of downtown Baghdad, March 2017
Al-Ma'mun's Telecommunication Center
Al-Ma'mun's Telecommunication Center in downtown Baghdad

Baghdad accounts for 22.2 per cent of Iraq's population and 40 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (PPP). Iraqi Airways, the national airline of Iraq, has its headquarters on the grounds of Baghdad International Airport in Baghdad.[98] Al-Naser Airlines has its head office in Karrada, Baghdad.[99]

Reconstruction efforts

Most Iraqi reconstruction efforts have been devoted to the restoration and repair of badly damaged urban infrastructure. More visible efforts at reconstruction through private development, like architect and urban designer Hisham N. Ashkouri's Baghdad Renaissance Plan and the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center have also been made.[100] A plan was proposed by a Government agency to rebuild a tourist island in 2008.[101] In late 2009, a construction plan was proposed to rebuild the heart of Baghdad, but the plan was never realized because corruption was involved in it.[102]

The Baghdad Eye, a 198 m (650 ft) tall Ferris wheel, was proposed for Baghdad in August 2008. At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given.[103][104][105][106] In October 2008, it was reported that Al-Zawraa Park was expected to be the site,[107] and a 55 m (180 ft) wheel was installed there in March 2011.[108]

Iraq's Tourism Board is also seeking investors to develop a "romantic" island on the River Tigris in Baghdad that was once a popular honeymoon spot for newlywed Iraqis. The project would include a six-star hotel, spa, an 18-hole golf course and a country club. In addition, the go-ahead has been given to build numerous architecturally unique skyscrapers along the Tigris that would develop the city's financial centre in Kadhehemiah.[103]

In October 2008, the Baghdad Metro resumed service. It connects the center to the southern neighborhood of Dora. In May 2010, a new residential and commercial project nicknamed Baghdad Gate was announced.[109] This project not only addresses the urgent need for new residential units in Baghdad but also acts as a real symbol of progress in the war torn city, as Baghdad has not seen projects of this scale for decades.[110]

Retail

  • Baghdad | Baghdad Mall (4 floors) + Baghdad Rayhan Hotel by Rotana + offices (30 floors) (105 metres) + offices (7 floors)

Housing

  • Baghdad | Bismayah New City | 100,000 housing units.
  • Baghdad | Zuhour | 5400 units (100 apartments)
  • Baghdad | Ibn Firnas Residential Project | 2016 housing Units
  • Baghdad | Al Ayadi Residential Project | 1335 housing Units
  • Baghdad | Riyadh Apartments | 8 floors

Education

The Mustansiriya Madrasah was established in 1227 by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir. The name was changed to Al-Mustansiriya University in 1963. The University of Baghdad is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world.

Prior to the Gulf War multiple international schools operated in Baghdad, including:

Universities

Culture

Iraqi National Orchestra
The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra, officially founded in 1959, performing a concert in Iraq in July 2007.

Baghdad has always played a significant role in the broader Arab cultural sphere, contributing several significant writers, musicians and visual artists. Famous Arab poets and singers such as Nizar Qabbani, Umm Kulthum, Fairuz, Salah Al-Hamdani, Ilham al-Madfai and others have performed for the city.

The dialect of Arabic spoken in Baghdad today differs from that of other large urban centres in Iraq, having features more characteristic of nomadic Arabic dialects (Versteegh, The Arabic Language). It is possible that this was caused by the repopulating of the city with rural residents after the multiple sackings of the late Middle Ages.

For poetry written about Baghdad, see Reuven Snir (ed.), Baghdad: The City in Verse (Harvard, 2013)[2]

Baghdad joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network as a City of Literature in December 2015.[114]

Institutions

Iraq-National unity ballet2 600
Two ballet dancers of the Iraqi National Ballet (which is based in Baghdad) performing a ballet show in Iraq in 2007.
Baghdad Convention Center inside
Many events are hosted at the Baghdad Convention Center

Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include the National Theater, which was looted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but efforts are underway to restore the theatre.[115] The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s, when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.[116]

Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include The Music and Ballet School of Baghdad and the Institute of Fine Arts Baghdad. The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra is a government funded symphony orchestra in Baghdad. The INSO plays primarily classical European music, as well as original compositions based on Iraqi and Arab instruments and music. Baghdad is also home to a number of museums which housed artifacts and relics of ancient civilization; many of these were stolen, and the museums looted, during the widespread chaos immediately after United States forces entered the city.

During the 2003 occupation of Iraq, AFN Iraq ("Freedom Radio") broadcast news and entertainment within Baghdad, among other locations. There is also a private radio station called "Dijlah" (named after the Arabic word for the Tigris River) that was created in 2004 as Iraq's first independent talk radio station. Radio Dijlah offices, in the Jamia neighborhood of Baghdad, have been attacked on several occasions.[117]

Destruction of cultural heritage

Priceless collection of artifacts in the National Museum of Iraq was looted during the 2003 US-led invasion. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam's command and because of neglect by the occupying coalition forces.[118]

Sport

Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football (soccer) teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al-Shorta (Police), Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya (Airforce club), Al-Zawra'a, and Talaba (Students). The largest stadium in Baghdad is Al-Shaab Stadium, which was opened in 1966. Another, but much larger stadium, is still in the opening stages of construction.

The city has also had a strong tradition of horse racing ever since World War I, known to Baghdadis simply as 'Races'. There are reports of pressures by the Islamists to stop this tradition due to the associated gambling.[119]

Major streets

Haifa street, as seen from the medical city hospital across the tigres
Haifa Street, as seen from the Medical City Hospital across the Tigris River
Palestine Meridian hotel and Ishtar Sheraton hotel
Palestine Meridian hotel and Ishtar Sheraton hotel
Iraq baghdad 02
A street in Baghdad, 2015
  • Haifa Street
  • Salihiya Residential area - situated off Al Sinak bridge in central Baghdad, surrounded by Al- Mansur Hotel in the north and Al-Rasheed hotel in the south
  • Hilla Road – Runs from the south into Baghdad via Yarmouk (Baghdad)
  • Caliphs Street – site of historical mosques and churches
  • Sadoun Street – stretching from Liberation Square to Masbah
  • Mohammed Al-Qassim highway near Adhamiyah
  • Abu Nuwas Street – runs along the Tigris from the Jumhouriya Bridge to 14 July Suspended Bridge
  • Damascus Street – goes from Damascus Square to the Baghdad Airport Road
  • Mutanabbi Street – A street with numerous bookshops, named after the 10th century Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi
  • Rabia Street
  • Arbataash Tamuz (14th July) Street (Mosul Road)
  • Muthana al-Shaibani Street
  • Bor Saeed (Port Said) Street
  • Thawra Street
  • Al Qanat Street – runs through Baghdad north-south
  • Al Khat al Sare'a – Mohammed al Qasim (high speed lane) – runs through Baghdad, north-south
  • Al Sinaa Street (Industry Street) runs by the University of Technology – centre of the computer trade in Baghdad
  • Al Nidhal Street
  • Al Rasheed Street – city centre Baghdad
  • Al Jamhuriah Street – city centre Baghdad
  • Falastin Street
  • Tariq el Muaskar – (Al Rasheed Camp Road)
  • Aakhrot street
  • Baghdad Airport Road [120]

Twin towns/Sister cities

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Estimates of total population differ substantially. The Encyclopedia Britannica gives the city 2001-2006 population of 4,950,000;[2] the 2006 Lancet Report states a population of 7,216,050;[3] Mongabay gives a figure of 6,492,200 as of 2002.[4]

References

  1. ^ Petersen, Andrew (13 September 2011). "Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam)". Islamic Arts & Architecture. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  2. ^ "Baghdad" Archived 22 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 November 2016.
  3. ^ Gilbert Burnham; Riyadh Lafta; Shannon Doocy; Les Roberts (11 October 2006). "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey". The Lancet. 368 (9545): 1421–1428. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.88.4036. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69491-9. PMID 17055943. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. (110 KB)
  4. ^ "Cities and urban areas in Iraq with population over 100,000" Archived 15 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Mongabay.com
  5. ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  6. ^ Vienna unbeatable as world's most liveable city, Baghdad still worst. Reuters. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Duri, A.A. (2012). "Bag̲h̲dād". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0084.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  8. ^ "Baghdad, Foundation and early growth". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015. [...] the site located between present-day Al-Kāẓimiyyah and Al-Karkh and occupied by a Persian village called Baghdad, was selected by al-Manṣūr, the second caliph of the Abbāsid dynasty, for his capital.
  9. ^ Le Strange, G. (n.d.). [...] The Persian hamlet of Baghdad, on the Western bank of the Tigris, and just above where Sarat canal flowed in, was ultimately fixed upon [...]. In Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (p. 9).
  10. ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. 1987. ISBN 978-9004082656.
  11. ^ Mackenzie, D. (1971). A concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 23, 16).
  12. ^ "BAGHDAD i. Before the Mongol Invasion – Encyclopædia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Etymology Dictionary was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Guy Le Strange, "Baghdad During the Abbasid Caliphate from Contemporary Arabic and Persian", pg 10
  15. ^ Joneidi, F. (2007). متن‌های پهلوی. In Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) نامه پهلوانی: آموزش خط و زبان پهلوی اشکانی و ساسانی (second ed., p. 109). Tehran: Balkh (نشر بلخ).
  16. ^ "Persimmons surviving winter in Bagdati, Georgia". Georgian Journal. 22 February 2016. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  17. ^ "Kutaisi". Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  18. ^ John B. Friedman, Kristen M. Figg Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages, (Taylor & Francis, 2013)
  19. ^ Brinkmann J. A. A political history of post-Kassite Babylonia, 1158-722 B.C.(Gregorian Biblical BookShop, 1968)
  20. ^ "ما معنى اسم مدينة بغداد ومن سماه ؟". Seenjeem.maktoob.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  21. ^ Google Ejabat (in Arabic) https://web.archive.org/web/20131229160415/http://ejabat.google.com/ejabat/thread?tid=6981074380f32f74. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ Corzine, Phyllis (2005). The Islamic Empire. Thomson Gale. pp. 68–69.
  23. ^ Times History of the World. London: Times Books. 2000.
  24. ^ Wiet, Gastron (1971). Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate. Univ. of Oklahoma Press.
  25. ^ Battuta, pg. 75
  26. ^ Wiet, pg. 13
  27. ^ Corzine, Phyllis (2005). The Islamic Empire. Thomson Gale. p. 69.
  28. ^ Wiet, pg. 12
  29. ^ "Abbasid Ceramics: Plan of Baghdad". Archived from the original on 25 March 2003. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  30. ^ "Yakut: Baghdad under the Abbasids, c. 1000CE"
  31. ^ Wiet, pg. 15
  32. ^ See:
  33. ^ Hill, Donald R. (1994). Islamic Science and Engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7486-0457-9.
  34. ^ a b Gordon, M.S. (2006). Baghdad. In Meri, J.W. ed. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge.
  35. ^ a b When Baghdad was centre of the scientific world. The Guardian. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  36. ^ "The population of Hira comprised its townspeople, the 'Ibad "devotees", who were Nestorian Christians using Syriac as their liturgical and cultural language, though Arabic was probably the language of daily intercourse." (1983). Yarshater, E., ed. "The Cambridge History of Iran". doi:10.1017/chol9780521200929.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ 1938-, Ohlig, Karl-Heinz, - The hidden origins of Islam: new research into its early history. Prometheus Books. p. 32. :"The 'Ibad are tribes made up of different Arabian families that became connected with Christianity in al-Hira.". Early Islam. p. 32. ISBN 9781616148256. OCLC 914334282.
  38. ^ "Ḥira became renowned for its literate population of Arab Christians, Nestorians, or ʿEbād [al-Masiḥ] “devotees [of Christ].” ". "al-ḤĪRA". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Retrieved 2019-02-12.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ Meri, Josef (2018-01-12). "Routledge Revivals: Medieval Islamic Civilization (2006)". doi:10.4324/9781315162416.
  40. ^ "Sir Henry Lyons, F.R.S". Nature. 132 (3323): 55–55. July 1933. doi:10.1038/132055c0. ISSN 0028-0836.
  41. ^ E., Pormann, Peter (2007). Medieval Islamic medicine. Savage-Smith, Emilie. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 9781589011601. OCLC 71581787.
  42. ^ "syriacs during the islamic golden age - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  43. ^ HumWest (2015-03-14). "Baghdad in Its Golden Age (762-1300) | April 25–26, 2014". Humanities West. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  44. ^ Falagas, Matthew E.; Zarkadoulia, Effie A.; Samonis, George (2006-08-01). "Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 C.E.) and today". The FASEB Journal. 20 (10): 1581–1586. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0803ufm. ISSN 0892-6638.
  45. ^ Saliba, George (2007). "Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance". doi:10.7551/mitpress/3981.001.0001.
  46. ^ Jonathan., Lyons, (2011). The House of Wisdom : How the Arabs Transformed Western Civilization. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781608191901. OCLC 1021808136.
  47. ^ Cite error: The named reference author was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  48. ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  49. ^ Matt T. Rosenberg, Largest Cities Through History. Archived 24 June 2007 at WebCite
  50. ^ a b c d e Mackensen, Ruth Stellhorn . (1932). Four Great Libraries of Medieval Baghdad. The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, Vol. 2, No. 3 (July 1932), pp. 279-299. University of Chicago Press.
  51. ^ George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington, D.C.: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 978-0-9676230-1-6. See also Evolutionary World Politics Homepage Archived 20 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  52. ^ Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger (1996). "International dictionary of historic places, Volume 4: Middle East and Africa". Taylor and Francis: 116.
  53. ^ Atlas of the Medieval World pg. 170
  54. ^ Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 6.
  55. ^ a b Daftary, Farhad. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 205-206.
  56. ^ Daftary, Farhad. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 206.
  57. ^ Central Asian world cities Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, George Modelski
  58. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; Donzel, E. van; Heinrichs, W.P.; Pellat, Ch., eds. (1998). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume VII (Mif-Naz). BRILL. p. 1032. ISBN 9789004094192.
  59. ^ "Baghdad Sacked by the Mongols | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  60. ^ Cooper, William W.; Yue, Piyu (15 February 2008). Challenges of the Muslim World: Present, Future and Past. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 9780444532435. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  61. ^ Ian Frazier, Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The New Yorker 25 April 2005. p.5
  62. ^ New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism Archived 18 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, EurasiaNet Civil Society, Elizabeth Kiem, 28 April 2006
  63. ^ "The Fertile Crescent, 1800-1914: a documentary economic history". Charles Philip Issawi (1988). Oxford University Press US. p.99. ISBN 0-19-504951-9
  64. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi, Halil İnalcık, Donald Quataert (1997). "An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire". Cambridge University Press. p.651. ISBN 0-521-57455-2
  65. ^ Cetinsaya, Gokhan. Ottoman Administration of Iraq, 1890–1908. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.
  66. ^ Edmund A. Ghareeb; Beth Dougherty (18 March 2004). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Scarecrow Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-8108-6568-6. Jews represented 2.5 percent of 'Iraq's population and 25 percent of Baghdad's.
  67. ^ Stanek, L., Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), The Journal of Architecture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2012
  68. ^ Spencer, Richard (22 December 2014). "Iraq crisis: The last Christians of Dora". Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  69. ^ Owles, Eric (18 December 2008). "Then and Now: A New Chapter for Baghdad Book Market". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  70. ^ a b "The Choice, featuring Lawrence Anthony". BBC radio 4. 4 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  71. ^ Anthony, Lawrence; Spence Grayham (3 June 2007). Babylon's Ark; The Incredible Wartime Rescue of the Baghdad Zoo. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-35832-7.
  72. ^ Makiya, K. and Al-Khalilm S., The Monument: Art, Vulgarity, and Responsibility in Saddam Hussein's Iraq, p. 29
  73. ^ "GlobalSecurity.org". Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  74. ^ Al-Qushla: Iraq's oasis of free expression. Archived 16 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine Al-Jazeera. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  75. ^ 5880 Archived 4 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine. UNESCO. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  76. ^ "تاریخچه حرم کاظمین". kazem.ommolketab.ir. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2017. (in Persian)
  77. ^ افتتاحية قبة الامام الجواد عليه السلام. www.aljawadain.org (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
  78. ^ البدء بإعمار وتذهيب قبة الإمام الكاظم عليه السلام. www.aljawadain.org (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
  79. ^ al-Aadhamy. History of the Great Imam mosque and al-Adhamiyah mosques 1. p. 29.
  80. ^ Al Shakir, Osama S. (20 October 2013). "History of the Moof Abu Hanifa and its school". Abu Hanifa An-Nu'man Mosque. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017. (in Arabic)
  81. ^ "Iraq: A Guide to the Green Zone". Newsweek. 17 December 2006. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  82. ^ "New troops to move into Iraq". USA Today.
  83. ^ "DefenseLink News Article: Soldier Helps to Form Democracy in Baghdad". Defenselink.mil. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  84. ^ "Zafaraniya Residents Get Water Project Update - DefendAmerica News Article". Defendamerica.mil. Archived from the original on 28 December 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  85. ^ Frank, Thomas (26 March 2006). "Basics of democracy in Iraq include frustration". USA Today. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  86. ^ "DefendAmerica News - Article". Defendamerica.mil. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  87. ^ "Democracy from scratch". csmonitor.com. 5 December 2003. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  88. ^ "Leaders Highlight Successes of Baghdad Operation - DefendAmerica News Article". Defendamerica.mil. Archived from the original on 28 December 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  89. ^ NBC 6 News - 1st Cav Headlines Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  90. ^ Monthly rainfall for Baghdad (WMO #40650)
  91. ^ [1] Archived 2 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 31 July 2015.
  92. ^ "World Weather Information Service". worldweather.wmo.int. 26 October 2016. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  93. ^ Annual Rainfall Statistics for Baghdad (WMO #40650)
  94. ^ (AFP) – 11 January 2008 (11 January 2008). "Afp.google.com, First snow for 100 years falls on Baghdad". Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  95. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Baghdad". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  96. ^ "Baghdad Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures, with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity". Climate & Temperature. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  97. ^ Kamal, Nesrine (18 June 2016). "'Sushi' children defy Sunni-Shia divide". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  98. ^ "Iraqi Airways". Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Arab Air Carriers Organization. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.
  99. ^ "Contact Us Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Al-Naser Airlines. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. "Main Branch: Al-Karrada, Babil Region - Distrlct 929 [sic] - St21 - Home 46 - Beside Al Jadirya Private Hospital. [...] Iraq- Baghdad."
  100. ^ ARCADD Archived 20 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  101. ^ Goode, Erica; Mohammed, Riyadh (20 September 2008). "The New York Times". The New York Times. nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  102. ^ Mohammed, Riyadh; Leland, John (29 December 2009). "The New York Times". The New York Times. nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  103. ^ a b Yacoub, Sameer. "Baghdad plans to build giant Ferris wheel". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  104. ^ Iraq Looking To Build Giant Observation Wheel In Baghdad To Promote Tourism
  105. ^ "Iraq plans giant Ferris wheel, hopes to lure tourists to Baghdad". Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  106. ^ Wikinews: Iraq plans 'Baghdad Eye' to draw in tourists
  107. ^ Jared Jacang Maher (October 2008). "Obama ad attacks McCain for Baghdad Ferris wheel project being built on land leased by a Democratic Party donor". Westword. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  108. ^ AFP (21 March 2011). "New Ferris wheel attracts leisure-starved Iraqis". dawn.com. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  109. ^ "Baghdad Gate". Iraqi News. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  110. ^ "Baghdad Investment: Creating (1824) housing units in Baghdad". Baghdad Governorate Website. 2010. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  111. ^ "Arrêté du 22 novembre 1990 complétant l'arrêté du 23 août 1990 fixant la liste des établissements d'enseignement prévue à l'article 1er du décret no 90-469 du 31 mai 1990" (Archive). Legislature of France. Retrieved on 12 March 2016.
  112. ^ "Deutscher Bundestag 4. Wahlperiode Drucksache IV/3672" (Archive). Bundestag (West Germany). 23 June 1965. Retrieved on 12 March 2016. p. 35/51.
  113. ^ "中近東の日本人学校一覧" (). National Education Center (国立教育会館) of Japan. 21 February 1999. Retrieved on 12 March 2016. "バクダッド 休 校 中 " (means "Baghdad School Closed")
  114. ^ "Baghdad selected as new member of 'UNESCO Creative Cities Network'". Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  115. ^ Five women confront a new Iraq | csmonitor.com Archived 28 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  116. ^ "In Baghdad, Art Thrives As War Hovers". Commondreams.org. 2 January 2003. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  117. ^ "Gunmen storm independent radio station in latest attack against media in Iraq". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  118. ^ "Occupation and international humanitarian law: Questions and answers - ICRC". 4 August 2004. Archived from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  119. ^ IBP, Inc (2012). Iraq Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments. Lulu.com. p. 300. ISBN 9781438774633.
  120. ^ "PowWeb" (PDF). dcswift.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  121. ^ "Twinning the Cities". City of Beirut. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  122. ^ Corfield, Justin (2013). "Sister Cities". Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang. London: Anthem Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-85728-234-7.

Further reading

Articles

Books

  • Pieri, Caecilia (2011). Baghdad Arts Deco: Architectural Brickwork, 1920-1950 (1st ed.). The American University in Cairo Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-9774163562.
  • "Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-135" by Ibn Battuta
  • "Gertrude Bell: the Arabian diaries,1913–1914." by Bell Gertrude Lowthian, and O'Brien, Rosemary.
  • "Historic cities of the Islamic world."by Bosworth, Clifford Edmund.
  • "Ottoman administration of Iraq, 1890–1908." by Cetinsaya, Gokhan.
  • "Naked in Baghdad." by Garrels, Anne, and Lawrence, Vint.
  • "A memoir of Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson." by Rawlinson, George.

External links

2018 Baghdad bombings

On Monday January 15, 2018 two suicide bombings took place at al-Tayaran Square of Baghdad, killing 38 people and injuring more than 105 others, attacks later claimed by the jihadist group Islamic State (IS).

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate ( or Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎, al-Khilāfatu al-ʿAbbāsiyyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).

The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon. The Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats (notably the Barmakid family) for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah (national community). Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, and they began patronage of artists and scholars. Baghdad became a centre of science, culture, philosophy and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam.

Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali (clients) and Iranian bureaucrats. They were forced to cede authority over Al-Andalus and the Maghreb to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya to the Aghlabids in 800 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969.

The political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, who captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055, respectively. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was gradually reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian domain. The Abbasids' period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, and Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim religious authority until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.

Abdul Qadir Gilani

ʿAbd al-Qādir Gīlānī, (Persian: عبدالقادر گیلانی‎, formally Muḥyī l-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. Abū Sālih ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī al-Ḥasanī wa'l-Ḥusaynī (Arabic: عبدالقادر الجيلاني‎, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî‎, Sorani Kurdish: عه‌بدوالقادری گه‌یلانی‎), known as for short was a Hanbali Sunni Muslim preacher, orator, ascetic, mystic, sayyid, faqīh, and theologian who was known for being the eponymous founder of the Qadiriyya tariqa (Sufi order) of Sufism.Born 29 Sha'ban 470 AH (around 1077) in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan-e Gharb, Gilan, Iran and died Monday, February 14, 1166 (11 Rabi' al-Thani 561 AH), in Baghdad, (1077–1166 CE), was a Persian Hanbali Sunni jurist and sufi based in Baghdad. The Qadiriyya tariqa is named after him.

And say that he was born in Gilan Iraq, a historic village near the cities (Al-Mada'in) of 40 kilometers south of Baghdad, as evidenced by historical studies academic and adopted by the Gilan Family

in Baghdad.

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (; Arabic: أبو بكر البغدادي‎; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri, إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي‎, 1971) is the leader of the militant terrorist organisation ISIL. ISIL has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, European Union and many individual states, while al-Baghdadi is considered a Specially Designated Global Terrorist. In June 2014, he was elected by the majlis al-shura (consultative council or Shura council), representing the ahl al-hall wal-aqd of the Islamic State as their caliph.Since 2016, the U.S. State Department has offered a reward of up to $25 million for information or intelligence leading to his capture or death.

Abu Ghraib prison

Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب Sijn Abū Ghurayb) is a former prison complex in Abu Ghraib, Iraq, located 32 kilometers (20 mi) west of Baghdad. Abu Ghraib prison was opened in the 1950s and served as a maximum-security prison with torture, weekly executions, and vile living conditions. From the 1980s the prison was used by Saddam Hussein to hold political prisoners, developing a reputation for torture and extrajudicial killing, and was closed in 2002.

Abu Ghraib gained international attention in 2003 following the Invasion of Iraq, when a scandal involving the torture and abuse of detainees committed by guards in part of the complex operated by US-led Coalition occupation forces was exposed.

In 2006, the United States transferred complete control of Abu Ghraib to the Federal government of Iraq, and was reopened in 2009 as Baghdad Central Prison (Arabic: سجن بغداد المركزي Sijn Baġdād al-Markizī) but was closed in 2014 due to security concerns from the Iraqi Civil War. The prison complex is currently vacant, and Saddam-era mass graves have been uncovered at the site.

August 2015 Baghdad bombing

The 2015 Baghdad market truck bombing was a truck bomb attack on 13 August 2015, targeting a Baghdad food market in Sadr City, a predominantly Shi'ite neighborhood.

Auxiliary bishop

An auxiliary bishop is a bishop assigned to assist the diocesan bishop in meeting the pastoral and administrative needs of the diocese. Auxiliary bishops can also be titular bishops of sees that no longer exist.

In Catholic Church, auxiliary bishops exist in both the Latin Church and in the Eastern Catholic Churches. The particular duties of an auxiliary bishop are given by the diocesan bishop and can vary widely depending on the auxiliary bishop, the ordinary, and the needs of the diocese. In a larger archdiocese, they might be in assigned to serve a portion of the archdiocese (sometimes called deaneries, regions, or vicariates) or to serve a particular population such as immigrants or those of a particular heritage or language. Canon law requires that the diocesan bishop appoint each auxiliary bishop as vicar general or episcopal vicar of the diocese.

In Eastern Orthodox Churches, auxiliary bishops are also called vicarian bishops or simply vicar-bishops. In Serbian Orthodox church, the office of auxiliary (vicar) bishop is entrusted to titular bishops, who are assigned with assisting diocesan bishops in various aspects of diocesan administration. For example, Teodosije Šibalić (titular Bishop of Lipljan) was appointed auxiliary bishop to the Eparchy of Raška and Prizren in 2004.

Baghdad Governorate

Baghdad Governorate (Arabic: محافظة بغداد‎ Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād), also known as the Baghdad Province, is the capital governorate of Iraq. It includes the capital Baghdad as well as the surrounding metropolitan area. The governorate is the smallest of the 18 provinces of Iraq but the most populous.

Baghdad International Airport

Baghdad International Airport (IATA: BGW, ICAO: ORBI), previously Saddam International Airport (IATA: SDA, ICAO: ORBS) (Arabic: مطار بغداد الدولي‎), is Iraq's largest international airport, located in a suburb about 16 km (9.9 mi) west of downtown Baghdad in the Baghdad Governorate. It is the home base for Iraq's national airline, Iraqi Airways.

Baghdad Pact

The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.

US pressure and promises of military and economic aid were key in the negotiations leading to the agreement, but the United States could not initially participate. John Foster Dulles, who was involved in the negotiations as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, claimed that was due to "the pro-Israel lobby and the difficulty of obtaining Congressional Approval." Others said that the reason was "for purely technical reasons of budgeting procedures."In 1958, the US joined the military committee of the alliance. It is generally viewed as one of the least successful of the Cold War alliances.The organization's headquarters were in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1955 to 1958 and in Ankara, Turkey, in 1958 to 1979. Cyprus was also an important location for CENTO because of its location in the Middle East and the British Sovereign Base Areas on the island.

Battle of Baghdad (2003)

The Battle of Baghdad, also known as the Fall of Baghdad, was a military invasion of Baghdad that took place in early April 2003, as part of the invasion of Iraq.

Three weeks into the invasion of Iraq, Coalition Forces Land Component Command elements, led by the U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division moved into Baghdad.

The United States declared victory on April 14, and President George W. Bush gave his Mission Accomplished Speech on May 1.

Baghdad suffered serious damage to its civilian infrastructure, economy, and cultural inheritance from the fighting, as well as looting and arson.

During the invasion, the Al-Yarmouk Hospital in south Baghdad saw a steady rate of about 100 new patients an hour.Several thousand Iraqi soldiers as well as a small number of coalition forces were killed in the battle.

After the fall of Baghdad, Coalition forces entered the city of Kirkuk on April 10 and Tikrit on April 15, 2003.

Berlin–Baghdad railway

The Baghdad railway, also known as the Berlin–Baghdad railway (Turkish: Bağdat Demiryolu, German: Bagdadbahn, Arabic: سكة حديد بغداد‎, French: Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad, from where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf, with a 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, linked to Europe by a bridge crossing the Bosphorous.

Completion of the project took several decades and by the outbreak of World War I, the railway was still 960 km (600 miles) away from its intended objective. The last stretch to Baghdad was built in the late 1930s and the first train to travel from Istanbul to Baghdad departed in 1940.

Funding, engineering and construction was mainly provided by German Empire banks Deutsche Bank and companies Philipp Holzmann, which in the 1890s had built the Anatolian Railway (Anatolische Eisenbahn) connecting Constantinople, Ankara and Konya. The Ottoman Empire wished to maintain its control of Arabian Peninsula and to expand its influence across the Red Sea into the nominally Ottoman (until 1914) Khedivate of Egypt, which had been under British military control since the Urabi Revolt in 1882. If the railway had been completed, the Germans would have gained access to suspected oil fields in Mesopotamia, as well as a connection to the port of Basra on the Persian Gulf. The latter would have provided access to the eastern parts of the German colonial empire, and avoided the Suez Canal, which was controlled by British-French interests.

The railway became a source of international disputes during the years immediately preceding World War I. Although it has been argued that they were resolved in 1914 before the war began, it has also been argued that the railway was a leading cause of World War I. Technical difficulties in the remote Taurus Mountains and diplomatic delays meant that by 1915 the railway was still 480 kilometres (300 mi) short of completion, severely limiting its use during the war in which Baghdad was captured by the British while the Hejaz railway in the south was attacked by guerrilla forces led by T. E. Lawrence. Construction resumed in the 1930s and was completed in 1940.

A history of this railway in the context of World War I describes the German interests in countering the British Empire, and Turkey's interest in countering their Russian rivals. As stated by a contemporary 'on the ground' at the time, Morris Jastrow wrote "It was felt in England that if, as Napoleon is said to have remarked, Antwerp in the hands of a great continental power was a pistol leveled at the English coast, Baghdad and the Persian Gulf in the hands of Germany (or any other strong power) would be a 42-centimetre gun pointed at India."

Fall of Baghdad (1917)

The Fall of Baghdad (11 March 1917) occurred during the Mesopotamia Campaign, fought between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the First World War.

Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch

The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Greek: Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; Arabic: بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس‎, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Headed by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, it considers itself the successor to the Christian community founded in Antioch by the Apostles Peter and Paul.

History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic and developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about the reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century, approximately 600 years after the founding of Christianity. Muslims, however, believe that it did not start with Muhammad, but that it was the original faith of others whom they regard as prophets, such as Jesus, David, Moses, Abraham, Noah and Adam.In 610 CE, Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations. Muhammad's message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from Meccan notables. In 618, after he lost protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib, Muhammad migrated to the city of Yathrib (now known as Medina). With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.

By the 8th century, the Islamic empire extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads (in the Middle East and later in Iberia), Abbasids, Fatimids, and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers during the Middle Ages.

In the early 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate took over the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the 13th and 14th centuries, destructive Mongol invasions and those of Tamerlane from the East, along with the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centers of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to Egypt. Islamic Iberia was gradually conquered by Christian forces during the Reconquista. Nonetheless, in the Early Modern period, the Ottomans, the Safavids, and the Mughals were able to create new world powers again. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most parts of the Muslim world fell under the influence or direct control of European "Great Powers." Their efforts to win independence and build modern nation states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day.

Iraq War

The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush following the September 11 terrorist attacks.

The invasion began on 20 March 2003, when the U.S., joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launched a "shock and awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were quickly overwhelmed as U.S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government; Saddam was captured during Operation Red Dawn in December of that same year and executed by a military court three years later. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U.S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by Iran and al-Qaeda in Iraq. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007. The winding down of U.S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U.S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011.The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, which had been viewed by the U.S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that the Iraqi government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Select U.S. officials accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. After the invasion, no substantial evidence was found to verify the initial claims about WMDs, while claims of Iraqi officials collaborating with al-Qaeda were proven false. The rationale and misrepresentation of U.S. prewar intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally, with President Bush declining from his record-high approval ratings following 9/11 to become one of the most unpopular presidents in U.S. history. From 2009 to 2011, the UK conducted a broad inquiry into its decision to go to war chaired by Sir John Chilcot. The Chilcot Report, published in 2016, concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated.In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014. The al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies. The Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths (see estimates below). The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007.

July 12, 2007, Baghdad airstrike

The July 12, 2007, Baghdad airstrikes were a series of air-to-ground attacks conducted by a team of two U.S. AH-64 Apache helicopters in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, New Baghdad during the Iraqi insurgency which followed the Iraq War. On April 5, 2010, the attacks received worldwide coverage and controversy following the release of 39 minutes of gunsight footage by leaks website WikiLeaks. The footage was portrayed as classified, but its confessed leaker, U.S. Army soldier Chelsea Manning, testified in 2013 that the video was not classified. The video, which WikiLeaks titled Collateral Murder, showed that the crew encountered a firefight and laughed at some of the casualties. An anonymous U.S. military official confirmed the authenticity of the footage, which provoked global discussion on the legality and morality of the attacks.

In the first strike, the crews of two Apaches directed 30 mm cannon fire at a group of ten Iraqi men, including some armed men, standing where insurgents earlier that day had shot at an American Humvee with small arms fire. Among the group were two Iraqi war correspondents working for Reuters, Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen. Seven men (including Noor-Eldeen) were killed during this first strike, and Saeed Chmagh was injured.

The second strike, also using 30 mm rounds, was directed at a van whose driver, Saleh Matasher Tomal, appeared to happen to drive by and who proceeded to help the wounded Chmagh. However, in the long version of the video this van was targeted prior to the first engagement by one Apache (Crazyhorse 1/8) as it traveled south toward the Reuters employees who were, simultaneously, targeted by the other Apache (Crazyhorse 1/9) as they walked north on the same road toward the van. Minutes after the first engagement ended the van returned traveling in an opposite direction (north) once again on this same road. Two men assisting in the rescue effort were from a group of five standing at an intersection – seen in the upper right corner of the video when the Reuters employees arrive in the courtyard – reported to Apaches as being a second position combatants were using to attack the Humvee. Both of these men, Chmagh and Tomal, were killed in the second strike, and two of Tomal's children were badly wounded.

In a third strike, Apache pilots watched people run into a building and engaged that building with several AGM-114 Hellfire missiles.

Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (; Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Maǧīd al-Tikrītī; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.

As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions. Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatus of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.Saddam formally rose to power in 1979, although he had already been the de facto head of Iraq for several years. He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively, and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for opposing the United States and attacking Israel, he was widely condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship. The total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam's government in various purges and genocides is conservatively estimated to be 250,000. Saddam's invasions of Iran and Kuwait also resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths. He acquired the title "Butcher of Baghdad".In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which United States President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair falsely accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda. Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted by an Iraqi court of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'a, and sentenced to death by hanging. He was executed on 30 December 2006.

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan (or Hulegu Khan), brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Möngke, however, had instructed Hulagu to attack Baghdad if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused Mongol demands for his continued submission to the khagan and the payment of tribute in the form of military support for Mongol forces in Iran.

Hulagu began his campaign in Iran with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins, who lost their stronghold of Alamut. He then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Musta'sim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces and refused to surrender. Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days. During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing numerous atrocities and destroying the Abbasids' vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom. The Mongols executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred many residents of the city, which was left greatly depopulated. The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, during which the caliphs had extended their rule from the Iberian Peninsula to Sindh, and which was also marked by many cultural achievements.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.