Bagasse

Bagasse (/bəˈɡæs/ bə-GAS-se') is the dry pulpy fibrous residue that remains after sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice.[1] It is used as a biofuel for the production of heat, energy, and electricity, and in the manufacture of pulp and building materials.

Agave bagasse is a similar material that consists of the tissue of the blue agave after extraction of the sap.

Bagasse in Hainan - 02
Sugarcane bagasse in Hainan, China

Production, storage and composition

Engenho da Calheta 437
Sugarcane being crushed in Engenho da Calheta, Madeira. The bagasse falls down a chute and is removed on a conveyor belt below

For every 10 tonnes of sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly three tonnes of wet bagasse. Since bagasse is a by-product of the cane sugar industry, the quantity of production in each country is in line with the quantity of sugarcane produced.

The high moisture content of bagasse, typically 40–50 percent, is detrimental to its use as a fuel. In general, bagasse is stored prior to further processing. For electricity production, it is stored under moist conditions, and the mild exothermic process that results from the degradation of residual sugars dries the bagasse pile slightly. For paper and pulp production, it is normally stored wet in order to assist in removal of the short pith fibres, which impede the paper making process, as well as to remove any remaining sugar.

A typical chemical analysis of washed and dried bagasse might show:[2]

Bagasse is a heterogeneous material containing around 30-40 percent of "pith" fibre, which is derived from the core of the plant and is mainly parenchyma material, and "bast", "rind", or "stem" fibre, which makes up the balance and is largely derived from sclerenchyma material. These properties make bagasse particularly problematic for paper manufacture and have been the subject of a large body of literature.

Uses

Proserpine-Sugar-Mill-rail-tracks-1188
Bagasse, covered with blue plastic, outside a sugar mill in Proserpine, Queensland

Many research efforts have explored using bagasse as a biofuel in renewable power generation and in the production of bio-based materials.

Fuel

Bagasse is often used as a primary fuel source for sugar mills. When burned in quantity, it produces sufficient heat energy to supply all the needs of a typical sugar mill, with energy to spare. To this end, a secondary use for this waste product is in cogeneration, the use of a fuel source to provide both heat energy, used in the mill, and electricity, which is typically sold on to the consumer electrical grid.

The lower calorific value (LCV) of bagasse in kJ/kg may be estimated using the formula: LCV = 18260 , where the moisture, brix and ash content of the bagasse are expressed as a percentage by mass. Similarly, the higher calorific value (HCV) of bagasse may be estimated using: HCV = 19605 - 196.05 × Moisture - 31.14 × Brix - 196.05 × Ash.[3]

The resulting CO2 emissions are less than the amount of CO2 that the sugarcane plant absorbed from the atmosphere during its growing phase, which makes the process of cogeneration greenhouse-gas-neutral. In countries such as Australia, sugar factories contribute "green" power to the electricity grid. Hawaiian Electric Industries also burns bagasse for cogeneration.

Ethanol produced from the sugar in sugarcane is a popular fuel in Brazil. The cellulose-rich bagasse is being widely investigated for its potential for producing commercial quantities of cellulosic ethanol. For example, until May 2015 BP was operating a cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant based on cellulosic materials in Jennings, Louisiana.

Bagasse's potential for advanced biofuels has been shown by several researchers.[4][5] However, the compatibility with conventional fuels and suitability of these crude fuels in conventional engines have yet to be proven.[6]

Pulp, paper, board and feed

Bagasse is commonly used as a substitute for wood in many tropical and subtropical countries for the production of pulp, paper and board, such as India, China, Colombia, Iran, Thailand, and Argentina. It produces pulp with physical properties that are well suited for generic printing and writing papers as well as tissue products but it is also widely used for boxes and newspaper production.[2] It can also be used for making boards resembling plywood or particle board, called bagasse board and Xanita board, and is considered a good substitute for plywood. It has wide usage for making partitions and furniture.

The industrial process to convert bagasse into paper was developed in 1937 in a small laboratory in Hacienda Paramonga, a sugar mill on the coast of Peru owned by W.R. Grace Company. With a promising method, the company bought an old paper mill in Whippany, New Jersey and shipped bagasse from Peru to test the viability of the process on an industrial scale. The first paper manufacturing machines were designed in Germany and installed in the Cartavio sugar cane plant in 1938.[7] Sociedad Paramonga was bought in 1997 by Quimpac[8] and in 2015 produced 90,000 metric tons of office paper, toilet paper and cardboard for the Peruvian market.[9]

K-Much Industry has patented a method of converting bagasse into cattle feed by mixing it with molasses and enzymes (such as bromelain) and fermenting it. It is marketed in Thailand, Japan, Malaysia, Korea, Taiwan and Middle East and Australia.

Xanita, a South African company, mixes 30 percent bagasse cellulose fibres in with recycled kraft paper fibre to make ultra-lightweight composite boards. These are sold as an environmentally friendly, formaldehyde-free alternative to MDF and particle board.[10]

Nanocellulose

Nanocellulose can be produced from bagasse[11] through various conventional and novel processes.[12] This provides a pathway to generate higher-value products from what can be considered a process waste stream.

Health impact

Workplace exposure to dust from the processing of bagasse can cause the chronic lung condition pulmonary fibrosis, more specifically referred to as bagassosis.[13]

Human consumption

Processed bagasse is added to human food as sugarcane fiber.[14] It is a soluble fiber but can help promote intestinal regularity.[14] One animal study suggests that sugarcane fiber combined with a high-fat diet may help control type 2 diabetes.[15] Bagasse are good sources of lignoceric and cerotic acids.[16]

In Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, bagasse is sometimes used to smoke bacon and sausages.

Bagasse of Thakurgaon Sugar Mills (02.03.2019)
English: Sugarcane Bagasse piled outside the mill, is used for fuel for the boilers of the Mill. Thakurgaon Sugar Mills Ltd. Bangladesh. (02.03.2019)

See also

References

  1. ^ "bagasse - fibre".
  2. ^ a b Rainey, Thomas J (2009). A study of the permeability and compressibility properties of bagasse pulp. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology.
  3. ^ Wienese, Arnoud (2001). "Boilers, boiler fuel and boiler efficiency" (PDF). Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association. 75: 275–281.
  4. ^ Kosinkova, Jana; Ramirez, Jerome; Jablonsky, Michal; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard; Rainey, Thomas (24 May 2017). "Energy and chemical conversion of five Australian lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-crude through liquefaction". RSC Advances. 7 (44): 27707–27717. doi:10.1039/C7RA02335A.
  5. ^ Chumpoo, Jade; Prasassarakich, Pattarapan (24 February 2010). "Bio-Oil from Hydro-Liquefaction of Bagasse in Supercritical Ethanol". Energy & Fuels. 24 (3): 2071–2077. doi:10.1021/ef901241e.
  6. ^ Ramirez, Jerome; Brown, Richard; Rainey, Thomas (1 July 2015). "A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels". Energies. 8 (7): 6765. doi:10.3390/en8076765.
  7. ^ Lawrence A., Clayton (1985). Grace: W.R. Grace & Co., the Formative Years, 1850-1930. Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books. p. 354. ISBN 978-0915463251.
  8. ^ "Quimpac corporate website". Quimpac – Nuestra empresa: Quienes Somos. Quimpac. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  9. ^ "Quimpac paper division". Quimpac – Negocios Papel. Quimpac. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  10. ^ "Home".
  11. ^ Bras, Julien; Hassan, Mohammad L.; Bruzesse, Cecile; Hassan, Enas A.; El-Wakil, Nahla A.; Dufresne, Alain (2010-11-01). "Mechanical, barrier, and biodegradability properties of bagasse cellulose whiskers reinforced natural rubber nanocomposites". Industrial Crops and Products. 32 (3): 627–633. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.07.018. ISSN 0926-6690.
  12. ^ Sofla, M. Rahimi Kord; Brown, R. J.; Tsuzuki, T.; Rainey, T. J. (2016). "A comparison of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibres extracted from bagasse using acid and ball milling methods". Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 7 (3): 035004. doi:10.1088/2043-6262/7/3/035004. ISSN 2043-6262.
  13. ^ Sodeman, William A (October 1967). "Bagasse Disease of the Lungs – After 25 Years" (PDF). Chest. 52 (4): 505–507. doi:10.1378/chest.52.4.505. PMID 6058449.
  14. ^ a b "Fiber Facts: Understanding Food Labels and Isolated Fibers". Nutrition411.
  15. ^ Wang ZQ, Zuberi AR, Zhang XH, Macgowan J, Qin J, Ye X, Son L, Wu Q, Lian K, Cefalu WT (2007). "Effects of dietary fibers on weight gain, carbohydrate metabolism, and gastric ghrelin gene expression in mice fed a high-fat diet". Metab. Clin. Exp. 56 (12): 1635–42. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.07.004. PMC 2730183. PMID 17998014.
  16. ^ Nnabugwu Agomuo E, Amadi Peter U (2018). "Nutrient and Antioxidant Properties of Oils from Bagasses, Agricultural Residues, Medicinal Plants, and Fodders". J Am Coll Nutr. 38 (2): 132–140. doi:10.1080/07315724.2018.1484307. PMID 30052146.

Further reading

Agroindustrial Casa Grande

Casa Grande is a Peru-based company principally engaged in the agricultural sector. Its activities include the cultivation, growing, processing, industrialization and sale of sugar cane and its derivatives.

The company is also involved in the production and distribution of alcohol, sugar cane, pulp, molasses, bagasse and ethanol.

The Company is a member of Grupo Gloria, a group which comprises a number of companies active in the food processing, agricultural and industrial sectors. The Company's majority shareholder is Corporacion Azucarera del Peru SA, with 57.09% of its interests. The company was formerly state-owned.

Bagassosis

Bagassosis, an interstitial lung disease, is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis attributed to exposure to moldy molasses (bagasse).

Bioenergy

Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, and other crop residues, manure, sugarcane, and many other by-products from a variety of agricultural processes. By 2010, there was 35 GW (47,000,000 hp) of globally installed bioenergy capacity for electricity generation, of which 7 GW (9,400,000 hp) was in the United States.In its most narrow sense it is a synonym to biofuel, which is fuel derived from biological sources. In its broader sense it includes biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel, as well as the social, economic, scientific and technical fields associated with using biological sources for energy. This is a common misconception, as bioenergy is the energy extracted from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy contained in the fuelThere is a slight tendency for the word bioenergy to be favoured in Europe compared with biofuel in America.

Cogeneration

Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector. The terms cogeneration and trigeneration can be also applied to the power systems generating simultaneously electricity, heat, and industrial chemicals – e.g., syngas or pure hydrogen (article: combined cycles, chapter: natural gas integrated power & syngas (hydrogen) generation cycle).

Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel because otherwise-wasted heat from electricity generation is put to some productive use. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants recover otherwise wasted thermal energy for heating. This is also called combined heat and power district heating. Small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. By-product heat at moderate temperatures (100–180 °C, 212–356 °F) can also be used in absorption refrigerators for cooling.

The supply of high-temperature heat first drives a gas or steam turbine-powered generator. The resulting low-temperature waste heat is then used for water or space heating. At smaller scales (typically below 1 MW) a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Trigeneration differs from cogeneration in that the waste heat is used for both heating and cooling, typically in an absorption refrigerator. Combined cooling, heat and power systems can attain higher overall efficiencies than cogeneration or traditional power plants. In the United States, the application of trigeneration in buildings is called building cooling, heating and power. Heating and cooling output may operate concurrently or alternately depending on need and system construction.

Cogeneration was practiced in some of the earliest installations of electrical generation. Before central stations distributed power, industries generating their own power used exhaust steam for process heating. Large office and apartment buildings, hotels and stores commonly generated their own power and used waste steam for building heat. Due to the high cost of early purchased power, these CHP operations continued for many years after utility electricity became available.

Electricity sector in Guyana

The electricity sector in Guyana is dominated by Guyana Power and Light (GPL), the state-owned vertically integrated utility. Although the country has a large potential for hydroelectric and bagasse-fueled power generation, most of its 226 MW of installed capacity correspond to inefficient thermoelectric diesel-engine driven generators.

Reliability or electricity supply is very low, linked both to technical and institutional deficiencies in the sector, with total losses close to 40% and commercial losses of about 30%. This low reliability has led most firms to install their own diesel generators, which in turn leads to higher than average electricity costs.

Fiber

Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts.

Industrial licensing in India

In India, there are some regulations and restrictions with regard to establishing industries in certain categories. This is done by making it mandatory to obtain licenses before setting up such an industry.

Kakira Thermal Power Station

Kakira Power Station is a 52 megawatt bagasse-fired thermal power plant in the town of Kakira in Jinja District in the Eastern Region of Uganda.

Kaliro Thermal Power Station

Kaliro Power Station is a 12 MW (16,000 hp) bagasse-fired thermal power plant in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.

Kinyara Thermal Power Station

Kinyara Power Station is a 40.8 MW bagasse-fired thermal power plant in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.

Lignocellulosic biomass

Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so called lignocellulosic biomass. It is the most abundantly available raw material on the Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bio-ethanol. It is composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose), and an aromatic polymer (lignin). These carbohydrate polymers contain different sugar monomers (six and five carbon sugars) and they are tightly bound to lignin. Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes all naturally occurring terrestrial plants such as trees, bushes and grass. Waste biomass is produced as a low value byproduct of various industrial sectors such as agriculture (corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw etc.) and forestry (saw mill and paper mill discards). Energy crops are crops with high yield of lignocellulosic biomass produced to serve as a raw material for production of second generation biofuel; examples include switch grass(Panicum virgatum) and Elephant grass.

List of power stations in Queensland

This is a list of active power stations in Queensland, Australia. Candidates for this list must already be commissioned and capable of generating 1 MW or more of electricity.

Lugazi Thermal Power Station

Lugazi Power Station is a 9.5 megawatts (12,700 hp) bagasse-fired thermal power plant in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.

Mayuge Thermal Power Station

Mayuge Thermal Power Station is a 1.6 megawatt bagasse-fired thermal power plant in Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.

Pars Paper Company

Pars Paper Company (Persian: شركت سهامي كاغذسازي پارس‎ – Sherkat-e Sehāmī Kāgheẕ Sāzī-ye Pārs) is a village and company town in Hoseynabad Rural District, in the Central District of Shush County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,909, in 1,219 families.Pars Paper Company was established in 1967 and started production in 1970 to use the bagasse from the Haft-Tapeh sugar mill located next to it. For years, this mill was the only producer of writing and printing paper in Iran, however because of damages during Iran-Iraq war and no overhaul, it was about to shut down forever. In the fiscal year 2012 the production was 20% of the nominal capacity. October 2013 was a turning point for Pars Paper Company in which Mr. Mohammad Javad Moghaddam bought the company and started overhaul of machines and employing knowledgeable and experienced human resources so that the production hit the best record ever while the quality increased. Today, Pars paper is the only chemical pulp producer in the Middle East and the only producer of sanitary paper. It has also exported the products to more than 15 countries.

Renewable energy in India

India is one of the countries with the largest production of energy from renewable sources.

In the electricity sector, renewable energy account for 34.6% of the total installed power capacity.

Large hydro installed capacity was 45.399 GW as of 31 March 2019, contributing to 13% of the total power capacity.

The remaining renewable energy sources accounted for 22% of the total installed power capacity (77.641 GW) as of 31 March 2019.Wind power capacity was 36,625 MW as of 31 March 2019, making India the fourth-largest wind power producer in the world.

The country has a strong manufacturing base in wind power with 20 manufactures of 53 different wind turbine models of international quality up to 3 MW in size with exports to Europe, the United States and other countries. Wind or Solar PV paired with four-hour battery storage systems is already cost competitive, without subsidy, as a source of dispatchable generation compared with new coal and new gas plants in India.The government target of installing 20 GW of solar power by 2022 was achieved four years ahead of schedule in January 2018, through both solar parks as well as roof-top solar panels.

India has set a new target of achieving 100 GW of solar power by 2022.

Four of the top seven largest solar parks worldwide are in India including the second largest solar park in the world at Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, with a capacity of 1000 MW. The world's largest solar power plant, Bhadla Solar Park is being constructed in Rajasthan with a capacity of 2255 MW and is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.

Biomass power from biomass combustion, biomass gasification and bagasse cogeneration reached 9.1 GW installed capacity as of 31 March 2019. Family type biogas plants reached 3.98 million .Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).

India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in the early 1980s. Solar Energy Corporation of India is responsible for the development of solar energy industry in India. Hydroelectricity is administered separately by the Ministry of Power and not included in MNRE targets.

India is running one of the largest and most ambitious renewable capacity expansion programs in the world.

Newer renewable electricity sources are projected to grow massively by nearer term 2022 targets, including a more than doubling of India's large wind power capacity and an almost 15 fold increase in solar power from April 2016 levels.

These targets would place India among the world leaders in renewable energy use and place India at the centre of its "Sunshine Countries" International Solar Alliance project promoting the growth and development of solar power internationally to over 120 countries.

India set a target of achieving 40% of its total electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030, as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions statement in the Paris Agreement.

A blueprint draft published by Central Electricity Authority projects that 57% of the total electricity capacity will be from renewable sources by 2027.

In the 2027 forecasts, India aims to have a renewable energy installed capacity of 275 GW, in addition to 72 GW of hydro-energy, 15 GW of nuclear energy and nearly 100 GW from “other zero emission” sources.

Soda pulping

Soda pulping is a chemical process for making wood pulp with sodium hydroxide as the cooking chemical. In the Soda-AQ process, anthraquinone (AQ) may be used as a pulping additive to decrease the carbohydrate degradation. The soda process gives pulp with lower tear strength than other chemical pulping processes (sulfite process and kraft process), but has still limited use for easy pulped materials like straw and some hardwoods.

Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, or simply cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, and New Guinea, and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. The plant is two to six metres (six to twenty feet) tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum, and many forage crops.

Sucrose, extracted and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, and Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares (64 million acres), in more than 90 countries.

The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced; most of the rest is made from sugar beets. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the tropical and subtropical regions (sugar beets grow in colder temperate regions). Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, molasses, rum, cachaça (a traditional spirit from Brazil), bagasse, and ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats, screens, and thatch. The young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule (duruka or tebu telor) is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, and prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia.Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Austronesian and Papuan people. It was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, and Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was also introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC.

The Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and then spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, which was considered a luxury and an expensive spice. In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. and the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor.

Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited

The Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) was established by the Government of Tamil Nadu to produce newsprint and writing paper using bagasse, a sugarcane residue. The Government of Tamil Nadu listed the paper mill in April 1979 as one of the most environmentally compliant paper mills in the world under the provisions of the Companies Act of 1956. The factory is situated at Kagithapuram 11.0488°N 77.9977°E / 11.0488; 77.9977 in the Karur District of Tamil Nadu. The registered office of the company is located in Guindy, Chennai.

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