Badr-1

Badr-1 (Urdu: بدر-۱‎, meaning Full Moon-1) was the first artificial and the first digital communications satellite launched by Pakistan's supreme national space authority—the SUPARCO—in 1990.[2] The Badr-1 was Pakistan's first indigenously developed and manufactured digital communications and an experimental artificial satellite which was launched into low Earth orbit by Pakistan on 16 July 1990, through a Chinese rocket carrier.[3] The launch ushered new military, technological, and scientific developments in Pakistan and also provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere.[3] Originally planned to be launched from the United States in 1986, the Challenger disaster furthered delayed the launch of the satellite which changed the plan. After the People's Republic of China offered Pakistan to use its facility, the Badr-1 was finally launched from XLSC in 1990 on Long March 2E (LM2E). Badr-1 travelled at 61,500 miles per hour, taking 96.3 minutes to complete an orbit, and emitted radio signals at the 145 to 435 MHz bands which were operated by Pakistan Amateur Radio Society (PARS).[2] The Badr-1 successfully completed its designed life, and a new satellite was proposed to be developed.[2]

Badr-1
Badr-1 satellite
The display of Badr-I, prior to its launch.
Mission typeTechnology
OperatorSUPARCO
COSPAR ID1990-059A
SATCAT no.20685
Websitesuparco.gov.pk/pages/badr1.asp
Mission duration35 days achieved
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerInstrumentation Laboratories
Amateur Radio Society
Telecommunications Ministry
Ministry of Science
Launch mass52 kilograms (115 lb)
Power12.5 watts
Start of mission
Launch date16 July 1990, 00:40 UTC
RocketChang Zheng 2E
Launch siteXichang LC-2
End of mission
Last contact20 August 1990
Decay date8 December 1990
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Eccentricity0.056125
Perigee201.0 kilometres (124.9 mi)
Apogee984.0 kilometres (611.4 mi)
Inclination28.4 degrees
Period96.3 minutes
Epoch15 July 1990, 20:00:00 UTC[1]
 

Before the launch

The history of the Badr-1 project dated back to 1979, when ISRO successfully launched her first satellite, Aryabhata in year 1975.[4] After four years, On 13 December 1979, Munir Ahmad Khan managed a cabinet-level meeting with Chief Martial Law Administrator General Zia-ul-Haq and gained Suparco's status as an executive authority. In 1981, Salim Mehmud addressed Munir Ahmad Khan proposing the development of an Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, the task previously achieved by India.[4] Munir Ahmad Khan took the matter to General Zia-ul-Haq who gave approval of this project. As part of the development of this project, Suparco sent a number of its engineers to University of Surrey to participate in the development of UO-11 which was launched in 1984.[5] After participating in various projects with University of Surrey, the team returned to Pakistan in 1986.[5] Munir Ahmad Khan then returned to General Zia-ul-Haq and obtained his approval to begin practical work on Badr-1.[4] The project was started by Suparco's Dr. Salim Mehmud as director of the project and was supported by the members of Pakistan Amateur Radio Society.[5] The Suparco began building the satellite at the Instrumentation Laboratories (IL), with Dr. Muhammad Riaz Suddle serving as its project manager.[5] This project was called "Project Badr" and the Project Badr was initially funded financially by Ministry of Telecommunications and the Ministry of Science.[5] In short span of time, the Project Badr was completed, and the first satellite was named Badr-1.[5]

Design

The technical director of Badr-1 was dr. Salim Mehmud, Director of SUPARCO and the project was overseen by Dr. Muhammad Riaz Suddle, who served as its project manager. The satellite was slightly bigger than Soviet Sputnik 1 satellite in size.[3] The Badr-1 was an indigenously built and developed satellite of Pakistan.[3] The major contractor was Instrumentation Laboratories and the Pakistan Amateur Radio Society, supported by Ministry of Science and the Ministry of Telecommunications.[3] The satellite shaped as a polyhedron with 26 surfaces or facets, was about 20 inches in diameter.[3] The polyhedrons, covered with highly polished heat shield, made of aluminium-magnesium-titanium. The satellite carried two antennas designed by Instrumentation Laboratories. The power supply, with a mass of 52 kg. The satellite was powered with solar power panels with a 12.5 W electricity. The satellite was designed in SUPARCO's Satellite Research and Development Center in Lahore. The satellite had one radio channel for digital store-and-forward communications.[3]

A transponder uplink was near 435 MHz, and the downlink was near 145 MHz. The telemetry beacon was near 145 MHz. Data from 32 telemetry channels, including information from 9 temperature sensors, 16 current sensors, and 5 voltage sensors, was stored in an 8k memory bank and transmitted at 1200, 600, 300 and 150 baud.<reference doesn't contain this info>Originally designed for a circular orbit at 250–300 miles' altitude, Badr-1 actually was inserted by the Long March rocket into an elliptical orbit of 127–615 miles. The cost of development and preparation of satellite was no more than Rs. 1.2 million.<reference doesn't contain this information >

Launch vehicle preparation and launch site selection

Badr-1 was launched through Long March 2E.

The SUPARCO negotiated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the launch of the satellite and approval required from the United States Government for the launch of the Badr-1. The Air Force Strategic Command decided to fly the satellite by using one of its C-130 aircraft in 1986 to Florida, United States. The Delta 3000 was selected by NASA's administration as its launch vehicle. Preparation was made and its crew and satellite was stored at the aircraft, however, it was delayed due to unknown reasons. The Badr-1 was never shipped to United States and its launch was delayed for until next four years. As aftermath of the Challenger disaster in 1986, the United States Government and NASA had halt all the flights of the rockets carrying spacecraft and satellite payloads until the investigations were thoroughly completed. The satellite was stored at the Instrumentation Laboratories (IL) and SUPARCO began to negotiate with other space powers. In 1990, representatives of Chinese government offered Government of Pakistan to launch the satellite on one of its Long March Rockets and its facility. SUPARCO did not want to wait any longer, therefore, the Air Force Strategic Command flew the satellite, in sub-assembly form, to People's Republic of China. The satellite was re-assembled by Air Force Strategic Command and Suparco's official who visited the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The satellite was load at the Launch Area 2 and final preparations were made. The Chinese Government used Long March 2E, a three-stage orbital carrier rocket designed to commercial communications satellites, to launch the Badr-1 who also took its first maiden flight with the launch of Badr-1 on 16 July 1990.

Launch and mission

On 16 July 1990, the Badr-1 was launched as a secondary payload on a Long March 2E rocket from Area No. 2 at XSLC. Badr-1, a low-Earth orbit satellite, circled the Earth's orbit every 96 minutes, passing over Pakistan for 15 minutes three to four times a day. Scientists, engineers, technicians, and designers who developed the satellite watched the launch from range. They waited about 93 minutes to ensure that the satellite had made one orbit and was transmitting, before dr. M. Shafi Ahmad called Prime minister Benazir Bhutto. The downlink telemetry included data on temperatures inside and on the surface of the sphere. The satellite itself, a small but highly polished polyhedron, was barely visible at sixth magnitude, and thus more difficult to follow optically. The satellite completed its designated life successfully.[3] On the first orbit, the Suparco globally announced the launch of the satellite, and the Science ministry confirmed the launch of the satellite. As the satellite completed its life, a new project was launched, more ambitious, advanced, and difficult than Badr-1. However, even after the Badr-1I was completed, the satellite could not be able to launch until 2001.

Achievement

With the successful development and launch of the Badr-1, Pakistan became the first Muslim country, and second South Asian country after India, to place a satellite in orbit.[6] The satellite gave Pakistani scientists an academic, scientific, and an amateur community experience in telemetry, tracking, control and data communications as the satellite successfully completed store and dump message tests for 5 weeks.[3]

Despite the international success gained, the Pakistans' accomplishments were kept quiet in the homeland to prevent any exploitation of their failures or loss of secrets, which undermined the propaganda opportunity. The Pakistan Television, a state-controlled media authority, announced the first launch in televisions never made a headline, and only fewer details were projected. The Badr-1 crushed the global perception that the country had not space program, and the space program was only dedicated to its military applications. The launch of the satellite united the people of Pakistan, and scientists who were involved in this project, were bestowed with national honours in public, and increased the pride of Pakistan.

The satellite formed the derivatives and the basis of the Badr-B satellite.[3] The Badr-B was more sophisticated than Badr-l, with a CCD camera for pictures of Earth and a system that allowed ground stations to change the satellite's direction in space.[3]

Mission goals

  • acquiring know-how for indigenous development of satellites
  • creating an infrastructure for future satellite development activities
  • testing the performance of indigenously developed satellite subsystems in space environment
  • performing experiments in real-time voice and data communications between two user ground stations
  • demonstrating store-and-forward type message communication
  • educating the country's academic, scientific and amateur community in the tracking and use of low-earth-orbiting satellites

Technical configuration

Structure 26-Facet polyhedron
Thermal Design passive
Mass 52 kg
Solar Panels 17 square facets
Average Conditioned Power 12.5 watts
Down Link VHF
Up Link UHF
Telemetry Channels 32
Sensors temperature, current, voltage
Data Transmission Rates 1200,600,300,150 baud
DCE Memory Bank 8 kilobyte
Launch Date 16 July 1990
Reentry Date 9 December 1990

See also

References

  1. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Trajectory Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b c "Pakistan Space Program". Aerospace Guide: Pakistan Space Programme. Aerospace Guide. 10 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "BADR-1 Pakistan's First Experimental Satellite". Online Induction. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  4. ^ a b c Mehmud, PhD, Salim; P. Proctor. "Pakistan Space Programme". Salim Mehmud, former technical director of the Hatf-I project.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mehmud, PhD, Salim; P. Proctor (20 March 2000). "Pakistan and Satellite Communication Systems". Salim Mehmud, former Chairman of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission and technical director of the Hatf-I project. Federation of American Scientists (FAS). Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  6. ^ Lele, Ajey (2012). Asian Space Race: Rhetoric or Reality?. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-322-0733-7. Headquartered in SUPARCO headquarters, Karachi, it has been responsible directly and indirectly for the fabrication, processing and launch of the Muslim Ummah's first experimental satellite, Badr-1. It was a historical event not only for the people of Pakistan but also for the entire Muslim Ummah as it was the first satellite built by any Islamic country based on indigenous resources and manpower

External links

1990 in spaceflight

The following is an outline of 1990 in spaceflight.

Abdul Majid (physicist)

For other people with the same or similar name, see Abdul Majid

Dr. Abdul Majid (Urdu):(عبد الماجد) is a Pakistani astrophysicist and scientist in the field of space technology. He is a former chairman of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission from 1997 to 2001. He had made significant contributions to Pakistan's space program. During his tenure as SUPARCO Administrator, Pakistan launched its two Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, which were masterminded and developed by him. He also initiated a Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) project at SUPARCO. He retired from SUPARCO in 2001 as a chief scientist. Since his retirement, he has been inactive from Pakistan's space program and currently resides in Karachi where he lives a very quiet life there.

Badr-1 (rocket)

The Badr-1 210 mm is a Yemeni military, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher; a type of rocket artillery, used by Houthis. It features a twin tube launcher mounted on a 6x6 truck.On 28 October 2018, a guided version called the Badr-1P with a range of 150 kilometres (93 mi) and an accuracy of 3 metres (10 ft) was announced.

Badr (satellite)

Badr is a series of satellites operated by Pakistan. The first satellite Badr-1, was launched in July 1990.

It was the first SUPARCO engineered object to orbit the Earth. That launch took place on July 16, 1990 as part of the International Frequency Registration Bureau. The Urdu language word "Badr", literally means "Full Moon", and its launch vehicle was Chinese Long March 2 space rocket Long March 2E.

The Badr series consisted of two satellites. Both were developed by SUPARCO. The Badr-I satellite successfully completed its designated life and all three of the satellites are still in use.

Badr-II is the second spacecraft and the first earth observation satellite launched into Earth orbit on 10 December 2001 at 09:15 by the SUPARCO. The Badr program was decommissioned in 2012 after the Badr-B completed its successful designated life in an Earth's orbit. The Pakistan Remote Sensing Satellite system has replaced the Badr-Satellite program since 2018.

Burkan-2

The Burkan-2H (Arabic H-بركان ٢), or Volcano-2H (also spelled as Borkan H2 and Burqan 2H) is a mobile short-range ballistic missile used by the Houthis militants in Yemen. The Volcano H-2 was first launched in July 2017. It is related to the Scud missile family.

Egypt at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Egypt, represented by the Egyptian Olympic Committee, competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece from 13 to 29 August 2004. 97 competitors, 81 men and 16 women, took part in 48 events in 17 sports. Egypt's anthem, Bilady, Bilady, Bilady ("My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland") was played when Egypt won a gold medal.

Egyptian Navy

The Egyptian Navy (Arabic: القوات البحرية المصرية‎, lit. Egyptian Navy Forces), also known as the Egyptian Naval Force, is the maritime branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It is the largest navy in the Middle East and Africa, and is the sixth largest in the world measured by the number of vessels. The navy's missions include protection of more than 2,000 kilometers of coastline of the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, defense of approaches to the Suez Canal, and support for army operations. The majority of the modern Egyptian Navy was created with the help of the Soviet Union in the 1960s. The navy received ships in the 1980s from China and other, western, sources. In 1989, the Egyptian Navy had 18,000 personnel as well as 2,000 personnel in the Coast Guard.

Fateh-110

The Fateh-110 (Persian: فاتح-۱۱۰‎, "conqueror") is an Iranian road-mobile single-stage solid-fueled surface-to-surface missile produced by Iran's Aerospace Industries Organization. The first generation of the Fateh-110 was flight tested in September 2002 and began mass production shortly thereafter. The initial range of the missile was 200 km and in September 2004 the second generation of the Fateh-110 increased the range to 250 km. The third generation of the missile, unveiled in 2010, increased the range to 300 km, and the fourth generation (2012) improved the accuracy.The Fateh-110 was developed from Iran's Zelzal-2 unguided artillery rocket essentially through adding a guidance system. Later versions of the missile modify other aspects of the missile and improve range and payload. The Fateh-110 is also license-built in Syria as the M-600. The missile has been used in the Syrian Civil War by Iran and Syria. In addition to its confirmed use by these two countries, it is widely reported that the Fateh-110 has been exported to Hezbollah in Lebanon.

List of communications satellite firsts

Milestones in the history of communications satellites.

Long March 2E

The Long March 2E, also known as the Chang Zheng 2E, CZ-2E and LM-2E, was a Chinese orbital carrier rocket from the Long March 2 family. The Long March 2E was a three-stage carrier rocket that was designed to launch commercial communications satellites into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Launches took place from launch complex 2 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre.

The Long March 2E made its maiden flight on 16 July 1990. However, the rocket had design flaws that caused 2 launch failures and 1 partial failure in just 7 missions. The rocket was retired on 28 December 1995 in favor of the Long March 3B. The Long March 2E forms the basis of the Long March 2F, used to launch manned Shenzhou missions. The booster rockets have also been used on the Long March 3B and Long March 3C.

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977. He remains the country’s longest-serving de facto head of state.

Educated at Delhi University, Zia saw action in World War II as a British Indian Army officer in Burma and Malaya, before opting for Pakistan in 1947 and fighting as a tank commander in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. In 1970, he led a military training mission to Jordan, proving instrumental to defeating the Black September insurgency against King Hussein. In recognition, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto appointed Zia Chief of Army Staff in 1976. Following civil disorder, Zia deposed Bhutto in a military coup and declared martial law on 5 July 1977. Bhutto was controversially tried by the Supreme Court and executed less than two years later, for allegedly authorising the murder of Ahmed Raza Kasuri, a political opponent.Assuming the presidency in 1978, Zia played a major role in the Soviet–Afghan War. Backed by the United States and Saudi Arabia, Zia systematically coordinated the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet occupation throughout the 1980s. This culminated in the Soviet Union's withdrawal in 1989, but also led to the proliferation of millions of refugees, with heroin and weaponry into Pakistan's frontier province. On the foreign front, Zia also bolstered ties with China and the United States, and emphasised Pakistan's role in the Islamic world, while relations with India worsened amid the Siachen conflict and accusations that Pakistan was aiding the Khalistan movement. Domestically, Zia passed broad-ranging legislation as part of Pakistan's Islamization, curbed civil liberties, and heightened press censorship. He also escalated Pakistan's atomic bomb project, and instituted industrialisation and deregulation, helping Pakistan's economy become the fastest-growing in South Asia. Averaged over Zia's rule, GDP growth was the highest in the country's history.After lifting martial law and holding non-partisan elections in 1985, Zia appointed Muhammad Khan Junejo Prime Minister but accumulated more presidential powers via the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution. After Junejo signed the Geneva Accords in 1988 against Zia's wishes, and called for an inquiry into the Ojhri Camp disaster, Zia dismissed Junejo's government and announced fresh elections in November 1988. He was killed along with several of his top military officials and two American diplomats in a mysterious plane crash near Bahawalpur on 17 August 1988. To this day, Zia remains a polarising figure in Pakistan's history, credited for preventing wider Soviet incursions into the region as well as economic prosperity, but decried for weakening democratic institutions and passing laws encouraging religious intolerance. He is also cited for promoting the early political career of Nawaz Sharif, who would be thrice elected Prime Minister.

Pakistan

Pakistan (Urdu: پاکِستان‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اِسلامی

جمہوریہ پاکِستان‎), is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. The ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire (partially) and, most recently, the British Indian Empire. Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector. It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class. Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition.

Salim Mehmud

Dr. Salim Mehmud, also known as Salim Mehmood, is a Pakistani rocket scientist and a nuclear engineer. He is the former chairman of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO). He has served as chief scientist at the Defence Science and Technology Organization. Currently, he is the chief Scientific and Technological Advisor at the Ministry of Communications of Pakistan.

Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon.

On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 8,100 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 4,900 remain in orbit, of those about 1,900 were operational; while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km). A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun. On 18 April 2019 Nepal successfully launched its own satellite with the help of NASA.

Satellites are used for many purposes. Among several other applications, they can be used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, and also take pictures of planets they are launched into. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.

A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit. Usually, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a submarine or a mobile maritime platform, or aboard a plane (see air launch to orbit).

Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.

Science and technology in Pakistan

Science and technology is a growing field in Pakistan and has played an important role in the country's development since its founding. Pakistan has a large pool of scientists, engineers, doctors, and technicians assuming an active role in science and technology. Liaquat Ali Khan the first Prime Minister of Pakistan (in office 15 August 1947 – 16 October 1951), made various reforms to initiate improvement in higher education and scientific research. The real growth in science in Pakistan occurred after the establishment of the Higher education Commission in 2002 which supported science in a big way and also became the major sponsor of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman. The first IT policy and implementation strategy was approved under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, then Federal Minister of Science & technology, in August 2000 which laid the foundations of the development of this sector On the request of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, Intel initiated a nation wide programme to train school teachers in Information and Communication technologies in March 2002 which has led to the training of 220,000 school teachers in 70 districts and cities across Pakistan. A 15 year tax holiday was approved on the recommendation of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman which has resulted in growth of IT business from $ 30 million in 2001 to over $ 3 billion.The Pakistan Austria University of Applied Engineering (Fachhochschule) is now being established in Haripur Hazara under the Chairmanship of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman in which students will get degrees from several Austrian universitiesChemistry remains the strongest subject in the country with the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences playing the lead role with the largest postgraduate research program in the country having about 600 students enrolled for PhD..Physics (theoretical, nuclear, particle, laser, and quantum physics), material science, metallurgy (engineering), biology, and mathematics, are some of the other fields in which Pakistani scientists have contributed. From the 1960s and onwards, the Pakistani government made the development and advancement of science a national priority and showered top scientists with honours. While the government has made efforts to make science a part of national development, there have been criticisms of federal policies, such as the government's dissolution of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC)— an administrative body that supervised research in science — in 2011. This attempted dissolution failed to materialise because of a Supreme Court of Pakistan decision on a petition filed by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, former Federal Minister of Science & technology and former founding Chairman of the Higher Education Commission. Pakistani scientists have also won acclaim in mathematics and in several branches of physical science, notably theoretical and nuclear physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Professor Abdus Salam, a theoretical physicist won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, being the first and only Pakistani to date to have received the honor. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman an organic chemist was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in 2006 in recognition of his contributions in the field of natural products thereby becoming the first scientist from the Islamic world to receive this honour for work carried out within an Islamic country.. The contributions of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman to uplift science and higher education in Pakistan were internationally acknowledged and a tribute paid to him in the world's leading science journal Nature that termed him as "a force of nature".

Technology is most highly developed in nuclear physics and explosives engineering, where the arms race with India convinced policy makers to set aside sufficient resources for research. Due to a programme directed by Munir Ahmad Khan and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan is the seventh nation to have developed an atomic bomb, which the global intelligence community believes it had done by 1983 (see Kirana-I), nine years after India (see Pokhran-I). Pakistan first publicly tested its devices (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) on 28 and 30 May 1998, two weeks after India carried out its own tests (See Pokhran-II).Space exploration was hastily developed, in 1990 Pakistan launched Badr-1 followed by Badr-II in 2001. Since the 1980s, the space programme dedicated itself to military technologies (Space weapons programme and Integrated missile systems), and maintains a strong programme developed for military applications.

Pakistan is an associate member of CERN, one of the few countries to obtain that status.

Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission

The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research. Its mission statement and objective is to conduct peaceful research in space technology and promote the technology for socio-economic uplift of the country.

SUPARCO is a bilateral organisation of China National Space Administration as noted in their web page.

Established in its modern form on 16 September 1961 by an executive order of President of Pakistan, it is headquartered in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. Part of the Strategic Plans Division (SPD) of Pakistan Armed Forces, which is currently headquartered at the Chakalala Military District under the control of the PAF; the space programme recorded number of pioneering accomplishments in space flight during the initial years of its establishment.Since its creation in 1961, the SUPARCO has achieved numerous milestones, including the first successful spaceflight of country's first weather expendable launch rocket, Rehbar-I. The country's first satellite, Badr-I, was built by the SUPARCO and launched by the People's Republic of China in 1990. However, during the meantime, the space programme suffered many setbacks, difficulties, and problems that partly slowed the progress of the space programme. The bureaucratic influence and politicization further lagged the space programme and many projects were cancelled by the superior authorities.Over the years, SUPARCO expanded and has several well expanded installations all over the country as assets, and cooperates in peaceful use of space technology with the international community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreements. SUPARCO's science and research is mainly focused and concentrated on better understanding of the Solar system, Space weather, astrophysics (Big Bang Theory and Physical cosmology), astronomical observation, climatic studies, space and telemedicine, remote sensing and the Earth observation.

Timeline of first artificial satellites by country

As of April 2018, over eighty countries have operated artificial satellites.

Xichang Satellite Launch Center

The Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC), also known as the Xichang Space Center, is a People's Republic of China space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) approximately 64 kilometres (40 miles) northwest of Xichang, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan.

The facility became operational in 1984 and is primarily used to launch powerful thrust rockets and geostationary communications and weather satellites. It is notable as the site of Sino-European space cooperation, with the launch of the first of two Double Star scientific satellites in December 2003. Chinese officials have indicated interest in conducting additional international satellite launches from XSLC.In 1996, a fatal accident occurred when the rocket carrying the Intelsat 708 satellite failed on launch from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. Also, a 2007 test of an anti-satellite missile occurred from the center.

Space centres
Satellites-controlled program
Expendable launch vehicles
Associated organizations
Institutions
Space observatories
Primary spaceports
People
History and policy

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