Badami

Badami, formerly known as Vatapi, is a town and headquarters of a taluk by the same name, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas from AD 540 to 757. It is famous for its rock cut structural temples. It is located in a ravine at the foot of a rugged, red sandstone outcrop that surrounds Agastya lake. Badami has been selected as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

Badami

Vatapi
Town
Badami Cave Temples
Coordinates: 15°55′12″N 75°40′49″E / 15.92000°N 75.68028°ECoordinates: 15°55′12″N 75°40′49″E / 15.92000°N 75.68028°E
Country India
StateKarnataka
DistrictBagalkot
Area
 • Total10.9 km2 (4.2 sq mi)
Elevation
586 m (1,923 ft)
Population
(2001)
 • Total25,851
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,100/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialKannada[1]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
587 201
Telephone code08357

History

Badami-chalukya-empire-map
Extent of Badami Chalukyas Empire, 636 CE, 740 CE

Pre-historic

The Badami region was settled in pre-historic times, with evidence by megalithic dolmens.[2]

Historic

Mythology

The Puranas state the wicked asura Vatapi was killed by sage Agastya, and it refers to this area as Vatapi and Agastya Tirtha. In the Ramayana, Agastya and Lopamudra are described as living in Dandaka forest, on the southern slopes of Vindhya mountains. Rama praises Agastya as the one who can do what gods find impossible. He is described as the sage who used his Dharma powers to kill demons Vatapi and Ilwala after they had jointly misled and destroyed 9,000 men.[3]

In the Mahabharata, sage Agastya is described in the epic as a sage with enormous powers of ingestion and digestion. To kill men, asura Vatapi used to become a goat and his brother Ilvala would cook him. Then, Vatapi would recollect in the stomach and tear himself out from the inside of the victim, killing the victim. When Agastya arrives, Ilvala offers the goat again. He kills Vatapi by digesting the meal as soon as he ate, giving Vatapi no time to self organize.[4] Agastya, in the legends of Mahabharata, kills the demons Vatapi and Ilvala much the same mythical way as in the Ramayana.[5]

Kingdoms

Badami Chalukyas was founded in AD 540 by Pulakeshin I (AD 535–566), an early ruler of the Chalukyas is generally regarded as the founder of the Early Chalukya line. An inscription record of this king engraved on a boulder in Badami records the fortification of the hill above "Vatapi" in 544. Pulakeshin's choice of this location for his capital was no doubt dedicated by strategic considerations since Badami is protected on three sides by rugged sandstone cliffs. His sons Kirtivarman I (AD 567–598) and his brother Mangalesha (AD 598–610) constructed the cave temples.Kirtivarman I strengthened Vatapi and had three sons Pulakeshin II, Vishnuvardhana and Buddhavarasa, who at his death were minors, thus making them ineligible to rule, so Kirtivarman I's brother Mangalesha took the throne and tried to establish rule, only to be killed by Pulakeshin II who ruled between AD 610 to 642.[6] Vatapi was the capital of the Early Chalukyas, who ruled much of Karnataka, Maharashtra, parts of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh between the 6th and 8th centuries. The greatest among them was Pulakeshin II (AD 610–642) who defeated many kings including the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.

6th century Kannada inscription in cave temple number 3 at Badami
Old Kannada inscription of Chalukya King Mangalesha dated 578 CE at Badami cave temple no.3

The rock-cut Badami Cave Temples were sculpted mostly between the 6th and 8th centuries.[7]

Inscriptions

Badami has eighteen inscriptions, among them some inscriptions are important. The first Sanskrit inscription in old Kannada script, on a hillock dates back to 543 CE, from the period of Pulakeshin I (Vallabheswara), the second is the 578 CE cave inscription of Mangalesha in Kannada language and script and the third is the Kappe Arabhatta records, the earliest available Kannada poetry in tripadi (three line) metre.[8][9][10] one inscription near the Bhuthanatha temple also has inscriptions dating back to the 12th century in Jain rock-cut temple dedicated to the Tirtankara Adinatha.

Sites

Badami countryside

Agastya lake

View of Bhutanatha temple in Badami during monsoon

Bhutanatha temple complex, next to a waterfall, during the monsoon.

Badami 1

Vishnu seated on Adishesha

6th century Brahma on Cave 3 ceiling, Badami Hindu cave temple Karnataka 3

Brahma on Hamsa in Cave 3 ceiling

Badami, Höhle 4, Bahubali (1999)

Bahubali in cave 4

Relief of Jain Tirthankara Parshvanath in the Badami cave temple no.4

Jain Parshvanatha in cave 4

Anantashayana Vishnu shrine, Vishnu above Garuda (left), Shiva above Nandi, Brahma above Hamsa, Badami monuments Karnataka

Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma in a small rock carving monument

Yellamma temple at Badami

Yellamma temple at Badami, early phase construction, 11th century

Badami si05-1676

Mosque in Badami

Taluka

The Badami Taluka has thirty-four panchayat villages:[11]

  • Hosur
  • Huligeri
  • Hullikeri
  • Jalihal
  • Jamankatti
  • Kaknur
  • Katageri
  • Kataraki
  • Kelavadi
  • Khanapur S.K.
  • Kittali
  • Kotikal
  • Layadgundi
  • Mamtageri
  • Mangalore
  • Mustigeri
  • Mutalgeri
  • Nagaral S.P.
  • Nandikeshwar
  • Neelgund
  • Neeralkeri
  • Neerbhudihal
  • Parvati
  • Pattadkal
  • Sulikeri

Culture

The main language is Kannada. The local population wears traditional Indian cotton wear.

Geography

Badami is located at 15°55′N 75°41′E / 15.92°N 75.68°E.[12] It has an average elevation of 586 metres (1922 ft). It is located at the mouth of a ravine between two rocky hills and surrounds Agastya tirtha water reservoir on the three other sides. The total area of the town is 10.3 square kilometers.

It is located 30 kilometers from Bagalkot,128 kilometers from Bijapur, 132 kilometers from Hubli, 46 kilometers from Aihole, another ancient town, and 589 kilometers from Bangalore,[13] the state capital.

Climate

  • Summer – March to June
  • Spring – Jan to March
  • Monsoons – July to October that contributes to rainfall
  • Winter – November to Jan

The temperature ranges from minimum 23 degrees to 45 degrees during summer and from 15 to 29 degrees in winter. The rainfall of the area is 50 centimeters. Best time to visit is between low humid season from November and March.

The climate has made it a safe haven for the monkeys of south India. Tourists often flock to Badami for the opportunity to see monkeys interact in a natural environment.

Economy

The main economy is centered around tourism in Karnataka.

Government

It is a town in the Bagalkot District in Karnataka state, India. It is also headquarters of Badami Taluk in the district.

Transport

The nearest airport is Hubballi about 105 kilometers away. It is on the HubliSolapur rail route, and the rail station is 5 kilometers from the town. It is also connected by road to Hubli and Bijapur. Badami is reachable from Bengalooru by a 12-hour bus ride, or by a direct train "Solapur Gol Gumbaz Exp (train no. 16535)" or with a combination of an overnight train journey from Bangalore to Hospet followed by a short bus ride from Hospet to Badami. Another train journey could be from Bangalore to Hubli (8–9 hours) and then a bus ride to Badami (3 hours). Badami is around 110 km from Hubli. Local transport is by Rickshaws, and city buses.

Demographics

As of the 2001 Indian census,[14] Badami had a population of 25,851. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Badami had an average literacy rate of 64.8%, comparable to the national average of 65%; with 59% of the males and 41% of females literate. 14% of the population was under 6 years of age.

Panoramic view of Agastya lake, Badami.
Panoramic view of Agastya lake, Badami.

Climbing

Badami Karnataka
Badami Cliffs
Temple area Badami Karnataka
Bolted routes in the Temple area, Badami
Vishnu Badami Caves
Badami Caves

Badami's red sand stone cliffs are popular amongst local and international climbers. This is great location for free sport climbing and bouldering. The cliffs have horizontal crack systems, similar to Gunks. There are over 150 bolted routes and multiple routes for free climbing. Gerhard Schaar,[15] a German Climber and Pranesh Manchaiah, a local climber from Bangalore, were instrumental in setting up the sport routes driving a project called 'Bolts for Bangalore'.[16] National Rock Climbing center, Manager Rajendra Hasabavi in Banshankari Road by General Thimayya National Academy of Adventure, Department of Youth Empowerment and Sports, Govt.of Karnataka is conducting various rock climbing and Adventure Camps for Youth and School Children.

Movies shot in Badami

See also

References

  1. ^ "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  2. ^ http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/rockpain/2599a.htm
  3. ^ William Buck; B. A. van Nooten; Shirley Triest (2000). Ramayana. University of California Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-520-22703-3.
  4. ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen (1981). The Mahabharata, Volume 2: Book 2: The Book of Assembly; Book 3: The Book of the Forest. University of Chicago Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-226-84664-4.
  5. ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen (1981). The Mahabharata, Volume 2: Book 2: The Book of Assembly; Book 3: The Book of the Forest. University of Chicago Press. pp. 409–411. ISBN 978-0-226-84664-4.
  6. ^ "Rich slice of history - Badami". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
  7. ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (2012). Rock-cut Model Shrines in Early Indian Art. New Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-88934-83-6.
  8. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p9, p10, 57, p59 OCLC: 7796041
  9. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p34, p46, p50
  10. ^ Azmathulla Shariff. "Badami Chalukyans' magical transformation". Deccan Herald, Spectrum, July 26, 2005. Archived from the original on 7 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
  11. ^ "Reports of National Panchayat Directory: Village Panchayat Names of Badami, Bagalkot, Karnataka". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011.
  12. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Badami". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
  13. ^ Railway ticket (Bijapur express) from Bangalore to Badami
  14. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  15. ^ "Gerhard Schaar Official". gerhardschaar.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
  16. ^ "Bolts for Bangalore". Climbing.com. Retrieved 2012-01-15.

External links

Gallery

Badami Karnataka

Badami Cliffs

Temple area Badami Karnataka

Bolted routes in the Temple area, Badami

Bhutanatha temple complex in Badami

Bhutanatha group of temples facing the Agasythya Tank

Mallikarjuna group of temples at Badami

Mallikarjuna group of temples

Vishnu image inside cave number 3 in Badami

Vishnu image in Cave temple No. 3

6th century Kannada inscription in cave temple number 3 at Badami

Old Kannada inscription of Chalukya King Mangalesha dated 578 CE at Badami cave temple no.3

Badami 1
Anita Rau Badami

Anita Rau Badami (born 24 September 1961) is a writer of South Asian descent living in Canada. Born in Rourkela, Odisha, India, she was educated at the University of Madras and Sophia Polytechnic in Bombay. She emigrated to Canada in 1991, and earned an M.A. at the University of Calgary. Her first novel was Tamarind Mem (1997).

Her novels deal with the complexities of Indian family life and with the cultural gap that emerges when Indians move to the west.

Badami's third novel, Can You Hear the Nightbird Call explores the Golden Temple Massacre and the Air India Bombing.

Badami cites as among her favourite books Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie, Cat's Eye and Surfacing by Margaret Atwood, A House for Mr Biswas by V. S. Naipaul and Housekeeping by Marilynne Robinson.

In 2015 Badami was writer-in-residence at Athabasca University in Edmonton. In 2016 The Hero's Walk was listed as one of the five finalists for the CBC Canada Reads competition.

In 2017, Badami was announced as chair of the 2017 Scotiabank Giller Prize jury.

Badami Bagh

Badami Bagh is a cantonment town on the outskirts of Srinagar district in the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. A portion of Indian army in the valley resides in the Badami Bagh cantonment. The cantonment is established on the two road sides of Srinagar Jammu National Highway.

Badami Bagh railway station

Badami Bagh railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: بادامی باغ ریلوے اسٹیشن) is located in Badami Bagh, Lahore district, Punjab province, Pakistan.

Badami Chalukya architecture

The Badami Chalukya architecture was a temple building idiom that evolved in the 5th – 8th centuries in the Malaprabha river basin, in present-day Bagalkot district of Karnataka state, under the Chalukya dynasty. This style is sometimes called the Vesara style and Chalukya style, a term that also includes the much later Western Chalukya architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries. Early Chalukya architecture, used by George Michell and others, equates to Badami Chalukya. The earliest Badami Chalukya temples date back to around 450 A.D. in Aihole when the Badami Chalukyas were vassals of the Kadambas of Banavasi. According to historian K.V. Sounder Rajan, the Badami Chalukyas contribution to temple building matched their valor and their achievements in battle.

About 450 CE, the Early Chalukya style originated in Aihole and was perfected in Badami and Pattadakal.

The unknown architects and artists experimented with different styles, blended the Nagara and Dravidian styles.Their style includes two types of monuments: rock cut halls or "cave temples", and "structural" temples, built above ground.

Badami cave temples

The Badami cave temples are a complex of four Hindu cave temples located in Badami, a town in the Bagalkot district in northern part of Karnataka, India. The caves are considered an example of Indian rock-cut architecture, especially Badami Chalukya architecture, which dates from the 6th century. Badami was previously known as Vataapi Badami, the capital of the early Chalukya dynasty, which ruled much of Karnataka from the 6th to the 8th century. Badami is situated on the west bank of a man made lake ringed by an earthen wall with stone steps; it is surrounded on the north and south by forts built in later times.

The Badami cave temples represent some of the earliest known examples of Hindu temples in the Deccan region. They along with the temples in Aihole transformed the Malaprabha River valley into a cradle of temple architecture that influenced the components of later Hindu temples elsewhere in India.

Caves 1 to 4 are in the escarpment of the hill in soft Badami sandstone formation, to the south-east of the town. In Cave 1, among various sculptures of Hindu divinities and themes, a prominent carving is of the Tandava-dancing Shiva as Nataraja. Cave 2 is mostly similar to Cave 1 in terms of its layout and dimensions, featuring Hindu subjects of which the relief of Vishnu as Trivikrama is the largest. The largest cave is Cave 3, featuring Vishnu-related mythology, and it is also the most intricately carved cave in the complex. Cave 4 is dedicated to revered figures of Jainism. Around the lake, Badami has additional caves of which one may be a Buddhist cave. Another cave was discovered in 2015, about 500 metres (1,600 ft) from the four main caves, with 27 Hindu carvings.

Badami railway station

Badami railway station with Indian Railway station code BDM falls under Hubli railway division of South Western Railway in Bagalkot district, Karnataka,India. Badami railway station has two platforms which serve mainly Badami Town and nearby heritage tourist places like Badami Caves, Pattadkal and Aihole.

Bagalkot district

Bagalkot district () is an administrative district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The district headquarters is located in the town of Bagalkote. The district is located in northern Karnataka and borders Belgaum, Gadag, Koppal, Raichur and Bijapur. The new Bagalkote district was carved out of Bijapur in 1997 via Government of Karnataka directive Notification RD 42 LRD 87 Part III. The bifurcated Bagalkote district consists of nine taluks — Badami, Bagalkote, Bilagi, Guledgudda,RabkaviBanhatti, Hunagund, Ilkal, Jamakhandi and Mudhol.Historically, Badami which is part of Bagalkote was the capital of the Chalukyan Empire of South India under Pulakeshin I, who conquered the district in 550 CE. Bagalkot's Badami taluk remained the seat of the throne of the Chalukyas from 550 CE — 753 CE, when Chalukya king Kirtivarman II was overthrown by the Rashtrakutas.

Remnants of Chalukyan art and architecture are important tourist attractions in Bagalkote. Pattadakallu has many UNESCO World Heritage temples built by Vikramaditya II, while Aihole, which lies on the banks of the Malaprabha River, is an important temple town with over 140 temples belonging to both the early and later Chalukya times. The cave temples of Badami Cave Temples and the Jain temples of Rashtrakutas at Lokapura and Bilgi are also nearby.

Cottage industries occupy a predominant position in Bagalkote. The district is known for its silk and handloom industries.

Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River and Krishna River flow through the district. Koodalasangama lies at the point of confluence of rivers Krishna and Malaprabha.

Like most districts in India, Bagalkote is headed by a Deputy Commissioner, with various Tahalsidars heading individual taluks in the district.

The Samadhi of 12th-century social reformist Basavanna, known for his crusade against caste exploitation, is located in Koodalasangama, a town in the taluk of Hungund.

Bagh-e Badami

Bagh-e Badami (Persian: باغ بادامي‎, also Romanized as Bāgh-e Bādāmī) is a village in Derakhtengan Rural District, in the Central District of Kerman County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Bam-e Badami Qarqani

Bam-e Badami Qarqani (Persian: بام بادامي قرقاني‎, also Romanized as Bām-e Bādāmī Qarqānī; also known as Bon-e Bādāmī) is a village in Mahur Rural District, Mahvarmilani District, Mamasani County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Bam Badami

Bam Badami (Persian: بام بادامي‎, also Romanized as Bām Bādāmī) is a village in Jowzar Rural District, in the Central District of Mamasani County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 15, in 4 families.

Banashankari Amma Temple

Banashankari Devi Temple (Kannada: ಬನಶಂಕರಿ ಅಮ್ಮನ ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನ) or Banashankari temple is a Hindu shrine located at Cholachagudd near Badami, in Bagalkot district, Karnataka, India. The temple is popularly called Banashankari or Vanashankari since it is located in the Tilakaaranya forest. The temple deity is also called the Shakambhari (Kannada: ಶಾಕಾಂಬರಿ), an incarnation of the goddess Parvati.

The temple attracts devotees from Karnataka as well as the neighbouring state of Maharashtra. The original temple was built by the 7th century Badami Chalukya kings, who worshipped goddess Banashankari as their tutelary deity. The temple celebrates its annual festival called Banashankari jatre, in the months of January or February. The festival comprises cultural programmes, boat festival as well as a Rath yatra, when the temple goddess is paraded around the city in a chariot.

Bhutanatha group of temples, Badami

The Bhutanatha group of temples is a cluster of sandstone shrines dedicated to the deity Bhutanatha, in Badami town of Karnataka state, India. There are two major temples here. Temple No.1, on the east side of the lake, called the Bhutanatha temple has a superstructure that resembles early South Indian style or North Indian style with its open mantapa (hall or Veranda) extending into the lake, while the smaller Temple No.2 on the north-east side of the lake, sometimes called the Mallikarjuna group of temples, has a stepped superstructure, commonly found in Kalyani Chalukya constructions. The inner shrine and mantapa (hall) of Temple No.1 were constructed in the late 7th century, during the reign of the Badami Chalukyas. While the outer mantapa, facing the Badami tank, was completed during the rule of the Kalyani Chalukyas of the 11th century. Hence the Bhutanatha temple contain architectural forms from different periods. Studies show that these Kalyani Chalukya architects could have belonged to the same early phase workshop, that later built the nearby Yellamma temple and the Mallikarjuna group of temples.

Chalukya dynasty

The Chalukya dynasty ([tʃaːɭukjə]) was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th century.

The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions. The 11th century saw the patronage of Telugu literature under the Eastern Chalukyas.

Ghash Badami

Ghash Badami (Persian: غاش بادامي‎, also Romanized as Ghāsh Bādāmī) is a village in Rostaq Rural District, Rostaq District, Darab County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

North Karnataka

North Karnataka officially known as Uttara Karnataka is a geographical region consisting of mostly semi-arid plateau from 300 to 730 metres (980 to 2,400 ft) elevation that constitutes the northern part of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is drained by the Krishna River and its tributaries the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra. North Karnataka lies within the Deccan thorn scrub forests ecoregion, which extends north into eastern Maharashtra.

It includes the districts of Belagavi, Vijayapura, Bagalkot, Bidar, Bellary, Gulbarga, Yadagiri, Raichur, Gadag, Dharwad, Haveri and Koppal district.

Major cities in the region are Belagavi, Hubballi, Dharwad, Bellary, Bijapur, Gadag, Ranebennur, Koppal, Gangavati, Raichur, Yadagiri, Hospet and Bagalkot, Kalaburgi, Bidar, Chikodi, Nipani, Gokak, Badami, Jamkhandi, Saundatti, Rabkavi Banhatti.

Though the region is semi-arid, part of Belagavi district receive enough rainfall to make them lush and green throughout the year. Belagavi district is quite big and though the north parts of the district are arid and receive less rainfall, the southern parts which are adjacent to North Canara district, like Londa, have an almost highland tropical climate. The stretch from Londa to Alnavar has some of the most dense jungles on the Western coastal belt of India. They are part of the Western Ghats and their foothills which are now protected under National Wildlife laws.

Certain parts of the region are well irrigated by many largest multipurpose projects like Upper Krishna Irrigation Project that includes Basava Sagara and Almatti Dams, Tungabhadra Dam and many major and minor lift irrigation projects.

Notable difference from the regions of Old Mysore, Coastal Karnataka and Central Karnataka in terms of language, cuisine and culture, the region is well known for its contributions to the literature, arts, architecture, economy and politics of [[KarnaKarnataka

Pir Badami

Pir Badami (Persian: پيربادامي‎, also Romanized as Pīr Bādāmī) is a village in Dehdasht-e Gharbi Rural District, in the Central District of Kohgiluyeh County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 71, in 16 families.

Siege of Badami

The Siege of Badami (1-20 May 1786) was conducted by forces of the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad against a Mysorean garrison at Badami, a fortified town in present-day northern Karnataka in India, during the Maratha-Mysore War. The allied army, numbering as many as 50,000 and led by the Maratha leader Hari Pant, stormed the city on 20 May; the Mysorean fortress surrendered immediately thereafter.

Temples of North Karnataka

Temples of North KarnatakaNorth Karnataka has innumerable sites in the Temple Map of Karnataka, India, with its some of its still surviving monuments going back to the 7th century AD. The Badami Chalukyas were the builders of rock cut caves and ancient temple complexes. At Pattadakal, there are Temples in the Dravidian style along with Temples in styles that were later adopted in Eastern and Central India. The sculptural quality in these temples is outstanding.

The Badami Chalukyas were succeeded by the Rashtrakutas and the Kalyani Chalukyas.

The Vijayanagar Empire marks the period of great Temple building activity in Karnataka and these temples are characterized by the building of pillared mandapas and lofty entrance towers The Vijayanagar Empire was destroyed by the Deccan Sultanates in the 16th century and the ruins can be seen at Hampi.

The temples of the coastal region are markedly different in architectural styles.

Vikramaditya II

Vikramaditya II (reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father. This information comes from the Lakshmeshwar inscriptions in Kannada dated January 13, 735 A.D. From inscriptions it has come to be known that even before his coronation, Vikramaditya II, as a crown prince (Yuvaraja), had conducted successful military campaigns against their arch enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. His most important achievements were the capture of Kanchipuram on three occasions, the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II. This is attested to by another Kannada inscription, known as the Virupaksha Temple inscription which alludes to the emperor as the conqueror of Kanchi on three occasions and reads Sri Vikramaditya-bhatarar-mume-Kanchiyan-mume parajisidor. The other notable achievement was the consecration of the famous Virupaksha Temple (Lokeshwara temple) and Mallikarjuna Temple (Trilokeshwara temple) by his queens Lokadevi and Trilokadevi at Pattadakal. These two monuments are the centre piece of the UNESCO World Heritage Monuments at Pattadakal.

Beginnings
(before
400 CE)
Maturity
(400-899 CE)
Advanced
(900-1299 CE)
Revival
(1400-1799 CE)
Related
Note:
By state
Types
Organisations
See also
Historical Places in Karnataka
Historical places of Chalukyas
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Telangana
Andhra Pradesh

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