A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB—often styled B.A.; from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus (from the Latin bacca, a berry, and laureus, "of the bay laurel") should not be confused with baccalaureatus (translatable as "gold-plated scepter" by using the Latina bacum and aureatus), which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree (Baccalaureatus in Artibus Cum Honore) in some countries.
Diplomas generally give the name of the institution, signatures of officials of the institution (generally the president or rector of the university as well as the secretary or dean of the component college), type of degree conferred, conferring authority, and location at which the degree is conferred. Diplomas generally are printed on high-quality paper or parchment; individual institutions set the preferred abbreviation for their degrees.
In colleges and universities in Australia, New Zealand, Nepal, and South Africa, the BA degree can be taken over three years of full-time study. Students must pursue at least one major area of study, and units from that subject are usually studied in each year, though sometimes students may choose to complete upper-level classes in the same year and as a result, can leave space for elective subjects from a different field. At some universities students may choose to pursue a second major; alternatively, the remainder of the degree is taken up with a minor area of study (in the first two years) and other individual or stream-based subjects make up the degree.
Unlike in other countries, students do not receive an overall grade for their Bachelor of Arts degree with varying levels of honours ("honours" is a distinction but not part of the degree itself). Qualified students may be admitted, after they have achieved their (general) Bachelor's program with a high overall grade point average, to a further one year Bachelor (with) Honours degree program ((with) Honours is part of the degree itself). Thus, to achieve a Bachelor (with) Honours degree (abbr. e.g. BA (Hons.) or BA hons.), an extra "postgraduate" year and a high research honour's thesis must be completed; see Honours Degrees. A student who holds a (with) Honours degree is eligible for direct entry to either a Doctorate (Ph.D.) or a very high research master's degree program.
Education in Canada is controlled by the Provinces and can be very different depending on the province. Canadian universities typically offer a four-year Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degrees. In many universities and colleges, Bachelor of Arts degrees are differentiated either as Bachelors of Arts or as honours Bachelor of Arts degree. The term "Honours" is an academic distinction, which indicates that students must achieve their Bachelor of Arts degree with a sufficiently high overall grade point average; in addition, some programs may require more education than non-honours programs.
The honours degrees are sometimes designated with the abbreviation in brackets of '(Hon(s))'. It should not be confused with the consecutive Bachelor of Arts degree "with Honours", Latin "Baccalaureatus in Artibus Cum Honore", abbr. 'BA hon.' de jure without brackets and with a dot. It is a "postgraduate" degree. Going back in history, a three-year Bachelor of Arts degree (also known e.g. in Québec as grade de bachelier ès arts) was also called a pass degree or general degree.
A student who first achieves a general Bachelor of Arts degree with a sufficiently high overall average may be admitted to a "postgraduate" Baccalaureatus cum Honore degree in the same field; it requires a minimum of one year but may also take longer; it typically does not exceed two years. Students may be required to undertake a long high-quality research empirical thesis (Honours Seminar Thesis) combined with a selection of courses from the relevant field of studies. The consecutive B. cum Honore degree is essential if students ultimate goal is to study towards a two- or three-year very high research master's degree qualification. A student holding a Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree also may choose to complete a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program without the requirement to first complete a master's degree. Over the years, in some universities certain Baccalaureatus cum Honore programs have been changed to corresponding master's degrees.
In general, in all four countries, the B.A. degree is the standard required for entry into a master's programme. In science, a BA hons degree is generally a prerequisite for entrance to a Ph.D program or a very-high-research-activity master's programme. As such, for example the UK awarded honours are designed and should not be confused with Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and South African awarded BA hons/BA (Hons) degree.
For further clarification, in other countries the so-called honours bachelor may not be an actual degree, but the name of a (vocational) programme which can be completed through specified course work, a high grade average, and the completion of possibly a short paper or project; students who completed such a honours BA programme sometimes style themselves by '(Hon)' after the degree abbreviation without a space, in parentheses and after the 'Hon(s)' without a dot, for example 'B.A.(Hon)'. The three and four year B.A. degree is also accepted for entry into graduate professional programmes such as law or a Master of Business Administration program.
In the Netherlands, the Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees were introduced in 2002. Until then there was a single program which led to the doctorandus degree. This comprised the same course load as the Bachelor and Master programs combined. The title doctorandus was used in almost all fields of study; other titles were used for legal studies (meester, Dutch for master, abbreviated Mr.) and engineering (ingenieur). Those who had already started the doctorandus program could, on completing it, opt for the doctorandus degree (entitling them to use "Drs." in front of their name), or could use the master's degree (post-nominal letters) in accordance with the new standard. A similar practice has been introduced in other EU countries, according to the Bologna Process.
In Germany, university-level education usually happens in either a Universität (plural: Universitäten) or a Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen); both can be referred to as a Hochschule, which is the generic term in Germany for all institutions awarding academic degrees. Fachhochschule is often translated as "University of Applied Sciences". Universitäten place greater emphasis on fundamental science and theoretical background, while Fachhochschulen are generally designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Degrees earned at Universitäten and Fachhochschulen are legally equivalent.
In Germany, the B.A. normally lasts between three and three and a half years – six or seven semesters – and is awarded after the student earns between one-hundred eighty and two-hundred ten ECTS.
In the United Kingdom (excluding Scotland) and Ireland, the first degree course normally lasts three years, but nomenclature varies: 19th-century and later universities usually distinguish between arts and sciences subjects by awarding either a B.A. or B.Sc. degree. However, some older or ancient universities, such as Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin traditionally award B.A.s to undergraduates having completed the final examinations, e.g. Part II Tripos (Cambridge), Final Honour Schools (Oxford), Moderatorship (Dublin), in most subjects including the sciences. Some new plate glass universities established in the 1960s, such as York and Lancaster originally followed the practice of Oxford and Cambridge by awarding B.A.s in all subjects, but have since changed to awarding B.Sc. degrees in science subjects. At Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin the degree of M.A. can be claimed, usually twenty-one terms after matriculation. For many centuries, the bachelor's degree was an intermediate step and was awarded for much of the work carried out in later times at secondary schools. The names of the final secondary school exams in France and Spain (and increasingly in the UK—the International Baccalaureate) come from this: le Baccalauréat and el Bachillerato, respectively.
The Ancient Universities of Scotland award a Master of Arts degree to humanities or arts graduates, but a B.Sc. to science graduates. This course takes four years for an honours degree and three for an ordinar. In Scotland, it is possible to opt to take an ordinary degree rather than this simply ranking below a third class honours (for example, B.A. with distinction, merit or pass).
A Bachelor of Arts is entitled to the designation B.A. for an ordinary/pass degree and B.A. (Hons) for an honours degree. Students who completed an honours B.A. sometimes style themselves by '(Hon)' or '(Hons)' after the degree abbreviation in parentheses. An honours degree is always awarded in one of four classes depending upon the marks gained in the final assessments and examinations. The top students are awarded a first-class degree, followed by an upper second-class degree (usually referred to as a 2:1), a lower second-class degree (usually referred to as a 2:2), and those with the lowest marks gain a third-class degree. An ordinary or unclassified degree (which does not give the graduate the right to add '(Hons)') may be awarded if a student has completed the full honours degree course but has not obtained the total required passes sufficient to merit a third-class honours degree. Typically these degrees lack the last year requirement of a dissertation.
The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is a bachelor's degree designed to satisfy the academic requirement of practicing architecture.Bachelor of Arts (film)
Bachelor of Arts is a 1934 American drama film directed by Louis King and written by Lamar Trotti. The film stars Tom Brown, Anita Louise, Henry B. Walthall, Mae Marsh, Arline Judge and Frank Albertson. The film was released on November 23, 1934, by Fox Film Corporation.Bachelor of Economics
The Bachelor of Economics (BEc or BEcon) is a four-year academic degree in the social sciences encompassing both qualitative and quantitative courses. Typical mandatory courses for the degree include microeconomics, macroeconomics, econometrics, economic statistics, history of economic thought and political economy.
Some universities offer undergraduate degree students the opportunity to specialise in a particular area of economics, such as: agricultural economics, econometrics, environmental and resource economics, financial economics, and political economy.Bachelor of Education
A Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) is a graduate professional degree which prepares students for work as a teacher in schools, though in some countries additional work must be done in order for the student to be fully qualified to teach.Bachelor of Journalism
The Bachelor of Journalism (B.J.) degree is a degree awarded at some universities to students who have studied journalism in a three or four year undergraduate program. In the United States, some schools that do not award the B.J. degree instead confer a Bachelor of Arts, Journalism (B.A.J.), Bachelor of Arts in Journalism and Mass Communication (B.A.J.M.C.) or Bachelor of Science, Journalism (BSJ) that is often part of or in conjunction with a course of study in mass communication. Yet another epithetological version of the degree, conferred by The Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia, is the A.B.J. degree, the Latin equivalent of the B.J./B.A.J.
The Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Kansas accredits university level journalism programs in the United States. There are currently 109 such accredited programs in 40 states.Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of a program of study in music. In the United States, it is a professional degree, and the majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music, usually requiring proficiency in an instrument, voice, or conducting. In Canada, the B.M. is often considered an undergraduate degree. Programs typically last from three to four and a half years.
The degree may be awarded for performance, music education, composition, music theory, musicology / music history (musicology degrees may be a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) rather than a B.M.) music technology, music therapy, sacred music, music business/music industry, entertainment, music production or jazz studies. In the 2010s, some universities have begun offering degrees in Music Composition with Technology, which include traditional theory and musicology courses and sound recording and composition courses using digital technologies.
In the United Kingdom, the Bachelor of Music is generally a first degree lasting three years (or four years in Scotland) and consisting of a wide range of areas of study (normally including performance, composition, music theory, musicology/music history), but at the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge it was a one-year postgraduate degree which could only be taken if a student were to have been a graduate in music with honors at those universities; the undergraduate course is in the Faculty of Arts and leads to the Bachelor of Arts (and subsequently the Master of Arts (Oxbridge)).Bachelor of Science
A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts (BA) by one university but as a BS by another, and some universities offer the choice of either. Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences, while some universities offer only the BS even in non-science fields. At universities that offer both BA and BS degrees in the same discipline, the BS degree is usually more extensive in that particular discipline and is targeted towards students who are pursuing graduate school or a profession in that field.Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service awards Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degrees to all of its undergraduates, although many students major in humanities-oriented fields such as international history or culture and politics. The London School of Economics offers BSc degrees in practically all subject areas, even those normally associated with arts degrees, while the Oxbridge universities almost exclusively award arts qualifications. In both instances, there are historical and traditional reasons. Northwestern University's School of Communication grants BSc degrees in all of its programs of study, including theater, dance, and radio/television/film. University of California, Berkeley grants BS degree in Environmental Economics and Policy in College of Natural Resources (CNR), BS degree in Business Administration in Haas School of Business and BA degree in Environmental Economics and Policy in College of Letters and Science (L&S). Cornell University offers a BS degree in Computer Science from its College of Engineering and a BA degree in Computer Science from its College of Arts and Sciences.
The first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. Prior to this, science subjects were included in the BA bracket, notably in the cases of mathematics, physics, physiology and botany.British degree abbreviations
Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the UK it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops (e.g. "BSc" rather than "B.Sc."), although this is done at some universities.Cavendish University Uganda
Cavendish University Uganda (CUU) is licensed and accredited by the Uganda National Council for Higher Education (UNCHE), and was established in 2008.Flagler College
Flagler College is a private four-year liberal arts college in St. Augustine, Florida. It was founded in 1968 and offers 29 majors and 34 minors. It also has a campus in Tallahassee.
The college has been named by U.S. News & World Report as one of the "Best Regional Colleges in the South" (#2 in 2018 and 2017) and in The Princeton Review "Best 380 Colleges." Its 2015–16 tuition was $16,830 (excluding room and board) and its acceptance rate averages 40% of its annual applications. The college had an endowment of over $60 million as of April 2011.Florida College
Florida College is a small, coeducational Christian college in Temple Terrace, Florida. Degree programs include a Bachelor of Science in Biblical Education, Bachelor of Arts in Biblical Studies, Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Bachelor of Arts in Communication, Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education, Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Studies, a Bachelor of Arts in Music, as well as Associate Arts degree.Since its founding as a junior college in 1946, Florida College has drawn its staff, faculty, and the majority of its students from non-institutional churches of Christ. It is also recognized among these churches as an important training center for ministers. Because non-institutional churches of Christ, as a matter of doctrine, oppose congregational support for colleges, Florida College has some unique characteristics as religious colleges go – the college accepts no direct contributions from any congregation or other organized religious body, and its board members serve as individuals rather than as official representatives of any such entity.
The high emphasis Florida College places on its Christian heritage is expressed in its tradition of daily chapel services. All members of the board of directors and all faculty members are required to be active members in a church of Christ. All students are required to receive daily classes in biblical topics.Kasem Bundit University
Kasem Bundit University (KBU) is a private university in Thailand. Established in 1987, it offers academic programs at graduate and undergraduate levels.List of Bates College people
This list of notable people associated with Bates College includes matriculating students, alumni, attendees, faculty, trustees, and honorary degree recipients of Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. Members of the Bates community are known as "Batesies" or bobcats. This list also includes students of the affiliated Maine State Seminary, Nichols Latin School, and Cobb Divinity School. In 1915, George Colby Chase, the second president of the college, opted that the college include former students–who did not complete the full four year course of study–as alumni in "appreciation of their loyalty". Throughout its history, Bates has been the fictional alma mater of various characters in American popular culture. Notable fictional works to feature the college include Ally McBeal (1997), The Sopranos (1999), and The Simpsons (2015). As of 2015, there are 24,000 Bates College alumni. In 2016, two Bates alumni were featured on the Forbes' "30 Under 30" listing. Affiliates of the college include 86 Fulbright Scholars, 22 Watson Fellows, and 5 Rhodes Scholars.As of November 2018, the college counts 12 members of the United States Congress–2 Senators and 10 members of the House of Representatives–among its alumni. Edmund Muskie ('36) occupied all offices available in the Maine political system, excluding state senator and United States representative. He narrowly lost the 1968 election to become the 39th Vice President of the United States, placed fourth in his bid for the presidency in 1972, and received public draft calls for the presidential elections of 1976 and 1980. Robert F. Kennedy ('44) and Leo Ryan ('44), alumni of the college's V-12 Naval Program, both served as U.S. congressmen, the former served as the 64th U.S. Attorney General during the mid-1960s. In state government, Bates alumni have led all three political branches in Maine, graduating two Chief Justices of the Maine Supreme Court, two Maine Governors, and multiple leaders of both state houses. Bates has graduated 12 Olympians, with the most recent alumni competing in the 2018 Winter Olympics. More than 20 universities have been led by Bates alumni as of July 2016.
This list uses the following notation:
B.A. or unmarked years – recipient of Bachelor of Arts either at the Maine State Seminary or Bates
B.S. – recipient of Bachelor of Science
B.S.E. – recipient of Bachelor of Science in Engineering from an affiliated engineering school with Bates
V-12 – recipient of the V-12 Degree through the college's V-12 Navy College Training Program
S.T.B. – recipient of Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus from the college's defunct Cobb Divinity School, which merged with Bates' religion department in 1908List of environmental degrees
This is a list of environmental degrees, including for such interdisciplinary fields as environmental science, environmental studies, environmental engineering, environmental planning, environmental policy, sustainability science and studies, etc., at both undergraduate and graduate levels.Master of Arts (Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin)
In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate). As such, it is an academic rank, and not a postgraduate qualification. No further examination or study is required for this promotion.This practice differs from most other universities worldwide, at which the degree reflects further postgraduate study or achievement. These degrees are therefore sometimes referred to as the Oxford and Cambridge MA and the Dublin or Trinity MA, to draw attention to the difference. However, as with gaining a postgraduate degree from another university, once incepted and promoted to a Master, the graduate no longer wears the academic dress or uses the post-nominal letters pertaining to a Bachelor of Arts, being no longer of that rank: i.e. the Master of Arts degree is not awarded separately (for instance, in addition to that of Bachelor of Arts), but rather the new rank is treated as a conversion of one degree to another.
All three universities have other masters' (i.e. postgraduate) degrees that require further study and examination, but these have other titles, such as Master of Letters (M.Litt.), Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.), Master of Studies (M.St.), Master of Engineering (M.A.I., or MEng), and Master of Science (M.Sc.).
In the ancient universities of Scotland, a degree with the same name is awarded as a first degree to graduates in certain subjects (see Master of Arts (Scotland)).Master of Arts (Scotland)
The degree of Master of Arts (MA) in Scotland typically refers to an undergraduate degree (either a three-year general degree or four-year Honours degree) in humanities or social sciences awarded by one of the ancient universities of Scotland (the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh) plus the University of Dundee (as a result of its history as a constituent college of the University of St Andrews) and Heriot-Watt University (at honours level only). The first two years of the Scottish Master of Arts consist of ordinary Bachelor level courses; however, after these, students who are accepted to pursue the Honours route will complete more advanced subjects and write a dissertation in their fourth year. Students who choose to do a "general" degree will complete their third year at a lower level of specialisation, and receive a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or MA without Honours. For the postgraduate degree referred to in other places as "Master of Arts", Scottish universities usually award the degree of Master of Letters (MLitt). Generally, non-ancient universities in Scotland (e.g. University of Strathclyde, The Robert Gordon University, Edinburgh Napier University, etc.), award arts degrees as Bachelor of Arts.New Arts, Science and Commerce College, Parner
New Arts, Science and Commerce College, Parner (Marathi: न्यू आर्ट्स, सायन्स अँण्ड कॉमर्स कॉलेज, पारनेर), is a college in Parner city of Ahmednagar district in state of Maharashtra, India. The college established in July 1977.Philippine Christian University
The Philippine Christian University (PCU) is a private, coeducational Christian university located in Ermita, Manila, Philippines. It was founded in 1946 through the initiatives of the Laymen of the Evangelical Association of the Philippines. Originally named as Manila Union University, it was renamed as Philippine Christian College (PCC). In 1976, the PCC acquired university status.PCU is one of the two major mainline Protestant (related with the United Church of Christ in the Philippines and The United Methodist Church) universities at the heart of Metro Manila. The other is Trinity University of Asia under the auspices of the Episcopal Church.The Bachelor of Arts
The Bachelor of Arts (1937) is a novel written by R. K. Narayan. It is the second book of a trilogy that begins with Swami and Friends and ends with The English Teacher. It is again set in Malgudi, the fictional town Narayan invented for his novels.