Baby transport

Various methods of transporting children have been used in different cultures and times. These methods include baby carriages (prams in British English), infant car seats, portable bassinets (carrycots), strollers (pushchairs), slings, backpacks, baskets and bicycle carriers.

The large, heavy prams (short for perambulator), which had become popular during the Victorian era, were replaced by lighter designs during the latter half of the 1900s.

Baby pram
A wicker pram

Baskets, slings and backpacks

Crazy horse travois
A travois being used to transport infants
Cradleboard
Navajo child in a cradleboard, Window Rock, Arizona, 1936
Ergobabycarrier
A backpack carrier

Infant carrying likely emerged early in human evolution as the emergence of bipedalism would have necessitated some means of carrying babies who could no longer cling to their mothers and/or simply sit on top of their mother's back.[1] On-the-body carriers are designed in various forms such as baby sling, backpack carriers, and soft front or hip carriers, with varying materials and degrees of rigidity, decoration, support and confinement of the child. Slings, soft front carriers, and "baby carriages" are typically used for infants who lack the ability to sit or to hold their head up. Frame backpack carriers (a modification of the frame backpack), hip carriers, slings, mei tais and a variety of other soft carriers are used for older children.

Images of children being carried in slings can be seen in Egyptian artwork dating back to the time of the Pharaohs,[2] and have been used in many indigenous cultures. One of the earliest European artworks showing baby wearing is a fresco by Giotto painted in around 1306 AD, which depicts Mary carrying Jesus in a sling.[3] Baby wearing in a sling was well known in Europe in medieval times, but was mainly seen as a practice of marginalised groups such as beggers and gypsies.[4] A cradleboard is a Native American baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel.[5] The cradleboards were attached to the mother's back straps from the shoulder or the head. For travel, cradleboards could be hung on a saddle or travois. Ethnographic tradition indicates that it was common practice to cradleboard newborn children until they were able to walk,[6] although many mothers continued to swaddle their children well past the first birthday. Bound and wrapped on a cradleboard, a baby can feel safe and secure. Soft materials such as lichens, moss and shredded bark were used for cushioning and diapers. Cradleboards were either cut from flat pieces of wood or woven from flexible twigs like willow and hazel, and cushioned with soft, absorbent materials. The design of most cradleboards is a flat surface with the child wrapped tightly to it. It is usually only able to move its head.

On-the-body baby carrying started being known in western countries in the 1960s, with the advent of the structured soft pack in the mid-1960s. Around the same time, the frame backpack quickly became a popular way to carry older babies and toddlers. In the early 1970s, the wrap was reintroduced in Germany. The two ringed sling was invented by Rayner and Fonda Garner in 1981 and popularized by Dr William Sears starting in around 1985.[7] In the early 1990s, the modern pouch carrier was created in Hawaii. While the Chinese mei tai has been around in one form or another for centuries, it did not become popular in the west until it was modernized with padding and other adjustments. It first became popular and well known in mid-2003.

Portable cradles, including cradleboards, baskets, and bassinets, have been used by many cultures to carry young infants.

Modern transport methods

Wheeled devices are generally divided into prams, used for newborn babies in which the infant normally lies down facing the pusher, and the strollers, which are used for the small child up to about three years old in a sitting position facing forward.

History

William Kent developed an early stroller in 1733.[8] In 1733, the Duke of Devonshire asked Kent to build a means of transport that would carry his children. Kent obliged by constructing a shell shaped basket on wheels that the children could sit in. This was richly decorated and meant to be pulled by a goat or small pony. Benjamin Potter Crandall sold baby carriages in the US in the 1830s which have been described as the "first baby carriages manufactured in the US"[9] However, it has been argued that F.A. Whitney Carriage Company was the first. His son, Jesse Armour Crandall was issued a number of patents for improvements and additions to the standard models. These included adding a brake to carriages, a model which folded, designs for parasols and an umbrella hanger. By 1840, the baby carriage became extremely popular. Queen Victoria bought three carriages from Hitchings Baby Store.

The carriages of those days were built of wood or wicker and held together by expensive brass joints. These sometimes became heavily ornamented works of art. Models were also named after royalty, Princess and Duchess being popular names, as well as Balmoral and Windsor.

In June 1889, William H. Richardson patented his idea of the first reversible stroller. The bassinet was designed so it could face out or in towards the parent. He also made structural changes to the carriage. Until then the axle did not allow each wheel to move separately. Richardson's design allowed this, which increased maneuverability of the carriages. As the 1920s began, prams were now available to all families and were becoming safer, with larger wheels, brakes, deeper prams, and lower, sturdier frames.

In 1965, Owen Maclaren, an aeronautical engineer, worked on complaints his daughter made about travelling from England to America with her heavy pram. Using his knowledge of aeroplanes, Maclaren designed a stroller with an aluminium frame and created the first true umbrella stroller. He then went on to found Maclaren, which manufactured and sold his new design. The design took off and soon “strollers” were easier to transport and used everywhere.

In the 1970s, however, the trend was more towards a more basic version, not fully sprung, and with a detachable body known as a "carrycot".[notes 1] Now, prams are very rarely used, being large and expensive when compared with "buggies" (see below). One of the longer lived and better known brands in the UK is Silver Cross, first manufactured in Hunslet, Leeds, in 1877, and later Guiseley from 1936 until 2002 when the factory closed. Silver Cross was then bought by the toy company David Halsall and Sons who relocated the head office to Skipton and expanded into a range of new, modern baby products including pushchairs and "travel systems". They continue to sell the traditional Silver Cross coach prams which are manufactured at a factory in Bingley in Yorkshire.

Since the 1980s, the stroller industry has developed with new features, safer construction and more accessories.

Prams

Doris Turnbull in a pram, Nowgong, Assam 1902
A pram in Assam, India, about 1902

Larger and heavier prams, or perambulators had been used since their introduction in the Victorian era; prams were also used for infants, often sitting up. The term carrycot became more common in the UK after the introduction of lighter units with detachable baby carriers in the 1970s.

As they developed through the years suspension was added, making the ride smoother for both the baby and the person pushing it.

Strollers

Mor og datter i Gamla Stan i Stockholm
A child being pushed in a stroller
(video) Two women pushing buggies on a train platform in Tokyo, 2016

'Strollers' (North American English) or 'pushchairs/buggies' (English), are used for small children up to about three years old in a sitting position facing forward.

"Pushchair" was the popularly used term in the UK between its invention and the early 1980s, when a more compact design known as a "buggy" became the trend, popularised by the conveniently collapsible aluminium-framed Maclaren buggy designed and patented by the British aeronautical designer Owen Maclaren in 1965. "Pushchair" is the usual term in the UK, but is becoming increasingly replaced by buggy; in American English, buggy is synonymous with baby carriage. Newer versions can be configured to carry a baby lying down like a low pram and then be reconfigured to carry the child in the forward-facing position.

A variety of twin pushchairs are manufactured, some designed for babies of a similar age (such as twins) and some for those with a small age gap. Triple pushchairs are a fairly recent addition, due to the number of multiple births being on the increase. Safety guidelines for standard pushchairs apply. Most triple buggies have a weight limit of 50 kg and recommended use for children up to the age of 4 years.

A travel system is typically a set consisting of a chassis with a detachable baby seat and/or carrycot. Thus a travel system can be switched between a pushchair and a pram. Another benefit of a travel system is that the detached chassis (generally an umbrella closing chassis) when folded will usually be smaller than other types, to transport it in a car trunk or boot. Also, the baby seat will snap into a base meant to stay in an automobile, becoming a car seat. This allows undisturbed movement of the baby into or out of a car and a reduced chance of waking a sleeping baby.

Another modern design showcases a stroller that includes the possibility for the lower body to be elongated, thereby transforming the stroller into a kick scooter. Steering occurs by leaning towards either side. Depending on the model, it can be equipped with a foot- and/or handbrake. Speeds up to 10 mph can be reached. The first stroller of this kind was the so-called “Roller Buggy”, developed by industrial designer Valentin Vodev in 2005. In 2012 the manufacturer Quinny became interested in the concept and teamed up with a Belgian studio to design another model.

The modern infant car seat is a relative latecomer. It is used to carry a child within a car. Such car seats are required by law in many countries to safely transport young children.

Others

Bicycles can be fitted with a bicycle trailer or a children's bicycle seat to carry small children. An older child can ride on a one-wheel trailer bike with an integrated seat and handle bars.

A "travel system" includes a car seat base, an infant car seat, and a baby stroller. The car seat base is installed in a car. The infant car seat snaps into the car seat base when traveling with a baby. From the car, the infant car seat can be hand carried and snapped onto the stroller.

Gallery

Docile-husband-corrected

An 1847 stroller from the John Leech Archives

Kimball BostonDirectory 1868

An advertisement for an early perambulator in the 1868 Boston Directory

Boy in baby buggy, 1935

A baby in a buggy, USA, 1935

Odessastepsbaby

A pram in the 'Odessa Steps scene' from the 1926 film, Battleship Potemkin

Green Travel Day 22 September 2010 Jersey 8

A child being transported in a bicycle carrier

Babycarseat

A car seat for infants

Carrinho

A shopping cart with space for a small child

Pram

A 3-in-1 travel system

Tezaswinee Saikia

A baby sitting in a stroller with a doll above her head

Baby on stroller safely held by belt

A baby in a stroller with belts holding her in place

Daddy baby trike Park Av 30 jeh

A jogging stroller on Park Avenue, New York City, 2010

Roller Buggy

A roller buggy, 2005

East Berlin childminders, with children and strollers, seated on a wall, 1984

East Berlin child minders, with multiple-seat prams in 1984

Barnevogn2

A perambulator

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The modern equivalent—for babies that cannot walk—is a pram with a body that can be detached for carrying or for attaching to a frame to become a car seat (a "travel system").

References

  1. ^ Wall-Scheffler, C.M.; Geiger, K.; Steudel-Numbers, K. (2007). "Infant carrying: The role of increased locomotory costs in early development". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 133 (2): 841–846. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20603. PMID 17427923.
  2. ^ I.C. van Hout. Beloved Burden - Baby wearing around the world. pp 6-7. Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. 2011. ISBN 9789068321746
  3. ^ Rosie Knowles. Why Babywearing Matters. p 19. Pinter & Martin, 2016. ISBN 9781780665351
  4. ^ I.C. van Hout. Beloved Burden - Baby wearing around the world. pp 58-63. Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam. 2011. ISBN 9789068321746
  5. ^ Cradleboard Encarta. Retrieved 27 March 2009. Archived 2009-10-31.
  6. ^ [1], Native American Cradles exhibited at Pequot Museum, The Day - October 6, 2001, Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  7. ^ Maria Blois MD. Babywearing - The Benefits and Beauty of This Ancient Tradition. pp 32-35. Hale Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0972958339
  8. ^ On foot: a history of walking - Google Book Search. books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
  9. ^ .Museum of American Heritage, retrieved 6 Sep 2010

Bibliography

  • van Hout, I.C. (1993). Beloved Burdens. Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen.
  • Fontanel, Beatrice (October 1, 1998). Babies Celebrated. Harry N Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-4012-4.

External links

Babywearing

Babywearing is the practice of wearing or carrying a baby in a sling or in another form of carrier. Babywearing has been practiced for centuries around the world. In the industrialized world, babywearing has gained popularity in recent decades. Part of the reason for this shift is due to the influence of advocates of attachment parenting. Babywearing is a form of baby transport which can be enjoyed for as long as mutually desired, often until toddlerhood and beyond.

Bassinet

A bassinet, bassinette, or cradle is a bed specifically for babies from birth to about four months. Bassinets are generally designed to work with fixed legs or casters, while cradles are generally designed to provide a rocking or gliding motion. Bassinets and cradles are distinguished from Moses baskets and carry cots, which are designed to be carried and sit directly on the floor or furniture. After four months, babies are often transferred to a crib (North American usage) or cot (UK usage). In the United States, however, the bedside sleeper is the prevalent option, since they are generally bigger, recommended up to 6 months, and often used up to a year.

Breast engorgement

Breast engorgement occurs in the mammary glands due to expansion and pressure exerted by the synthesis and storage of breast milk. It is also a main factor in altering the ability of the infant to latch-on. Engorgement changes the shape and curvature of the nipple region by making the breast inflexible, flat, hard, and swollen. The nipples on an engorged breast are flat or inverted. Sometimes it may lead to striae on nipples, mainly a preceding symptom of septation mastitis.Engorgement usually happens when the breasts switch from colostrum to mature milk (often referred to as when the milk "comes in"). However, engorgement can also happen later if lactating women miss several nursings and not enough milk is expressed from the breasts. It can be exacerbated by insufficient breastfeeding and/or blocked milk ducts. When engorged the breasts may swell, throb, and cause mild to extreme pain.

Engorgement may lead to mastitis (inflammation of the breast) and untreated engorgement puts pressure on the milk ducts, often causing a plugged duct. The woman will often feel a lump in one part of the breast, and the skin in that area may be red and/or warm. If it continues unchecked, the plugged duct can become a breast infection, at which point she may have a fever or flu-like symptoms.

Breast pain

Breast pain is the symptom of discomfort in the breast. Pain that involves both breasts and which occurs repeatedly before the menstrual period is generally not serious. Pain that involves only one part of a breast is more concerning. It is particular concerning if a hard mass or nipple discharge is also present.Causes may be related to the menstrual cycle, birth control pills, hormone therapy, or psychiatric medication. Pain may also occur in those with large breasts, during menopause, and in early pregnancy. In about 2% of cases breast pain is related to breast cancer. Diagnosis involves examination, with medical imaging if only a specific part of the breast hurts.In more than 75% of people the pain resolves without any specific treatment. Otherwise treatments may include paracetamol or NSAIDs. A well fitting bra may also help. In those with severe pain tamoxifen or danazol may be used. About 70% of women have breast pain at some point in time. Breast pain is one of the most common breast symptom, along with breast masses and nipple discharge.

Cart

A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals. A handcart is pulled or pushed by one or more people. It is different from a dray or wagon, which is a heavy transport vehicle with four wheels and typically two or more horses, or a carriage, which is used exclusively for transporting humans.

Over time, the term "cart" has come to mean nearly any small conveyance, from shopping carts to golf carts or UTVs, without regard to number of wheels, load carried, or means of propulsion.

The draught animals used for carts may be horses, donkeys or mules, oxen, and even smaller animals such as goats or large dogs.

Haberman Feeder

The Haberman Feeder (a registered trademark) is a speciality bottle named after its inventor Mandy Haberman for babies with impaired sucking ability (for example due to cleft lip and palate or Mobius syndrome). The design of the feeder is to simulate breastfeeding.

Infant

An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human. The term may also be used to refer to juveniles of other organisms.

A newborn is, in colloquial use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth; the term applies to premature, full term, and postmature infants; before birth, the term "fetus" is used. The term "infant" is typically applied to young children under one year of age; however, definitions may vary and may include children up to two years of age. When a human child learns to walk, the term "toddler" may be used instead.

In British English, an infant school is for children aged between four and seven. As a legal term, "infancy" continues from birth until age 18.

Infant bathing

Infant bathing is the practice and activity of cleaning an infant by bathing. It has been characterized as being "fun", but care is recommended when an infant is in or around water. Most drowning deaths in children happen at home, often when a child is left alone while bathing.

Melasma

Melasma (also known as chloasma faciei, or the mask of pregnancy when present in pregnant women) is a tan or dark skin discoloration. Melasma is thought to be caused by sun exposure, genetic predisposition, hormone changes, and skin irritation. Although it can affect anyone, melasma is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who are taking oral or patch contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications.

Nursery rhyme

A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Mother Goose rhymes is interchangeable with nursery rhymes.From the mid-16th century nursery rhymes begin to be recorded in English plays, and most popular rhymes date from the 17th and 18th centuries. The first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. Publisher John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle (London, 1780).

Outline of transport

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to transport:

Transport or transportation – movement of people and goods from one place to another.

Paternal bond

A paternal bond is the human bond between a father and his child.

Pedialyte

Pedialyte is an oral electrolyte solution manufactured by Abbott Laboratories and marketed for use in children. It was invented by Dr. Gary Cohen of Swampscott, Massachusetts.

Pediatrics

Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21. A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais "child") and ἰατρός (iatros "doctor, healer"). Pediatricians work both in hospitals, particularly those working in its subspecialties such as neonatology, and as outpatient primary care physicians.

Perambulator

Perambulator may refer to

a pram, a type of baby transport

a surveyor's wheelSee alsoPerambulation (disambiguation)

Playpen

A playpen is a piece of furniture in which an infant or young toddler (typically those less than 35 inches (89 cm) tall and 30 pounds (14 kg)) is placed to prevent self-harm when her/his parent or guardian is occupied or away. The earliest use of the word "playpen" cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is 1902.

Silver Cross

Silver Cross may refer to:

SA Police Silver Cross for Gallantry, a civil decoration of South Africa

Silver Cross (Canada), a Canadian medal

Silver Cross Field, a baseball field

Silver Cross of Rhodesia, Rhodesia's second-highest military decoration for conspicuous gallantry

Silver Cross (pram), a British manufacturer of baby transport

Silver Cross Tavern, a pub in London, England

Silver Cross, Zilveren Kruis a Dutch health insurance company

Silver Cross (company)

Silver Cross is a British nursery brand and manufacturer of baby transport and other baby-related products. It is a family-owned company based in Skipton, North Yorkshire, and is best known for the production of baby prams and pushchairs, particularly coach-built prams. Silver Cross is also a manufacturer of infant car seats, nursery furniture, nursery bedding, nursery decor, toys and gifts. The brand supplies nursery products globally in over 50 countries. Silver Cross was established in 1877 in Leeds, England and is one of the oldest nursery brands in the world.

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