Babur (cruise missile)

Babur (Urdu: بابر; named after the first Mughal Emperor Zahir-ud-Din Babur), also designated Hatf VII, is a short range turbojet powered subsonic cruise missile that can be launched from land or mobile underwater platforms. The missile was first tested in 2005 and is widely believed to have entered service with the Pakistan Army in 2010.[4][5][6][7][8]

Babur cruise missile; Hatf VII
Babur aa
Babur cruise missile deployed at a show in 2006
TypeMedium-range subsonic cruise missile
Place of originPakistan
Service history
In serviceBabur I: 2010-present [1]
Used byBabur–I/Babur–II
Army Strategic Forces Command (ASFC)
Babur–III
Naval Strategic Forces Command (NSFC)
Production history
ManufacturerNational Defence Complex (NDC)
Specifications
Weight1,500 kg
Length6.2 m [1]
Diameter0.52 m
Warhead450 - 500 kg Conventional or nuclear

EngineTurbofan
(Solid-fuel rocket booster during launch)
PropellantSolid fuel (booster rocket)
Liquid fuel (jet engine)
Operational
range
Babur–I: 700 km[2]
Babur–II: 750 km [3]
Babur–III: 450 km
Speed880 km/h or 550 mph (Mach 0.8)
Guidance
system
INS, TERCOM/DSMAC, GPS, GLONASS
Launch
platform
Transporter erector launcher (TEL)
Underwater mobile platform

Origin

Babur Cruise Missle at Ideas 2008
A transporter erector launcher (TEL), carrying four cruise missiles, on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition, Karachi, Pakistan
4 Babur Cruise Missiles on a Truck at IDEAS 2008
A transporter erector launcher (TEL) carrying four cruise missiles on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi

Pakistan claims to have developed the Babur in response to alleged reports that India was planning to acquire Patriot missiles from the US, in order to set up a ballistic missile defense system to counter Pakistan's arsenal of ballistic missiles.[9] Babur is the first cruise missile to be developed and designed by Pakistan.[7] Some analysts have pointed out similarities of the missile with Chinese and American designs, namely the DH-10 and Tomahawk.[10][11]

Design

The Babur's airframe is made up of a tubular fuselage, with a pair of folded wings attached to the middle section and the empennage at the rear along with the propulsion system. Propelled by a jet engine (either turbofan or turbojet), the Babur has a maximum speed of approximately 550 mph. Launched from ground-based mobile transporter erector launchers (TELs), the Babur can be armed with both conventional and nuclear warheads and has a reported range of 700 km (430 mi). On launch, a booster (rocketry) provides additional thrust to accelerate the missile away from the launch vehicle. After the launch the wings unfold, the booster rocket is jettisoned and the jet engine started. The missile is stated to have a high degree of maneuverability, allowing it to "hug" the terrain, and "near-stealth" capabilities.[12][6][13] Terrain-hugging ability helps the missile avoid enemy radar detection by utilizing "terrain masking", giving Babur the capability to penetrate enemy air defence systems undetected.[7][14]

The Babur's guidance system uses a combination of inertial navigation systems (INS), terrain contour matching (TERCOM) and GPS satellite guidance. The guidance system reportedly gives the missile pinpoint accuracy.[7] GPS access is not guaranteed under hostile conditions so the latest production models have also reportedly incorporated the Russian GLONASS. Future software and hardware updates could include the European Union's GALILEO and China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.[15] An upgraded variant tested on the 14 December 2016 included upgraded avionics where now the missile is able to accurately hit land and sea based targets without the aid of GPS. Also the missile is able to hit targets more accurately.[16][17][18][16]

Operational history

On August 12, 2005, Pakistan publicly announced that it had successfully test-fired a nuclear-capable cruise missile with a range of 500 km.[19][20] The missile was launched from a land-based transporter erector launcher (TEL).[9][21] Pakistan did not notify India of its test-firing as the existing notification agreement is limited to ballistic missile testing only.

On March 22, 2007, Pakistan test-fired an upgraded version of the Babur with an extended range of 700 km.[14]

On May 6, 2009, Pakistan conducted another test-firing but did not announce the event until 9 May 2009, citing political reasons.[22][23]

On October 28, 2011, Pakistan successfully test-fired its Babur cruise missile which has a range of 700 km. The ISPR said Babur was capable of carrying conventional and atomic warheads. A special feature of this launch was the validation of a new multi-tube missile launch vehicle (MLV) during the test. The three-tube MLV enhances manifold the targeting and deployment options in the conventional and nuclear modes. With its shoot-and-scoot capability, the MLV provides a major force multiplier effect for target employment and survivability.[24]

On June 6, 2012 Pakistan conducted a successful test-fire of the multi-tube, indigenously developed cruise missile Hatf-VII (Babur), which can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads with stealth capabilities. It was the third test-fire conducted by Pakistan in the recent past, of different capacity and load. “It can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads and has stealth capabilities”, said an official announcement of the ISPR. “It also incorporates the most modern cruise missile technology of Terrain Contour Matching (Tercom) and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation (DSMAC), which enhances its precision and effectiveness manifolds.”[25] A new variant of the missile, termed Babur-1B, was test fired on 14 April 2018.[26]

Pakistan conducted a successful launch of an enhanced version of the Babur II missile On December 14, 2016. Enhancements include upgraded aerodynamics and avionics where now the missile is able to accurately hit targets without the aid of GPS, and also target sea-based targets as well land based targets.[16][17]

On 9 January 2017, Pakistan conducted a successful launch of the Babur III missile from an underwater mobile platform. The Babur-III has a range of 450 km and can be used as a second-strike capability.[27][28][29][30] It has been speculated that the missile is ultimately designed to be incorporated with the Agosta 90B class submarine which has been reported to have been modified. However no such tests have been carried out yet.[31][32] In India, defence and imagery analysts questioned discrepancies in the video, claiming the footage to be fake.[33] Pakistan reported that the missile has again successfully tested on 29 March 2018.[34]

Variants

Harbah

Harbah is an anti-ship and land-attack cruise missile under development by Pakistan. ISPR, media wing of the Pakistan Armed Forces, reported that the missile was test fired on 3 January 2018 from the PNS Himmat, a Azmat-class fast attack craft. The missile is believed to have been derived from Babur cruise missile.[35][36][37]

See also

Related developments
Similar missiles
Related lists

References

  1. ^ a b "Hatf 7 "Babur" - Missile Threat".
  2. ^ "Hatf 7 "Babur" - Missile Threat". CSIS.org. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  3. ^ "Pak missiles more superior than India's: Dr Samar".
  4. ^ "Pakistan conducts successful test of Babur cruise missile". dawn.com. 2016-12-14. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  5. ^ "Hatf 7 "Babur" | Missile Threat". Missile Threat. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  6. ^ a b "Pakistan conducts successful test of Babur cruise missile". dawn.com. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Sharif, Arshad (12 August 2005). "Pakistan test-fires its first cruise missile". dawn.com. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  8. ^ "Pakistan Navy armed with latest Submarine and Babur Cruise Missiles". Pakistan Hotline. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  9. ^ a b "Information missing". Paktribune. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  10. ^ Kelleher, Catherine McArdle; Dombrowski, Peter (2015-09-23). Regional Missile Defense from a Global Perspective. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804796569.
  11. ^ Rajagopalan, Rajesh; Mishra, Atul (2015-08-12). Nuclear South Asia: Keywords and Concepts. Routledge. ISBN 9781317324751.
  12. ^ "Pakistan Tests Nuclear-Capable Cruise Missile". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  13. ^ "Nuclear-capable Nirbhay cruise missile's test fails for the fourth time".
  14. ^ a b "Pakistan test fires nuclear-capable missile". 26 July 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  15. ^ http://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/hatf-7-babur/
  16. ^ a b c "Improved version of Babur cruise missile tested successfully". dawn.com. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Pakistan successfully test-fires cruise missile 'Babur' with range of 700km". HindustanTimes.com. 14 December 2016.
  18. ^ "Pakistan successfully tests fires indigenous Babur Cruise Missile - The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  19. ^ "science14.htm". dawn.com. 20 August 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  20. ^ Pakistan fires new cruise missile, BBC News, 11 August 2005
  21. ^ "VOA News Report". VOANews.com. August 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  22. ^ "Babar missile test-fired last Wednesday". The Nation. 9 May 2009. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  23. ^ Schmitt, Eric; Sanger, David E. (29 August 2009). "U.S. Says Pakistan Made Changes to Missiles Sold for Defense". Retrieved 26 July 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
  24. ^ "Pakistan successfully tests Babur Cruise missile". The News Tribe. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  25. ^ "N-capable Hatf-VII cruise missile test-fired". The News International, Pakistan. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  26. ^ "Pakistan test-fires enhanced version of Babur cruise missile | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  27. ^ "Pakistan fires 'first submarine-launched nuclear-capable missile'". 10 January 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017 – via Reuters.
  28. ^ "Pakistan test-fires first submarine cruise missile Babur-3". AryNews.tv. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  29. ^ "Pakistan 'launches first cruise missile from submarine'". 9 January 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017 – via www.BBC.co.uk.
  30. ^ "Pakistan fires 'first submarine-launched nuclear-capable missile' - The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. 9 January 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  31. ^ Panda, Ankit. "Pakistan Tests New Sub-Launched Nuclear-Capable Cruise Missile. What Now?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  32. ^ Panda, Ankit. "The Risks of Pakistan's Sea-Based Nuclear Weapons". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  33. ^ "Did Pakistan fake nuclear missile Babur-3 launch? Photoshop expert thinks so". India Today. 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2018-02-19.
  34. ^ "Pakistan tests its indigenously built Submarine Launched Cruise Missile Babur". The Financial Express. 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  35. ^ Diplomat, Ankit Panda, The. "Pakistan Tests An Indigenously Developed Anti-Ship Cruise Missile". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
  36. ^ "Pakistan conducts firing of cruise missile from Azmat-class boat | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
  37. ^ "IMPRESSIVE FIRE POWER DISPLAY BY PAKISTAN NAVY IN NORTH ARABIAN SEA" (PDF).

External links

AIST (missile)

AIST cruise missile - latest development of the Belarusian State Military Industrial Committee. The cruise missile is a high precision short-range subsonic cruise missile developed in close cooperation with Ukrainian and Chinese experts.

Babur

Babur (Persian: بابر‬‎, translit. Bābur, lit. 'tiger'; 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the ultimate founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Timur (Tamerlane) from what is now Uzbekistan.Babur was born in Andijan, in the Fergana Valley, in modern Uzbekistan. Babur ruled nearby Osh in Fergana Valley, located in modern Kyrgyzstan, pondered his future on Sulayman Mountain and even constructed a mosque atop of the mountain. Babur somehow concludes that the confines of the Fergana would cramp his aspirations as a descendant of famous conquering warrior princes. He wrote of the city:

"There are many sayings about the excellence of Osh. On the southeastern side of the Osh fortress is a well-proportioned mountain called Bara-Koh, where, on its summit, Sultan Mahmud Khan built a pavilion. Farther down, on a spur of the same mountain, I had a porticoed pavilion built in 902 (1496-7)"

Babur was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, governor of Fergana and great grandson of Timur the Great. He ascended the throne of Fergana in its capital Akhsikent in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose the vilayat of Fergana soon after. In his attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture both vilayats went in vain as he was defeated by Muhammad Shaybani Khan. In 1504, he conquered Kabul, which was under the rule of the infant heir of Ulugh Begh. Babur formed a partnership with Safavid ruler Ismail I and reconquered parts of Turkistan, including Samarkand, only to again lose it and the other newly conquered lands to the Sheybanids.

After losing Samarkand for the third time, Babur turned his attention to South. At that time, the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the northern Indian Subcontinent was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi of the Afghan Lodi dynasty, whereas Rajputana was ruled by a Hindu Rajput Confederacy, led by Rana Sanga of Mewar. According to historical records and Baburnama (Babur's autobiography), Daulat Khan Lodi invited him to attack Delhi where Ibrahim Lodi was ruling at that time. He sent his ambassador to him to support him in his attack on Delhi. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE and founded the Mughal empire. However, he again faced opposition, this time from Rana Sanga of Mewar and Medini Rai, another rajput ruler in the battle of Chanderi who considered Babur a foreigner. The Rana was defeated in the Battle of Khanwa.

Babur married several times. Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza. Babur died in 1530 and was succeeded by Humayun. According to Babur's wishes, he was buried in Bagh-e Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan. Being a patrilineal descendant of Timur, Babur considered himself a Timurid and Chagatai Turkic. He is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Many of his poems also have become popular folk songs. He wrote Baburnama in Chaghatai Turkic and this was translated into Persian during Akbar's reign.

Cruise missile

A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision. Modern cruise missiles are capable of travelling at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and are able to fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low-altitude trajectory.

Hatf-VIII (Ra'ad)

The Raad (Urdu: رعد‎, "Thunder") is an air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) under development by Pakistan. The missile was first tested in August 2007 and its current status is unknown.

List of missiles

Below is a list of missiles, sorted alphabetically by name.

List of missiles of Pakistan

A list of missiles developed by Pakistan.

Nirbhay

Nirbhay (Sanskrit:Dauntless/Fearless) is a long range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile designed and developed in India by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. The missile can be launched from multiple platforms and is capable of carrying conventional and nuclear warheads. It is currently under development and undergoing flight trials.

Pakistan Armed Forces

The Pakistan Armed Forces (Urdu: پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج‬‎, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan. They are the sixth largest in the world in terms of active military personnel and the largest among Muslim countries. The armed forces comprise three main service branches – Army, Navy, and Air Force – together with a number of paramilitary forces and the Strategic Plans Division Force. Chain of command of the military is organised under the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC) alongside chiefs of staff of the army, navy, and air force. All of the branches work together during operations and joint missions under the Joint staff Headquarters (JS HQ).Since the 1963 Sino-Pakistan Agreement, the military has had close military relations with China, working jointly to develop the JF-17, the K-8, and other weapons systems. As of 2013, China was the second-largest foreign supplier of military equipment to Pakistan. Both nations also co-operate on development of nuclear and space technology programs. Their armies have a schedule for organising joint military exercises. The military also maintains close relations with the United States, which gave Pakistan major non-NATO ally status in 2004. Pakistan gets the bulk of its military equipment from local domestic suppliers, China, and the United States.The armed forces were formed in 1947 when Pakistan became independent from the British Empire. Since then, the armed forces have played a decisive role in the modern history of Pakistan, fighting major wars with India in 1947, 1965 and 1971, and on several occasions seizing control of the civilian government to restore order in the country. The need for border management led to the creation of paramilitary forces to deal with civil unrest in the North-West and security of border areas in Punjab and Sindh by paramilitary troops. In 2017, per IISS, the military had approximately 653,800 active personnel in the armed forces, including 12,000–15,000 personnel in the Strategic Plans Division Forces and 282,000 active personnel in the paramilitary forces. The armed forces have a large pool of volunteers so conscription has never been needed, though the Pakistani constitution and supplementary legislation allow for conscription in a state of war.The Pakistan Armed Forces are the best-organized institution in Pakistan, and are highly respected in civil society. Since the founding of Pakistan, the military has played a key role in holding the state together, promoting a feeling of nationhood and providing a bastion of selfless service. In addition, the Pakistan Armed Forces are the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, with more than 10,000 personnel deployed overseas in 2007. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani military personnel serving as military advisers in African and Arab countries. The Pakistani military has maintained combat divisions and brigade-strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the Arab–Israeli Wars, aided the Coalition forces in the first Gulf War, and took part in the Somali and Bosnian conflicts.

Pakistan Navy

The Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاکستان بحریہ‬‎; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for the defence of Pakistan's 1,046 kilometres (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea, including its naval bases and civilian seaports, territorial waters, and exclusive economic zone, and the protection of Pakistan's maritime interests. The Pakistan Navy came into the existence after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The President of Pakistan serves as the Supreme Commander of the Navy under Article 243 (2) of the Constitution of Pakistan, and the Chief of Naval Staff heads the Navy. Navy Day is celebrated on 8 September in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.The Pakistan Navy's current and primary role is to protect the country's economic and military interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defence policies of the Government of Pakistan through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities and other activities in support of these objectives. In the 21st century, the Pakistan Navy also focuses on limited overseas operations, and has played a vital role in the establishment of the Pakistan Antarctic Programme.As of 2017, per IISS, the Pakistan Navy has 23,800 active personnel inclusive of 3,200 Marines and 2,000 personnel of Maritime Security Agency. The Pakistan Navy is supported by the Pakistan Coast Guard, and the Maritime Security Agency (MSA), the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.The Navy is undergoing extensive modernisation and expansion as part of Pakistan's role in the War on Terror. Since 2001, the Pakistan Navy has increased and expanded its operational scope, and has been given greater national and international responsibility in countering the threat of sea-based global terrorism, drug smuggling, and piracy. In 2004, Pakistan Navy became a member of the primarily NATO Combined Task Forces CTF-150 and CTF-151. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has significantly expanded the role of the navy, joint patrols with the Chinese navy as well as providing land and sea-based security to secure shipping lanes has become a priority. From December 2016 Pakistan's Navy established TF-88 a taskforce that is designed to ensure there is security for maritime trade, this will guard the shipping lane routes by protecting Gwadar Port. The Pakistan Navy is the custodian of Pakistan's second strike capability with the launch of the submarine-based cruise missiles capable of carrying conventional as well as nuclear warheads.The Constitution of Pakistan makes the President of Pakistan the civilian Commander-in-Chief. The Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), by statute a four star admiral, is appointed by the President with the consultation and confirmation needed from the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is subordinate to the civilian Defence Minister and Secretary of Defence, and commands the Navy.

Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction

Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978.Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival.At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus.Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.

Samar Mubarakmand

Samar Mubarakmand (Urdu: ثمر مبارک مند‬; b. 17 September 1942; NI, HI, SI, FPAS), is a Pakistani nuclear physicist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator.He came to public attention as the director of the test teams responsible for the performing the country's first and successful atomic tests (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) at the Chagai Test Site, located in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Prior to that, he was the project director of the integrated missile programme and supervised the development of Shaheen and Babur missile program. Serving the founding chairman of Nescom from 2001 until 2007, he was subsequently appointed by the government to assist the Thar coalfield project.

Tomahawk (missile)

The Tomahawk () Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was initially designed as a medium- to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. Since then, it has been upgraded several times with guidance systems for precision navigation. In 1992–1994, McDonnell Douglas Corporation was the sole supplier of Tomahawk Missiles and produced Block II and Block III Tomahawk missiles and remanufactured many Tomahawks to Block III specifications. In 1994, Hughes outbid McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to become the sole supplier of Tomahawk missiles. It is now manufactured by Raytheon. In 2016, the U.S. Department of Defense purchased 149 Tomahawk Block IV missiles for $202.3 million.

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