Baal

Baal (/ˈbeɪəl, ˈbɑːəl/),[1][a] properly Baʿal,[b] was a title and honorific meaning "owner," "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods.[6] Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations.[7]

The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes generic use of the term in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.

Baʿal
God of fertility, weather, rain, wind, lightning, seasons, war, patron of sailors and sea-going merchants, leader of the Rephaim (ancestral spirits)
Later views: King of the gods
Baal thunderbolt Louvre AO15775
The stele of Baal with Thunderbolt found in the ruins of Ugarit
SymbolBull, Sheep
RegionAt and near Canaan
Near, around and at Ugarit
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Personal information
ConsortsAnat, Athtart, Arsay, Tallay, Pidray
ParentsDagan (usual lore) El (some Ugaritic texts)
SiblingsAnat

Etymology

The spelling of the English term "Baal" derives from the Greek Báal (Βάαλ), which appears in the New Testament[8] and Septuagint,[9] and from its Latinized form Baal, which appears in the Vulgate.[9] These forms in turn derive from the vowel-less Northwest Semitic form BʿL (Phoenician & Punic: 𐤁𐤏𐤋).[10] The word's biblical senses as a Phoenician deity and false gods generally were extended during the Protestant Reformation to denote any idols, icons of the saints, or the Catholic Church generally.[11] In such contexts, it follows the anglicized pronunciation and usually omits any mark between its two As.[1] In close transliteration of the Semitic name, the ayin is represented, as Baʿal.

In the Northwest Semitic languagesUgaritic, Phoenician, Hebrew, Amorite, and Aramaic—the word baʿal signified "owner" and, by extension, "lord",[9] a "master", or "husband".[12][13] Cognates include the Akkadian Bēlu (𒂗),[c] Amharic bal (ባል),[14] and Arabic baʿl (بَعْل). Báʿal (בַּעַל) and baʿl still serve as the words for "husband" in modern Hebrew and Arabic respectively. They also appear in some contexts concerning the ownership of things or possession of traits.

The feminine form is baʿalah (Hebrew: בַּעֲלָה‎;[15] Arabic: بَعْلَة‎), meaning "mistress" in the sense of a female owner or lady of the house[15] and still serving as a rare word for "wife".[16]

Suggestions in early modern scholarship also included comparison with the Celtic god Belenus.[17]

Semitic religion

Baal Ugarit Louvre AO17330
Bronze figurine of a Baal, 14th – 12th century BCE, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) near the Phoenician coast. Musée du Louvre.

Generic

Like EN in Sumerian, the Akkadian bēlu and Northwest Semitic baʿal (as well as its feminine form baʿalah) was used as a title of various deities in the Mesopotamian and Semitic pantheons. Only a definitive article, genitive or epithet, or context could establish which particular god was meant.[18]

Hadad

Baʿal was also used as a proper name by the third millennium BCE, when he appears in a list of deities at Abu Salabikh.[9] Most modern scholarship asserts that this Baʿal—usually distinguished as "The Lord" (הבעל, Ha Baʿal)—was identical with the storm and fertility god Hadad;[9][19][12] it also appears in the form Baʿal Haddu.[13][20] Scholars propose that, as the cult of Hadad increased in importance, his true name came to be seen as too holy for any but the high priest to speak aloud and the alias "Lord" ("Baʿal") was used instead, as "Bel" was used for Marduk among the Babylonians and "Adonai" for Yahweh among the Israelites. A minority propose that Baʿal was a native Canaanite deity whose cult was identified with or absorbed aspects of Adad's.[9] Regardless of their original relationship, by the 1st millennium BCE, the two were distinct: Hadad was worshipped by the Aramaeans and Baʿal by the Phoenicians and other Canaanites.[9]

El

The Phoenician Baʿal is generally identified with either El or Dagan.[21]

Baʿal

Baʿal is well-attested in surviving inscriptions and was popular in theophoric names throughout the Levant[22] but he is usually mentioned along with other gods, "his own field of action being seldom defined".[23] Nonetheless, Ugaritic records show him as a weather god, with particular power over lightning, wind, rain, and fertility.[23][d] The dry summers of the area were explained as Baʿal's time in the underworld and his return in autumn was said to cause the storms which revived the land.[23] Thus, the worship of Baʿal in Canaan—where he eventually supplanted El as the leader of the gods and patron of kingship—was connected to the regions' dependence on rainfall for its agriculture, unlike Egypt and Mesopotamia, which focused on irrigation from their major rivers. Anxiety about the availability of water for crops and trees increased the importance of his cult, which focused attention on his role as a rain god.[12] He was also called upon during battle, showing that he was thought to intervene actively in the world of man,[23] unlike the more aloof El. The Lebanese city of Baalbeck was named after Baal.[26]

The Baʿal of Ugarit was the epithet of Hadad but as the time passed, the epithet became the god's name while Hadad became the epithet.[27] Baʿal was usually said to be the son of Dagan, but appears as one of the sons of El in Ugaritic sources.[22][13][e] Both Baʿal and El were associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as it symbolized both strength and fertility.[28] The virgin goddess ʿAnat was his sister and sometimes credited with a child through him. He held special enmity against snakes, both on their own and as representatives of Yammu (lit. "Sea"), the Canaanite sea god and river god.[29] He fought the Tannin (Tunnanu), the "Twisted Serpent" (Bṭn ʿqltn), "Litan the Fugitive Serpent" (Ltn Bṭn Brḥ, the biblical Leviathan),[29] and the "Mighty One with Seven Heads" (Šlyṭ D.šbʿt Rašm).[30][f] Baʿal's conflict with Yammu is now generally regarded as the prototype of the vision recorded in the 7th chapter of the biblical Book of Daniel.[32] As vanquisher of the sea, Baʿal was regarded by the Canaanites and Phoenicians as the patron of sailors and sea-going merchants.[29] As vanquisher of Mot, the Canaanite death god, he was known as Baʿal Rāpiʾuma (Bʿl Rpu) and regarded as the leader of the Rephaim (Rpum), the ancestral spirits, particularly those of ruling dynasties.[29]

From Canaan, worship of Baʿal spread to Egypt by the Middle Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean following the waves of Phoenician colonization in the early 1st millennium BCE.[22] He was described with diverse epithets and, before Ugarit was rediscovered, it was supposed that these referred to distinct local gods. However, as explained by Day, the texts at Ugarit revealed that they were considered "local manifestations of this particular deity, analogous to the local manifestations of the Virgin Mary in the Roman Catholic Church".[19] In those inscriptions, he is frequently described as "Victorious Baʿal" (Aliyn or ẢlỈyn Baʿal),[13][9] "Mightiest one" (Aliy or ʿAly)[13][g] or "Mightiest of the Heroes" (Aliy Qrdm), "The Powerful One" (Dmrn), and in his role as patron of the city "Baʿal of Ugarit" (Baʿal Ugarit).[38] As Baʿal Zaphon (Baʿal Ṣapunu), he was particularly associated with his palace atop Jebel Aqra (the ancient Mount Ṣapānu and classical Mons Casius).[38] He is also mentioned as "Winged Baʿal" (Bʿl Knp) and "Baʿal of the Arrows" (Bʿl Ḥẓ).[13] Phoenician and Aramaic inscriptions describe Bʿl Krntryš, "Baʿal of the Lebanon" (Bʿl Lbnn), "Baʿal of Sidon" (Bʿl Ṣdn), Bʿl Ṣmd, "Baʿal of the Heavens" (Baʿal Shamem or Shamayin),[39] Baʿal ʾAddir (Bʿl ʾdr), Baʿal Hammon (Baʿal Ḥamon), Bʿl Mgnm.[22]

Baʿal Hammon

Baʿal Hammon was worshipped in the Tyrian colony of Carthage as their supreme god. It is believed that this position developed in the 5th century BCE following the severing of its ties to Tyre following the 480 BCE Battle of Himera.[40] Like Hadad, Baʿal Hammon was a fertility god.[41] Inscriptions about Punic deities tend to be rather uninformative, though, and he has been variously identified as a moon god and as Dagan, the grain god.[42] Rather than the bull, Baʿal Hammon was associated with the ram and depicted with his horns. The archaeological record seems to bear out accusations in Roman sources that the Carthaginians burned their children as human sacrifices to him. He was worshipped as Baʿal Karnaim ("Lord of the Two Horns"), particularly at an open-air sanctuary at Jebel Bu Kornein ("Two-Horn Hill") across the bay from Carthage. His consort was the goddess Tanit.[43]

The epithet Hammon is obscure. Most often, it is connected with the NW Semitic ḥammān ("brazier") and associated with a role as a sun god.[44] Renan and Gibson linked it to Hammon (modern Umm el-‘Amed between Tyre in Lebanon and Acre in Israel)[45] and Cross and Lipiński to Haman or Khamōn, the classical Mount Amanus and modern Nur Mountains, which separate northern Syria from southeastern Cilicia.[46][47]

Judaism

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 116
Slaughter of the Prophets of Baal, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld

Baʿal (בַּעַל) appears about 90 times in the Hebrew Scriptures in reference to various gods.[9] The priests of the Canaanite Baʿal are mentioned numerous times, most prominently in the First Book of Kings. Many scholars believe that this describes Jezebel's attempt to introduce the worship of the Baʿal of Tyre, Melqart,[48] to the Israelite capital Samaria in the 9th century BCE.[49] Against this, Day argues that Jezebel's Baʿal was more probably Baʿal Shamem, the Lord of the Heavens, a title most often applied to Hadad, who is also often titled just Ba‘al.[50]

1 Kings 18 records an account of a contest between the prophet Elijah and Jezebel's priests. Both sides offered a sacrifice to their respective gods: Ba'al failed to light his followers' sacrifice while Yahweh's heavenly fire burnt Elijah's altar to ashes, even after it had been soaked with water. The observers then followed Elijah's instructions to slay the priests of Baʿal,[51] after which it began to rain, showing Yahweh's mastery over the weather.

Other references to the priests of Baʿal describe their burning of incense in prayer[52] and their offering of sacrifice while adorned in special vestments.[53]

Yahweh

The title baʿal was a synonym in some contexts of the Hebrew adon ("Lord") and adonai ("My Lord") still used as aliases of the Lord of Israel Yahweh. According to some scholars, the early Hebrews did use the names Baʿal ("Lord") and Baʿali ("My Lord") in reference to the Lord of Israel, just as Baʿal farther north designated the Lord of Ugarit or Lebanon.[49][6] This occurred both directly and as the divine element of some Hebrew theophoric names. However, according to others it is not certain that the name Baal was definitely applied to Yahweh in early Israelite history. The component Baal in proper names is mostly applied to worshippers of Baal, or descendants of the worshippers of Baal.[54] Names including the element Baʿal presumably in reference to Yahweh[55][6] include the judge Gideon (also known as Jerubaʿal, lit. "The Lord Strives"), Saul's son Eshbaʿal ("The Lord is Great"), and David's son Beeliada ("The Lord Knows"). The name Bealiah ("The Lord is Jah"; "Yahweh is Baʿal")[7] combined the two.[56][57] However John Day states that as far as the names Eshba’al, Meriba’al, and Beeliada (that is Baaliada), are concerned it is not certain whether they simply allude to the Cannanite god Ba’al, or are intended to equate Yahweh with Ba’al, or have no connection to Ba’al.[58]

It was the program of Jezebel, in the 9th century BCE, to introduce into Israel's capital city of Samaria her Phoenician worship of Baal as opposed to the worship of Yahweh that made the name anathema to the Israelites.[49]

At first the name Baal was used by the Jews for their God without discrimination, but as the struggle between the two religions developed, the name Baal was given up by the Israelites as a thing of shame, and even names like Jerubbaal were changed to Jerubbosheth: Hebrew bosheth means "shame".[59]

Eshbaʿal became Ish-bosheth and Meribaʿal became Mephibosheth,[60] but other possibilities also occurred. Beeliada is mentioned renamed as Eliada and Gideon's name Jerubaʿal was mentioned intact but glossed as a mockery of the Canaanite god, implying that he strove in vain.[61] Direct use of Baʿali continued at least as late as the time of the prophet Hosea, who reproached the Israelites for doing so.[62]

Brad E. Kelle has suggested that references to cultic sexual practices in the worship of Baal, in Hosea 2, are evidence of an historical situation in which Israelites were either giving up Yahweh worship for Baal, or blending the two. Hosea's references to sexual acts being metaphors for Israelite "apostasy".[63]

Baʿal Berith

Baʿal Berith ("Lord of the Covenant") was a god worshipped by the Israelites when they "went astray" after the death of Gideon according to the Hebrew Scriptures.[64] The same source relates that Gideon's son Abimelech went to his mother's kin at Shechem and received 70 shekels of silver "from the House of Baʿal Berith" to assist in killing his 70 brothers from Gideon's other wives.[65] An earlier passage had made Shechem the scene of Joshua's covenant between all the tribes of Israel and "El Yahweh, our god of Israel"[66] and a later one describes it as the location of the "House of El Berith".[67] It is thus unclear whether the false worship of the "Baʿalim" being decried[64] is the worship of a new idol or the continued worship of Yahweh, but by means of rites and teachings taking him to be a mere local god within a larger pantheon. The Hebrew Scriptures record the worship of Baʿal threatening Israel from the time of the Judges until the monarchy.[68] The Deuteronomist[69] and the present form of Jeremiah[70] seem to phrase the struggle as monolatry or monotheism against polytheism. However, Yahweh is firmly identified in the Hebrew Scriptures with El Elyon, whose Canaanite figure appears hostile to the cult of Baʿal even in the polytheistic accounts of Ugarit and the Phoenician cities.[71]

Beelzebub
"Beelzebub" in the 1863 edition of Jacques Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal.

Beelzebub

Baʿal Zebub (Hebrew: בעל זבוב‎, lit. "Fly Lord")[72][73][h] occurs in the first chapter of the Second Book of Kings as the name of the Philistine god of Ekron. In it, Ahaziah, king of Israel, is said to have consulted the priests of Baʿal Zebub as to whether he would survive the injuries from his recent fall. The prophet Elijah, incensed at this impiety, then foretold that he would die quickly, raining heavenly fire on the soldiers sent to punish him for doing so.[75] Jewish scholars have interpreted the title of "Lord of the Flies" as the Hebrew way of calling Baʿal a pile of dung and his followers vermin,[76][77] although others argue for a link to power over causing and curing pestilence and thus suitable for Ahaziah's question.[78] The Septuagint renders the name as Baälzeboúb (βααλζεβούβ) and as "Baʿal of Flies" (βααλ μυιαν, Baäl muian). Symmachus the Ebionite rendered it as Beëlzeboúl (Βεελζεβούλ), possibly reflecting its original sense.[79][i] This has been proposed to have been B‘l Zbl, Ugaritic for "Lord of the Home" or "Lord of the Heavens".[80][j][k][l]

Classical sources

Outside of Jewish and Christian contexts, the various forms of Baʿal were indifferently rendered in classical sources as Belus (Greek: Βῆλος, Bē̂los). An example is Josephus, who states that Jezebel "built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus";[48] this describes the Baʿal of Tyre, Melqart. In the interpretatio graeca, Baʿal was usually associated with Jupiter Belus but sometimes connected with Hercules. Herrmann identifies the Demarus or Demarous mentioned by Philo Byblius as Baʿal.[29]

Baʿal Hammon, however, was identified with the Greek Cronos and the Roman Saturn (as the "African Saturn"). He was probably never equated with Melqart, although this assertion appears in older scholarship.

Christianity

Beelzebub or Beelzebul was identified by the writers of the New Testament as Satan, "prince" (i.e., king) of the demons.[m][n]

John Milton's 1667 epic Paradise Lost describes the fallen angels collecting around Satan, stating that, though their heavenly names had been "blotted out and ras'd", they would acquire new ones "wandring ore the Earth" as false gods. The "Baalim" and "Ashtaroth" are given as the collective names of the male and female demons (respectively) who came from between the "bordring flood of old Euphrates" and "the Brook that parts Egypt from Syrian ground".[83] Similarly, "Baal" and derived epithets like "Baalist" were used as slurs during the English Reformation for the Catholic saints and their devotees.

Islam

The Quran mentions the contest between Jezebel's priests of Baʿal and the prophet Elijah (Elias)[51]:

And Elias was most surely of the messengers. He asked his people: 'Do you not fear [God]? Will ye call upon Baal and forsake the best of creators? God is your Lord and the Lord of your fathers, the ancients' But they rejected him, and they will certainly be called up [for punishment], except the sincere and devoted servants of God [among them], and we left [this blessing] for him among generations [to come] in later times, peace be upon Elias.[84]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The American pronunciation is usually the same[2][3] but some speakers prefer variants closer to the original sound, such as /bɑːˈɑːl/ or /bɑːl/.[3][4]
  2. ^ Ugaritic: 𐎁𐎓𐎍;[5] Phoenician: 𐤁𐤏𐤋; Biblical Hebrew: בעל‎, pronounced [baʕal]).
  3. ^ This cuneiform is identical to the 𒂗 which is taken as EN in Sumerian texts. There, it has the meaning "high priest" or "lord" and appears in the names of the gods Enki and Enlil.
  4. ^ In surviving accounts, Baʿal's power over fertility extends only over vegetation. Older scholarship claimed Baʿal controlled human fertility as well, but did so on the basis of misinterpretation or of inscriptions now regarded as dubious.[24] Similarly, 19th-century scholarship treating Baal as a personification of the sun seems to have been badly taken. The astrotheology of Near Eastern deities was an Iron Age development long postdating the origin of religion and, following its development, Bel and Baʿal were associated with the planet Jupiter.[25] The sun was worshipped in Canaan as either the goddess Shapash or the god Shamash.
  5. ^ Herrmann argues against seeing these separate lineages literally, instead proposing that they describe Baʿal's roles. As a god, he is understood as a child of El, "father of gods", while his fertility aspects connect him to the grain god Dagan.[22]
  6. ^ The account is patchy and obscure here. Some scholars take some or all of the terms to refer to Litan and in other passages ʿAnat takes credit for destroying the monsters on Baʿal's behalf. Herrmann takes "Šalyaṭu" as a proper name[29] rather than translating it as the "powerful one" or "tyrant".[31]
  7. ^ This name appears twice in the Legend of Keret discovered at Ugarit. Before this discovery, Nyberg had restored it to the Hebrew texts of Deuteronomy,[33] 1 & 2 Samuel,[34][35] Isaiah,[36] and Hosea.[37] Following its verification, additional instances have been claimed in the Psalms and in Job.[12]
  8. ^ "The etymology of Beelzebul has proceeded in several directions. The variant reading Beelzebub (Syriac translators and Jerome) reflects a long-standing tradition of equating Beelzebul with the Philistine deity of the city of Ekron mentioned in 2 Kgs 1:2, 3, 6, 16. Baalzebub (Heb ba˓al zĕbûb) seems to mean “lord of flies” (HALAT, 250, but cf. LXXB baal muian theon akkarōn, “Baal-Fly, god of Akkaron”; Ant 9:2, 1 theon muian)."[74]
  9. ^ Arndt & al. reverse this, saying Symmachus transcribed Baälzeboúb for a more common Beëlzeboúl.[72]
  10. ^ "It is more probable that b‘l zbl, which can mean “lord of the (heavenly) dwelling” in Ugaritic, was changed to b‘l zbb to make the divine name an opprobrius epithet. The reading Beelzebul in Mt. 10:25 would then reflect the right form of the name, a wordplay on “master of the house” (Gk oikodespótēs)."[81]
  11. ^ "An alternative suggested by many is to connect zĕbûl with a noun meaning '(exalted) abode.'"[74]
  12. ^ "In contemporary Semitic speech it may have been understood as ‘the master of the house’; if so, this phrase could be used in a double sense in Mt. 10:25b."[82]
  13. ^ "In NT Gk. beelzeboul, beezeboul (Beelzebub in TR and AV) is the prince of the demons (Mt. 12:24, 27; Mk. 3:22; Lk. 11:15, 18f.), identified with Satan (Mt. 12:26; Mk. 3:23, 26; Lk. 11:18)."[82]
  14. ^ "Besides, Matt 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15 use the apposition ἄρχων τῶν δαιμονίων ‘head of the →Demons’."[78]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "Baal, n."
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionaries (2015), "Baal"
  3. ^ a b Merriam-Webster Online (2015), "baal".
  4. ^ Webb's Easy Bible Names Pronunciation Guide (2012), "Baal".
  5. ^ De Moor & al. (1987), p. 1.
  6. ^ a b c Smith (1878), pp. 175–176.
  7. ^ a b AYBD (1992), "Baal (Deity)".
  8. ^ Romans 11:4
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Herrmann (1999a), p. 132.
  10. ^ Huss (1985), p. 561.
  11. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "Baalist, n."
  12. ^ a b c d Pope (2006).
  13. ^ a b c d e f DULAT (2015), "bʕl (II)".
  14. ^ Kane (1990), p. 861.
  15. ^ a b Strong (1890), H1172.
  16. ^ Wehr & al. (1976), p. 67.
  17. ^ Belin, in Gilles Ménage, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue françoise, 1750. Ménage constructs a derivation of both the "Chaldean" Bel and the Celtic Belin from a supposed word for "ball, sphere", whence "head", and "chief, lord"
  18. ^ Halpern (2009), p. 64.
  19. ^ a b Day (2000), p. 68.
  20. ^ Ayali-Darshan (2013), p. 652.
  21. ^ Decker, Roy (2001), "Carthaginian Religion", Ancient/Classical History, New York: About.com, p. 2
  22. ^ a b c d e Herrmann (1999a), p. 133.
  23. ^ a b c d Herrmann (1999a), p. 134.
  24. ^ Herrmann (1999a), pp. 134–135.
  25. ^ Smith & al. (1899).
  26. ^ Batuman, Elif (18 December 2014), "The Myth of the Megalith", The New Yorker
  27. ^ Allen, Spencer L (2015). The Splintered Divine: A Study of Istar, Baal, and Yahweh Divine Names and Divine Multiplicity in the Ancient Near East. p. 216. ISBN 9781614512363.
  28. ^ Miller (2000), p. 32.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Herrmann (1999a), p. 135.
  30. ^ Uehlinger (1999), p. 512.
  31. ^ DULAT (2015), "šlyṭ".
  32. ^ Collins (1984), p. 77.
  33. ^ Deut. 33:12.
  34. ^ 1 Sam. 2:10.
  35. ^ 2 Sam. 23:1.
  36. ^ Isa. 59:18 & 63:7.
  37. ^ Hos. 7:16.
  38. ^ a b Herrmann (1999a), pp. 132–133.
  39. ^ "Baal | ancient deity". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  40. ^ Moscati (2001), p. 132.
  41. ^ Lancel (1995), p. 197.
  42. ^ Lipiński (1992).
  43. ^ Lancel (1995), p. 195.
  44. ^ Walbank (1979), p. 47.
  45. ^ Gibson (1982), p. 39 & 118.
  46. ^ Cross (1973), p. 26–28.
  47. ^ Lipiński (1994), p. 207.
  48. ^ a b Josephus, Antiquities, 8.13.1.
  49. ^ a b c BEWR (2006), "Baal".
  50. ^ Day (2000), p. 75.
  51. ^ a b 1 Kings 18
  52. ^ 2 Kings 23:5.
  53. ^ 2 Kings 10:22
  54. ^ Herrmann (1999a), p. 136.
  55. ^ Ayles (1904), p. 103.
  56. ^ 1 Chron. 12:5.
  57. ^ Easton (1893), "Beali′ah".
  58. ^ Day (2000), p. 72.
  59. ^ ZPBD (1963).
  60. ^ 1 Chron. 9:40.
  61. ^ Judges 6:32.
  62. ^ Hosea 2:16
  63. ^ Kelle (2005), p. 137.
  64. ^ a b Jgs. 8:33–34.
  65. ^ Jgs. 9:1–5.
  66. ^ Josh. 24:1–25.
  67. ^ Jgs. 9:46.
  68. ^ Smith (2002), Ch. 2.
  69. ^ Deut. 4:1–40.
  70. ^ Jer. 11:12–13.
  71. ^ Sanchuniathon.
  72. ^ a b Arndt & al. (2000), p. 173.
  73. ^ Balz & al. (2004), p. 211.
  74. ^ a b AYBD (1992), "Beelzebul".
  75. ^ 2 Kings 1:1–18.
  76. ^ Kohler (1902).
  77. ^ Lurker (1987), p. 31.
  78. ^ a b Herrmann (1999b).
  79. ^ Souvay (1907).
  80. ^ Wex (2005).
  81. ^ McIntosh (1989).
  82. ^ a b Bruce (1996).
  83. ^ Milton, Paradise Lost, Bk. 1, ll. 419–423.
  84. ^ Quran 37:123-130.

Sources

Further reading

External links

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Baal ( BAYL; sometimes spelled Bael, Baël (French), Baell, Buel) is one of the seven princes of Hell in 17th-century goetic occult writings. The name is drawn from the Canaanite deity Baal mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the primary god of the Phoenicians.

In this hierarchy, Baal (usually spelt "Bael" in this context; there is a possibility that the two figures aren't connected) is ranked as the first and principal king of Hell, ruling over the East. According to some authors, Baal is a Duke with sixty-six legions of demons under his command. According to Francis Barrett, he has the power to make those who invoke him invisible.

During the English Puritan period, Baal was either compared to Satan or considered his main assistant. Some demonologists believe his power is stronger in October. The origin of Halloween in Samhain was believed to involve pagan worship and sacrifice to Baal.While his Semitic predecessor was depicted as a man or a bull, the demon Baal was in grimoire tradition said to appear in the forms of a man, cat, toad, or combinations thereof. An illustration in Jacques Collin de Plancy's 1818 book Dictionnaire Infernal placed the heads of the three creatures onto a set of spider legs.

Baal Berith

Baʿal Berith ("Lord of the Covenant") and El Berith ("God of the Covenant") are two gods, or one god, worshiped in Shechem, in ancient Israel. The term "covenant" (Hebrew Berith) appears also in Ugaritic texts (second millennium BCE) as brt, in connection with Baʿal, and perhaps as Beruth in Sanchuniathon's work.

Baal Shem Tov

Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1698, died 22 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov (Hebrew: בעל שם טוב, ) or as the Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi from Poland, who is regarded as the founder of Hasidic Judaism. "Besht" is the acronym for Baal Shem Tov, which means "Master of the Good Name" or "one with a good reputation".The little biographical information about the Besht comes from oral traditions handed down by his students (Jacob Joseph of Polonne and others) and from the legendary tales about his life and behavior collected in Shivḥei ha-Besht (In Praise of the Ba'al Shem Tov; Kapust and Berdychiv, 1814–15). Hasidim approach these legends with a blend of scepticism and belief. Rebbe Shlomo Rabinowicz of Rodomsk declared, "Whoever believes all the miracle stories about the Baal Shem Tov in Shivhei HaBaal Shem Tov is a fool, but whoever denies that he could have done them is an apikoros [a heretic]". Similarly, the Rebbe Mordechai of Neshkiz explains, "Even if a story about him never actually occurred, and there was no such miracle, it was in the power of the Baal Shem Tov, may his memory be a blessing for the life of the World-to-Come, to perform everything".A central tenet in the Baal Shem Tov's teaching is the direct connection with the divine, "dvekut", which is infused in every human activity and every waking hour. Prayer is of supreme importance, along with the mystical significance of Hebrew letters and words. His innovation lies in "encouraging worshipers to follow their distracting thoughts to their roots in the divine".

Those who follow his teachings regard him as descended from the Davidic line that traces its lineage to the royal house of David.

Baal Veer

Baal Veer, is a children's Indian fantasy television series that was on SAB TV. The series was broadcast from October 8, 2012 to November 4, 2016 and aired 1111 episodes. A Tamil dubbed version of the show airs on Chutti TV. The first season started on 8 October 2012 and ended on 13 June 2016.

Baal teshuva

A ba'al teshuvah' (Hebrew: בעל תשובה; for a woman, בעלת תשובה, baalat teshuva or baalas teshuva; plural, בעלי תשובה, baalei teshuva, "master of return [to God]"). Baal teshuvah literally means in Hebrew "master of return" i.e., one who has "returned" to God.

Originally, the term referred to a Jew who transgressed the halakhah (Jewish law) knowingly or unknowingly and completed a process of introspection to "return" to the full observance of God's mitzvot. According to the Talmud, a true "ba'al teshuvah" stands higher in shamayim (lit. "heaven") than a "frum from birth", even higher than a tzadik, chasal says. In contemporary times, the phrase is primarily used to refer to a Jew from a secular background who becomes religiously observant (normally in an Orthodox fashion) later in life. The alternative term, chozer b'teshuvah (חוזר בתשובה) is more commonly used in Israel.

Baal teshuva movement

The baal teshuva movement is a description of the return of secular Jews to religious Judaism. The term baal teshuva is from the Talmud, literally meaning "master of repentance". The term is used to refer to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. It is distinct from the Jewish Renewal movement, which is not Orthodox.It began during the mid-twentieth century, when large numbers of previously highly assimilated Jews chose to move in the direction of practicing Judaism. The spiritual and religious journey of those involved has brought them to become involved with all the Jewish denominations, the most far-reaching stage being when they choose to follow Orthodox Judaism and its branches such as Haredi Judaism and Hasidic Judaism. This movement has continued unabated until the present time and has been noted by scholars who have written articles and books about its significance to modern Jewish history.

This movement among the Jewish people has produced a corresponding response from the various Jewish denominations and rabbis, particularly from Orthodox Judaism, which calls its response kiruv or kiruv rechokim ("bringing close/er [the] distant [ones]") or keruv. The terms "baal teshuva" (Hebrew: בעל תשובה) and kiruv are often linked together when discussing both the return of Jews to traditional Judaism and the outreach efforts and other responses to it. Increased Reform Judaism outreach and Conservative Judaism outreach has propelled the movement, in addition to the growing "movement" of Post-Denominationalist Judaism.

In 1986, New York magazine reported:

The people making this sweeping change in their life grew up in a secular world. They went to good colleges and got excellent jobs. They didn't become Orthodox because they were afraid, or because they needed a militaristic set of commands for living their lives. They chose Orthodoxy because it satisfied their need for intellectual stimulation and emotional security.

Baal with Thunderbolt

Baal with Thunderbolt or the Baal stele is a white limestone bas-relief stele from the ancient kingdom of Ugarit in northwestern Syria. The stele was discovered in 1932, about 20 metres (66 ft) from the Temple of Baal in the acropolis of Ugarit, during excavations directed by French archaeologist Claude F. A. Schaeffer. The stele depicts Baal (or Hadad), the Aramean god of storm and rain, and is considered the most important of the Ugaritic stelae. The stele is on display at the Musée du Louvre in Paris.

Baalshamin

Baalshamin (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ‎ Baʿal Šāmîn, lit. "Lord of Heaven[s]"), also called Baal Shamem (Phoenician: 𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤔𐤌𐤌 Baʿal Šāmēm) and Baal Shamaim (Hebrew: בַּעַל שָׁמַיִם‎ Baʿal Šāmayim), was a Northwest Semitic god and a title applied to different gods at different places or times in ancient Middle Eastern inscriptions, especially in Canaan/Phoenicia and Syria. The title was most often applied to Hadad, who is also often titled just Ba‘al. Baalshamin was one of the two supreme gods and the sky god of pre-Islamic Palmyra in ancient Syria (Bel being the other supreme god). There his attributes were the eagle and the lightning bolt, and he perhaps formed a triad with the lunar god Aglibol and the sun god Malakbel.

Beelzebub

Beelzebub or Beelzebul ( bee-EL-zi-bub or BEEL-zi-bub; Hebrew: בַּעַל זְבוּב Baʿal Zəvûv) is a name derived from a Philistine god, formerly worshipped in Ekron, and later adopted by some Abrahamic religions as a major demon. The name Beelzebub is associated with the Canaanite god Baal.

In theological sources, predominantly Christian, Beelzebub is sometimes another name for the Devil, similar to Satan. He is known in demonology as one of the seven princes of Hell. The Dictionnaire Infernal describes Beelzebub as a being capable of flying, known as the "Lord of the Flyers", or the "Lord of the Flies".

Gideon

Gideon () or Gedeon, also named Jerubbaal, and Jerubbesheth, was a military leader, judge and prophet whose calling and victory over the Midianites are recounted in chapters 6 to 8 of the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible.Gideon was the son of Joash, from the Abiezrite clan in the tribe of Manasseh and lived in Ephra (Ophrah). As a leader of the Israelites, he won a decisive victory over a Midianite army despite a vast numerical disadvantage, leading a troop of 300 'valiant' men.

Hadad

Hadad (Ugaritic: 𐎅𐎄 Haddu), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.

He was attested in Ebla as "Hadda" in c. 2500 BCE. From the Levant, Hadad was introduced to Mesopotamia by the Amorites, where he became known as the Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) god Adad. Adad and Iškur are usually written with the logogram 𒀭𒅎 dIM—the same symbol used for the Hurrian god Teshub. Hadad was also called "Pidar", "Rapiu", "Baal-Zephon", or often simply Baʿal (Lord), but this title was also used for other gods. The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared bearded, often holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing a bull-horned headdress. Hadad was equated with the Greek god Zeus; the Roman god Jupiter, as Jupiter Dolichenus; the Indo-European Nasite Hittite storm-god Teshub; the Egyptian god Amun.

Heresy of Peor

The heresy of Peor is an event related in the Torah at Numbers 25:1–15. Later biblical references to the event occur in Numbers 25:18 and 31:16, Deuteronomy 4:3, Joshua 22:17, Hosea 9:10; Psalm 106:28. Another reference is found in the New Testament, 1 Corinthians 10:8 and Revelation 2:14.

Jacob ben Asher

Jacob ben Asher, also known as Ba'al ha-Turim as well as Rabbi Yaakov ben Raash (Rabbeinu Asher), was probably born in the Holy Roman Empire at Cologne about 1269 and probably died at Toledo, then in the Kingdom of Castile, about 1343.Jacob was an influential Medieval rabbinic authority. He is often referred to as the Ba'al ha-Turim ("Master of the Rows"), after his main work in halakha (Jewish law), the Arba'ah Turim ("Four Rows"). The work was divided into four sections, each called a "tur," alluding to the rows of jewels on the High Priest's breastplate. He was the third son of the Rabbi Asher ben Jehiel (known as the "Rosh"), a Rabbi of the Holy Roman Empire who moved to Castile, due to increasing persecution of Jews in his native Germany. Besides his father, who was his principal teacher, Jacob quotes very often in the Turim his elder brother Jehiel; once his brother Judah (see Tur Orach Chaim, § 417), and once his uncle Rabbi Chaim (ib. § 49). According to many, Jacob moved to Castile with his father and was not born there.

Some say Jacob succeeded his father as the rabbi of the Jewish community of Toledo (Zacuto), while others say his brother Judah ben Asher did. His brothers were also rabbis of different communities in Iberia. He lived in abject poverty most of his life, and according to the Sephardic Community of Chios, is said to have fallen ill and died with his ten companions on the island of Chios, in Greece, whilst travelling.

Jezebel

Jezebel () is a figure of the Hebrew Bible, described in the Book of Kings (1 Kings 16:31) as a queen who was the daughter of Ithobaal I of Sidon and the wife of Ahab, King of Israel.According to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, Jezebel incited her husband King Ahab to abandon the worship of Yahweh and promote worship of the deities Baal and Asherah on a national scale. In addition, she ordered the prophets of Yahweh to be massacred and personally organized the execution of Naboth, a law-abiding landowner, after Ahab coveted his land. For these transgressions against the God and people of Israel, Jezebel met a gruesome death—thrown out of a window by members of her own court retinue, and the flesh of her corpse eaten by stray dogs.

In the biblical story, Jezebel became associated with false prophets. In some interpretations, her dressing in finery and putting on makeup led to the association of the use of cosmetics with "painted women" or prostitutes.

King of Tyre

The traditional king-list of Tyre, the ancient Phoenician city in what is now Lebanon, is derived from Josephus, Against Apion I.121–127, and his Antiquities of the Jews VIII.141–149. His list was based on a lost history by Menander of Ephesus, who had drawn his information, Josephus asserts, from the chronicles of Tyre itself.

Malakbel

Malakbêl (Arabic: مالاکبل‎) was a sun deity of the city of Palmyra in pre-Islamic Syria. The meaning, in Aramaic, is “Messenger of Baal" or "Messenger, or Angel, of the Lord".

The Greek identified Malakbel with Hermes, and the Romans with Sol. He was also similar to the Babylonian sun god Shamash.

Malakbel is usually accompanied by the Moon god Aglibol, and sometimes the goddess Allat.

Phoenicia

Phoenicia (; from the Ancient Greek: Φοινίκη, Phoiníkē) was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant, specifically Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent. Scholars generally agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of Lebanon and included northern Israel, and southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon. Its colonies later reached the Western Mediterranean, such as Cádiz in Spain and most notably Carthage in North Africa, and even the Atlantic Ocean. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC.

Phoenicia is an ancient Greek term used to refer to the major export of the region, cloth dyed Tyrian purple from the Murex mollusc, and referred to the major Canaanite port towns; not corresponding precisely to Phoenician culture as a whole as it would have been understood natively. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of ancient Greece,, centered in modern Lebanon, of which the most notable cities were Tyre, Sidon, Arwad, Berytus, Byblos, and Carthage. Each city-state was a politically independent unit, and it is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single nationality. In terms of archaeology, language, lifestyle, and religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other residents of the Levant, such as their close relatives and neighbors, the Israelites.Around 1050 BC, a Phoenician alphabet was used for the writing of Phoenician. It became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it evolved and was assimilated by many other cultures, including the Roman alphabet used by Western civilization today.

Ancient Semitic and Mesopotamian religion
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