BMW AG (German: [ˈbeːˈʔɛmˈveː]; originally an initialism for Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
The company was founded in 1916 and is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, Brazil, China, India, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced. The Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float.
Automobiles are marketed under the brands BMW (with sub-brands BMW M for performance models and BMW i for plug-in electric cars), Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad.
|Bayerische Motoren Werke AG|
Sheer Driving Pleasure (worldwide)
The Ultimate Driving Machine (USA, UK, Australia)
The Ultimate Driving Experience (Canada)
BMW headquarters in Munich
|Traded as||FWB: BMW|
|Founded||7 March 1916|
|2,691,423 vehicles (2017)|
|Revenue||€98.678 billion (2017)|
|€10.655 billion (2017)|
|€8.706 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||€193.483 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||€54.548 billion (2017)|
|Owner||Stefan Quandt (29%)|
Susanne Klatten (21%)
Public float (50%)
Number of employees
BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, and Automobilwerk Eisenach. The history of the name itself begins with Rapp Motorenwerke, an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke (BMW).(p11) BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for good fuel economy and high-altitude performance. The resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW.
After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm equipment, household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG (known today as Knorr-Bremse). Castiglioni was also an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW.
The disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, trucks, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (7 March 1916) to be the birth of the company.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became the BMW 3/15, BMW's first production car.
In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed entirely by BMW. It was powered by a four-cylinder engine, which BMW designed based on the Austin 7 engine.
With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe. The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, and the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz. The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing.
The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h (497 mph). The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft ever flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design. The BMW 003 aviation turbojet was also under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been heavily bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans, later expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles.
In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, however, the Bristol Aeroplane Company (BAC) was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices.
Production of automobiles resumed in 1952, with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes, convertibles and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta micro-car (under license from Iso) in 1955. Two years later, the four-seat BMW 600 was based on a lengthened version of the Isetta design. In 1959, the BMW 600 was replaced by the larger BMW 700 coupe/sedan.
By 1959, BMW was in debt and losing money. The Isetta was selling well but with small profit margins. Their 501-based luxury sedans were not selling well enough to be profitable and were becoming increasingly outdated. Their 503 coupé and 507 roadster were too expensive to be profitable. Their 600, a four-seater based on the Isetta, was selling poorly. The motorcycle market imploded in the mid-1950s with increasing affluence turning Germans away from motorcycles and toward cars. BMW had sold their Allach plant to MAN in 1954. American Motors and the Rootes Group had both tried to acquire BMW.
At BMW's annual general meeting on 9 December 1959, Dr. Hans Feith, chairman of BMW's supervisory board, proposed a merger with Daimler-Benz. The dealers and small shareholders opposed this suggestion and rallied around a counter-proposal by Dr. Friedrich Mathern, which gained enough support to stop the merger. At that time, the Quandt Group, led by half-brothers Herbert and Harald Quandt, had recently increased their holdings in BMW and had become their largest shareholder. In 1960, the development program began for a new range of models, called the "Neue Klasse" (New Class) project. The resulting New Class four-door sedans, introduced in 1962, are credited for saving the company financially and establishing BMW's identity as a producer of leading sports sedans.
BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were briefly badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. It was reputed that the acquisition was mainly to gain access to Glas’ development of the timing belt with an overhead camshaft in automotive applications, although some saw Glas’ Dingolfing plant as another incentive. However, this factory was outmoded and BMW's biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, a stock of highly qualified engineers and other personnel. The Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW.
In 1968, BMW began production of its first straight-six engine since World War II. This engine coincided with the launch of the New Six large sedans (the predecessor to the 7 Series) and New Six CS large coupes (the predecessor to the 6 Series).
The first 5 Series range of mid-size sedans were introduced in 1972, to replace the New Class sedans. The 5 Series platform was also used for the 6 Series coupes, which were introduced in 1976. In 1975, the first model of the 3 Series range of compact sedans/coupes was introduced. The 7 Series large sedans were introduced in 1978.
The 1978 BMW M1 was BMW's first mid-engined sports car and was developed in conjunction with Lamborghini. It was also the first road car produced by BMW's motorsport division, BMW M. In 1980, the M division produced its first model based on a regular production vehicle, the E12 M535i. The M535i is the predecessor to the BMW M5, which was introduced in 1985 based on the E28 platform.
In 1983, BMW introduced its first diesel engine, the M21. The first all-wheel-drive BMW - the E30 325iX - began production in 1985, and in 1987 the E30 was BMW's first model produced in a wagon/estate body style.
The 1986 E32 750i was BMW's first V12 model. The E32 was also the first sedan to be available with a long-wheelbase body style (badged "iL" or "Li").
The 8 Series range of large coupes was introduced in 1989 and in 1992 was the first application of BMW's first V8 engine in 25 years, the M60. It was also the first BMW to use a multi-link rear suspension, a design which was implemented for mass-production in 1990 E36 3 Series.
The E34 5 Series, introduced in 1988, was the first 5 Series to be produced with all-wheel drive or a wagon body style.
In 1993, the BMW 3 Series Compact was BMW's first hatchback model (except for the limited production 02 Series "Touring" models). These hatchback models formed a new entry-level model range below the other 3 Series models.
The 1993 McLaren F1 is powered by a BMW V12 engine.
In 1994, BMW bought the British Rover Group (which at the time consisted of the Rover, Land Rover, Mini and MG brands as well as the rights to defunct brands including Austin and Morris), and owned it for six years. By 2000, Rover was incurring huge losses and BMW decided to sell off several of the brands. The MG and Rover brands were sold to the Phoenix Consortium to form MG Rover, while Land Rover was taken over by Ford. BMW, meanwhile, retained the rights to build the new Mini, which was launched in 2001.
In 1995, the E38 725tds was the first 7 Series to use a diesel engine. The E39 5 Series was also introduced in 1995 and was the first 5 Series to use rack-and-pinion steering and a significant number of suspension parts made from lightweight aluminum.
The BMW Z3 two-seat convertible and coupe models were introduced in 1995. These were the first mass-produced models outside of the 1/3/5 Series and the first model to be solely manufactured outside Germany (in the United States, in this case).
In 1998, the E46 3 Series was introduced, with the M3 model featuring BMW's most powerful naturally aspirated engine to date.
BMW's first SUV, the BMW X5 (E53), was introduced in 1999. The X5 was a large departure from BMW's image of sporting "driver’s cars", however, it was very successful and resulted in other BMW X Series being introduced. The smaller BMW X3 was released in 2003.
2001 E65 7 Series was BMW's first model to use a 6-speed automatic transmission.
2003 Rolls-Royce Phantom was the first Rolls-Royce vehicle produced under BMW ownership. This was the end result of complicated contractual negotiations that began in 1998 when Rolls-Royce plc licensed use of the Rolls-Royce name and logo to BMW, but Vickers sold the remaining elements of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars to Volkswagen. In addition, BMW had supplied Rolls-Royce with engines since 1998 for use in the Rolls-Royce Silver Seraph.
BMW's first mass-production turbocharged petrol engine was the six-cylinder N54, which debuted in the 2006 E92 335i. In 2011, the F30 3 Series was released, with turbocharged engines being used on all models. This shift to turbocharging and smaller engines was reflective of general automotive industry trends. The M3 model based on the F30 platform is the first M3 to use a turbocharged engine.
BMW's first turbocharged V8 engine, the BMW N63, was introduced in 2008. Despite the trend to downsizing, in 2008 BMW began production of its first turbocharged V12 engine, the BMW N74. In 2011, the F10 M5 became the first M5 model to use a turbocharged engine.
In 2007, the production rights for Husqvarna Motorcycles was purchased by BMW for a reported 93 million euros.
The BMW X6 SUV was introduced in 2008. The X6 attracted controversy for its unusual combination of coupe and SUV styling cues.
BMW's first hybrid-powered car, the F01 ActiveHybrid 7, was introduced in 2010.
BMW released their first electric car, the BMW i3 city car, in 2013. The i3 is also the first mass-production car to have a structure mostly made from carbon-fiber. BMW's first hybrid sportscar (and their first mid-engined car since the M1) is called the BMW i8 and was introduced in 2014. The i8 is also the first car to use BMW's first inline-three engine, the BMW B38.
In 2013, the BMW 4 Series replaced the coupe and convertible models of the 3 Series. Many elements of the 4 Series remained shared with the equivalent 3 Series model. Similarly, the BMW 2 Series replaced the coupe and convertible models of the 1 Series in 2013. The 2 Series was produced in coupe (F22), five-seat MPV (F45) and seven-seat MPV (F46) body styles. The latter two body styles are the first front-wheel drive vehicles produced by BMW. The F48 X1 also includes some front-wheel-drive models.
The BMW X4 compact SUV was introduced in 2014.
Members of the board of management are:
(as of 29 October 2018)
The name BMW is an abbreviation for Bayerische Motoren Werke (German pronunciation: [ˈbaɪ̯ʁɪʃə mɔˈtʰɔʁn̩ ˈvɛɐ̯kə] (listen)). The German name is not grammatically correct, because Motorenwerke is a single word in German. The term Bayerische Motorenwerke (which has been used in several German publications and advertisements in the past) translates into English as Bavarian Motor Works, which has been used by BMW for marketing products in English-speaking countries. The suffix AG, short for Aktiengesellschaft, signifies an incorporated entity which is owned by shareholders.
The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria. The BMW logo still used today was created in 1917, albeit with various minor styling changes.
The origin of the logo is often thought to be a portrayal of the movement of an aircraft propeller with the white blades cutting through a blue sky. However, this portrayal was first used in a BMW advertisement in 1929 – twelve years after the logo was created – so this is not the origin of the logo itself.
The terms Beemer, Bimmer and Bee-em are commonly used slang for BMW in the English language and are sometimes used interchangeably for cars and motorcycles. In the United States, some people prescribe that "beemer" should be used specifically for motorcycles and "bimmer" should be used for cars. Some of these people claim that "true aficionados" make this distinction and those who don't are "uninitiated." Usage in North American mainstream media also varies, for example The Globe and Mail of Canada prefers Bimmer and calls Beemer a "yuppie abomination", and the Tacoma News Tribune says that it is "auto snobs" who use the terms to distinguish between cars and motorcycles.
For the fiscal year 2017, BMW reported earnings of EUR 8.620 billion, with an annual revenue of EUR 98.678 billion, an increase of 4.8% over the previous fiscal cycle. BMW's shares traded at over € 77 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at US 55.3 billion in November 2018.
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BMW began production of motorcycle engines and then motorcycles after World War I. Its motorcycle brand is now known as BMW Motorrad. Their first successful motorcycle after the failed Helios and Flink, was the "R32" in 1923, though production originally began in 1921. This had a "boxer" twin engine, in which a cylinder projects into the air-flow from each side of the machine. Apart from their single-cylinder models (basically to the same pattern), all their motorcycles used this distinctive layout until the early 1980s. Many BMW's are still produced in this layout, which is designated the R Series.
The entire BMW Motorcycle production has, since 1969, been located at the company's Berlin-Spandau factory.
During the Second World War, BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a sidecar attached. Having a unique design copied from the Zündapp KS750, its sidecar wheel was also motor-driven. Combined with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road, an equivalent in many ways to the Jeep.
In 1982, came the K Series, shaft drive but water-cooled and with either three or four cylinders mounted in a straight line from front to back. Shortly after, BMW also started making the chain-driven F and G series with single and parallel twin Rotax engines.
In the early 1990s, BMW updated the airhead Boxer engine which became known as the oilhead. In 2002, the oilhead engine had two spark plugs per cylinder. In 2004 it added a built-in balance shaft, an increased capacity to 1,170 cc and enhanced performance to 100 hp (75 kW) for the R1200GS, compared to 85 hp (63 kW) of the previous R1150GS. More powerful variants of the oilhead engines are available in the R1100S and R1200S, producing 98 and 122 hp (73 and 91 kW), respectively.
In 2004, BMW introduced the new K1200S Sports Bike which marked a departure for BMW. It had an engine producing 167 hp (125 kW), derived from the company's work with the Williams F1 team, and is lighter than previous K models. Innovations include electronically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork that BMW calls Duolever.
BMW introduced anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles starting in the late 1980s. The generation of anti-lock brakes available on the 2006 and later BMW motorcycles pave the way for the introduction of electronic stability control, or anti-skid technology later in the 2007 model year.
BMW has been an innovator in motorcycle suspension design, taking up telescopic front suspension long before most other manufacturers. Then they switched to an Earles fork, front suspension by swinging fork (1955 to 1969). Most modern BMWs are truly rear swingarm, single sided at the back (compare with the regular swinging fork usually, and wrongly, called swinging arm). Some BMWs started using yet another trademark front suspension design, the Telelever, in the early 1990s. Like the Earles fork, the Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking.
BMW Group, on 31 January 2013, announced that Pierer Industrie AG has bought Husqvarna for an undisclosed amount, which will not be revealed by either party in the future. The company is headed by Stephan Pierer (CEO of KTM). Pierer Industrie AG is 51% owner of KTM and 100% owner of Husqvarna.
The current model lines of BMW automobiles are:
The 2 Series (F22/F23) is BMW's entry level coupes and convertibles. The 2 Series range also consists of the "Active Tourer" (F45) and "Gran Tourer" (F46) body styles, which are 5-seat and 7-seat MPVs respectively.
The 4 Series (F32/F33/F36) range is produced in 2-door coupe, 2-door convertible and 5-door fastback ("Gran Coupe") body styles.
The 5 Series (G30/G31) range is produced in sedan and wagon body styles. A long-wheelbase sedan variant (G38) is also sold in China.
The 6 Series (F06/F12/F13) range is produced in 2-door coupe, 2-door convertible and 4-door fastback ("Gran Coupe") body styles.
The 7 Series (G11/G12) range is produced in the 4-door sedan and long-wheelbase sedan body styles.
The 8 Series (G14/G15/G16) range is produced in 2-door coupe, 2-door convertible and 4-door fastback ("Gran Coupe") body styles.
The BMW i is a sub-brand of BMW founded in 2011 to design and manufacture plug-in electric vehicles. The sub-brand initial plans called for the release of two vehicles; series production of the BMW i3 all-electric car began in September 2013, and the market launch took place in November 2013 with the first retail deliveries in Germany. The BMW i8 sports plug-in hybrid car was launched in Germany in June 2014.
In 2014, BMW developed a prototype of street lights equipped with power sockets to charge electric cars, called Light and Charge. Two of these charging facilities were installed at BMW's headquarters in Munich. In 2015, BMW in cooperation with SCHERM Group has started deploying electric trucks on European roads, making it the first company to ever do so. The truck itself is manufactured by the Terberg Group, one of the world's largest independent specialist vehicle suppliers.
Combined sales of the BMW i brand models reached the 50,000 unit milestone in January 2016. Two years after its introduction, the BMW i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history. Global sales of the BMW i3 achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in July 2016.
In February 2016, BMW announced the introduction of the "iPerformance" model designation, which will be given to all BMW plug-in hybrid vehicles from July 2016. The aim is to provide a visible indicator of the transfer of technology from BMW i to the BMW core brand. The new designation will be used first on the plug-in hybrid variants of the latest BMW 7 Series. Global sales of all BMW plug-in electrified models achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in early November 2016, consisting of more than 60,000 BMW i3s, over 10,000 BMW i8s, and about 30,000 from combined sales of all BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models.
As of November 2016, four BMW electrified models have been released, the BMW X5 xDrive40e iPerformance, BMW 225xe iPerformance Active Tourer, BMW 330e iPerformance, and the BMW 740e iPerformance. The BMW 530e iPerformance is scheduled to be released in Europe March 2017 as part of the upcoming seventh generation BMW 5 Series lineup. Global sales of all plug-in electrified models achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in early November 2016, consisting of more than 60,000 i3s, over 10,000 i8s, and about 30,000 from combined sales of all BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models. Combined global sales of BMW's electrified models totaled more than 62,000 units in 2016, and 103,080 in 2017, including MINI brand electrified vehicles. Cumulative global sales of BMW Group’s electrified vehicles passed the 250,000 unit milestone in April 2018.
BMW produce a number of high-performance derivatives of their cars developed by their BMW M GmbH (previously BMW Motorsport GmbH) subsidiary. Some models have "M" appearance packages that are not performance-enhanced.
The current M models are:
Sometimes the model series are referred to by their German pronunciation: "Einser" ("One-er") for the 1 Series, "Dreier" ("Three-er") for the 3 Series, "Fünfer" ("Five-er") for the 5 Series, "Sechser" ("Six-er") for the 6 Series and "Siebener" ("Seven-er") for the 7 Series. These are not actually slang, but are the normal way that such letters and numbers are pronounced in German.
BMW has a long history of motorsport activities, including:
Manufacturers employ designers for their cars, but BMW has made efforts to gain recognition for exceptional contributions to and support of the arts, including art beyond motor vehicle design. These efforts typically overlap or complement BMW's marketing and branding campaigns.
In 1975, Alexander Calder was commissioned to paint the 3.0CSL driven by Hervé Poulain at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, which became the first in the series of BMW Art Cars. This led to more BMW Art Cars, painted by artists including Andy Warhol, Jenny Holzer, Roy Lichtenstein and others. The cars, currently numbering 17, have been shown at the Louvre, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Los Angeles County Museum of Art and New York's Grand Central Terminal.
BMW's Munich headquarters represents the cylinder head of a 4-cylinder engine. It was designed by Karl Schwanzer and was completed in 1972. The building has become a European icon and was declared a protected historic building in 1999. The main tower consists of four vertical cylinders standing next to and across from each other. Each cylinder is divided horizontally in its center by a mold in the facade. Notably, these cylinders do not stand on the ground; they are suspended on a central support tower.
BMW's exhibition space in Munich, BMW Welt, was designed by Coop Himmelb(l)au and opened in 2007. It includes a showroom and lifting platforms where a customer's new car is theatrically unveiled to the customer.
In 2001 and 2002, BMW produced a series of 8 short films called The Hire, which had plots based around BMW models being driven to extremes by Clive Owen. The directors for The Hire included Guy Ritchie, John Woo, John Frankenheimer and Ang Lee. In 2016, a ninth film in the series was released.
The 2006 "BMW Performance Series" was a marketing event geared to attract black car buyers. It included the "BMW Pop-Jazz Live Series" - a tour headlined by jazz musician Mike Phillips - and the "BMW Blackfilms.com Film Series" highlighting black filmmakers.
BMW was the principal sponsor of the 1998 The Art of the Motorcycle exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and other Guggenheim museums, though the financial relationship between BMW and the Guggenheim was criticised in many quarters.
In 2012, BMW began sponsoring Independent Collectors production of the BMW Art Guide, which is the first global guide to private and publicly accessible collections of contemporary art worldwide. The 2016 edition features 256 collections from 43 countries.
BMW produces complete automobiles at its factories in Germany (Munich, Dingolfing (BMW Group Plant Dingolfing), Regensburg and Leipzig), United States (Greer, South Carolina), Mexico (San Luis Potosí), South Africa (Rosslyn), and China (Shenyang). BMW also has local assembly operation using complete knock down components in Thailand, Russia, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, and India (Chennai), for 3, 5, 7 series and X3.
In 2006, the BMW group (including Mini and Rolls-Royce) produced 1,366,838 four-wheeled vehicles, which were manufactured in five countries. In 2010, it manufactured 1,481,253 four-wheeled vehicles and 112,271 motorcycles (under both the BMW and Husqvarna brands).
BMW Motorcycles are being produced at the company's Berlin factory, which earlier had produced aircraft engines for Siemens.
By 2011, about 56% of BMW-brand vehicles produced are powered by petrol engines and the remaining 44% are powered by diesel engines. Of those petrol vehicles, about 27% are four-cylinder models and about nine percent are eight-cylinder models. On average, 9,000 vehicles per day exit BMW plants, and 63% are transported by rail.
Annual production since 2005 is as follows:
In November 2016, BMW recalled 136,000 2007–2012 model year U.S. cars for fuel pump wiring problems possibly resulting in fuel leak and engine stalling or restarting issues.
In November 2017, BMW recalled roughly a million cars and SUVs for fire risk. One recall was for 672,000 3 Series cars from model years 2006-11 with climate control system electronic components at risk of overheating. The second recall was for 740,000 six-cylinder models (328i, 525i), at risk of crankcase heating short-circuit; some Series 3 cars were subject to both recalls.
In August 2018, the government of South Korea announced the ban of BMW vehicles on the country's roads after 39 of the manufacturer's cars caught fire. In response, BMW recalled 106,000 diesel vehicles in South Korea with a defective exhaust gas recirculation module, then expanded the recall to 324,000 more cars in Europe.
In August 6, 2018, it has been reported that the rate of such accident is 0.10% in South Korea, and about 0.12% worldwide, which is about one problem in 1000 vehicles. According to JTBC (a South Korean TV channel), BMW Korea was fully aware of this problem, and they have reported the HQ of BMW , which gave rise to an issue of the company's lack of attitude against this problem. Eventually, the owners of BMW vehicles have sued BMW staffs of violation of vehicle management law, questioning their defect concealment of vehicles 
Vehicles sold in all markets according to BMW's annual reports.
* In 2008 - 2012, motorcycle productions figures include Husqvarna models.
** Excluding Husqvarna, sales volume up to 2013: 59,776 units.
In China, BMW sold 415,200 vehicles between January and November 2014, through a network of over 440 BMW stores and 100 Mini stores.
BMW has collaborated with other car manufacturers on the following occasions:
At the London 2012 Olympic games, BMW's sponsorship included providing 4000 BMWs and Minis. BMW also made a six-year sponsorship deal with the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) in July 2010.
BMW is a charter member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Environmental Achievement Track, which recognizes companies for their environmental stewardship and performance. It is also a member of the South Carolina Environmental Excellence Program.
Since 1999, BMW has been named the world's most sustainable automotive company every year by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. The BMW Group is one of three automotive companies to be featured every year in the index. In 2001, the BMW Group committed itself to the United Nations Environment Programme, the UN Global Compact and the Cleaner Production Declaration. It was also the first company in the automotive industry to appoint an environmental officer, in 1973. BMW is a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
In 2012, BMW was the highest automotive company in the Carbon Disclosure Project's Global 500 list, with a score of 99 out of 100. The BMW Group was rated the most sustainable DAX 30 company by Sustainalytics in 2012.
During the first quarter of 2018, BMW sold 26,858 Electrified Vehicles (EVs, PHEVs, & Hybrids).
BMW branded bicycles are sold online and through dealerships. The BMW Turbo Levo FSR 6Fattie electric mountain bike was produced in partnership with Specialized and the BMW Cruise e-Bike NBG III uses a Bosch motor and battery.
DriveNow is a joint-venture between BMW and Sixt that was launched in Munich in June 2011, and now operates in thirteen cities around Europe. As of December 2012, DriveNow operates over 1,000 vehicles, which serve five cities worldwide and over 60,000 customers.
On 9 October 2014, BMW's new South American automobile plant in Araquari, Santa Catarina assembled its first car, an F30 3 Series. The cars assembled at Araquari are the F20 1 Series, F30 3 Series, F48 X1, F25 X3 and Mini Countryman. Cars are assembled from complete knock-down components.
BMW sold 28,149 vehicles in Canada in 2008.
Signing a deal in 2003 for the production of sedans in China, May 2004 saw the opening of a factory in the North-eastern city of Shenyang where Brilliance Auto produces BMW-branded automobiles in a joint venture with the German company.
Bavarian Auto Group became sole importer of the BMW and Mini brands in 2003.
BMW India was established in 2006 as a sales subsidiary in Gurugram.
BMW Japan Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary, imports and distributes BMW vehicles in Japan.
In July 2014, BMW announced it was establishing a plant in Mexico, in the city and state of San Luis Potosi involving an investment of $1 billion. The plant will employ 1,500 people, and produce 150,000 cars annually.
BMWs have been assembled in South Africa since 1968, when Praetor Monteerders’ plant was opened in Rosslyn, near Pretoria. BMW initially bought shares in the company, before fully acquiring it in 1975; in so doing, the company became BMW South Africa, the first wholly owned subsidiary of BMW to be established outside Germany. Unlike United States manufacturers, such as Ford and GM, which divested from the country in the 1980s, BMW retained full ownership of its operations in South Africa.
Following the end of apartheid in 1994, and the lowering of import tariffs, BMW South Africa ended local production of the 5 Series and 7 Series, in order to concentrate on production of the 3 Series for the export market. South African–built BMWs are now exported to right hand drive markets including Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong, as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 1997, BMW South Africa has produced vehicles in left-hand drive for export to Taiwan, the United States and Iran, as well as South America.
Three unique models that BMW Motorsport created for the South African market were the E23 M745i (1983), which used the M88 engine from the BMW M1, the BMW 333i (1986), which added a six-cylinder 3.2-litre M30 engine to the E30, and the E30 BMW 325is (1989) which was powered by an Alpina-derived 2.7-litre engine.
BMWs with a VIN starting with "NC0" are manufactured in South Africa.
BMW cars have been officially sold in the United States since 1956 and manufactured in the United States since 1994. The first BMW dealership in the United States opened in 1975. In 2016, BMW was the twelfth highest selling brand in the United States.
The manufacturing plant in Greer, South Carolina has the highest production of the BMW plants worldwide, currently producing approximately 1,400 vehicles per day. The models produced at the Spartanburg plant are the X3, X4, X5, X6 and X7 SUV models.
In addition to the South Carolina manufacturing facility, BMW's North American companies include sales, marketing, design, and financial services operations in the United States, Mexico, Canada and Latin America.
On 31 July 2018, BMW announced to build 1 billion euro car factory in Hungary. The new plant, to be built near the city of Debrecen about 230 kilometers east of Budapest, will have a production capacity of 150,000 cars a year.
The slogan ’The Ultimate Driving Machine’ was first used in North America in 1974. In 2010, this long-lived campaign was mostly supplanted by a campaign intended to make the brand more approachable and to better appeal to women, ’Joy’. By 2012 BMW had returned to ’The Ultimate Driving Machine’.
BMW has garnered a reputation in Britain over the years for its April Fools pranks, which are printed in the press there every year. In 2010, they ran an advertisement in The Guardian announcing that customers would be able to order BMWs with different coloured badges to show their affiliation with the political party they supported.
Beemer n. [BMW + ''er''] a BMW automobile. Also Beamer.
Bimmer n. Beemer.
Beemer – BMW motorcycle; as opposed to Bimmer, which is a BMW automobile.
'Bimmer' is the slang for a BMW automobile, but 'Beemer' is right when referring to the company's motorcycles.
Bimmers (yes, it's 'Bimmer' for cars—the often misused 'Beemer' refers only to the motorcycles).
Editor's note: Both nicknames are widely used, though Bimmer is the correct term for BMW cars, Beemer for BMW motorcycles. A Google search yields approximately 10 times as many references to Bimmer as to Beemer.
True aficionados know that the nickname Beemer actually refers to the BMW motorcycle. Bimmer is the correct nickname for the automobile
For the uninitiated, a Bimmer is a BMW car, and a Beemer is a motorcycle.
If you're a Bimmer enthusiast (not that horrible leftover 1980s yuppie abomination Beemer), you've undoubtedly read the reviews,
logistics as the "heart of BMW's production system": 30m parts per day move from 1,800 suppliers; 7,000 sea freight containers per day, and in a year 84m cubic metres across ocean, road, rail and air freight. Outbound, around 9,000 vehicles leave BMW plants each day on their way to 4,500 dealers in 160 countries. 63% of cars leave plants by train
Im Auftr. von MTU Aero Engines und BMW Group
The BMW 1 Series is a range of subcompact executive cars (C-segment) manufactured by BMW since 2004. It is the successor to the BMW 3 Series Compact and is currently in its second generation.
The first generation was produced in hatchback, coupe and convertible body styles. Since the second generation (introduced in 2013), the coupé and convertible models have been marketed as the 2 Series, therefore the 1 Series range no longer includes these body styles. A sedan model became available for the Chinese market in 2017.
The 1 Series is BMW's entry level of model range. Unusually for a small car, the 1 Series range is mostly rear-wheel drive, (except for the F52 sedan, which is front-wheel drive) with optional all-wheel drive being available on some models.
An M version was produced for the first generation: the BMW 1 Series M Coupe, which was succeeded by the BMW M2.BMW 3 Series
The BMW 3 Series is a compact executive car manufactured by the German automaker BMW since May 1975. It is the successor to the 02 Series and has been produced in seven different generations.
The first generation of the 3 Series was only available as a 2-door sedan, however the model range has since expanded to include a 4-door sedan, 2-door convertible, 2-door coupé, 5-door station wagon, 5-door hatchback ("Gran Turismo") and 3-door hatchback body styles. Since 2013, the coupé and convertible models have been marketed as the 4 Series, therefore the 3 Series range no longer includes these body styles.
The 3 Series is BMW's best-selling model, accounting for around 30% of the BMW brand's annual total sales (excluding motorbikes). The BMW 3 Series has won numerous awards throughout its history.
The M version of the 3 series, M3, debuted with the E30 M3 in 1986.BMW 3 Series (E30)
The BMW E30 is the second generation of BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 1982-1994 and replaced the E21 3 Series.
The model range included coupe and convertible body styles, as well as being the first 3 Series to be produced in sedan and wagon/estate body styles. It was powered by four-cylinder petrol, six-cylinder petrol and six-cylinder diesel engines, the latter a first for the 3 Series. The E30 325iX model was the first 3 Series to have all-wheel drive.
The first BMW M3 model was built on the E30 platform and was powered by the high-revving BMW S14 four-cylinder petrol engine, which produced 175 kW (235 bhp) in its final European-only iteration. The BMW Z1 roadster was also based on the E30 platform.
Following the launch of the E36 3 Series in 1990, the E30 began to be phased out.BMW 3 Series (E36)
The BMW E36 is the third generation of the BMW 3 Series range of compact executive cars, and was produced from October 1990 to 2000. The initial models were of the four-door sedan body style, followed by the coupe, convertible, wagon ("Touring") and hatchback ("Compact") body styles in later years.
The E36 was the first 3 Series to be offered in a hatchback body style. It was also the first 3 Series to be available with a six-speed manual transmission (in the 1996 M3), a five-speed automatic transmission and a four-cylinder diesel engine. The multi-link rear suspension was also a significant upgrade compared with previous generations of 3 Series.
Following the introduction of its successor, the E46 3 Series in 1998, the E36 began to be phased out.
The E36 was named in Car and Driver magazine's 10Best list for every year it was on sale.The E36 M3 is powered by the BMW S50 or BMW S52 straight-six engine (depending on country). The E36 M3 was released in 1992 and was available in coupé, sedan and convertible body styles.BMW 3 Series (E46)
The BMW E46 is the fourth generation of the BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 1997 to 2006. The body styles of the range are:
4-door sedan (saloon), sold from April 1998 to 2005
2-door coupé, sold from June 1999 to 2006
2-door convertible, produced from December 1999 to 2006
5-door station wagon (estate car) — marketed as "Touring" — sold from October 1999 to 2005
3-door hatchback (see BMW 3 Series Compact), sold from June 2001 to 2004All-wheel drive, last available in the E30 3 Series, was reintroduced for the E46. It was available for the 325xi, 330xi and 330xd sedan/wagon models. The E46 was the first 3 Series to be available with an engine using variable valve lift ("valvetronic"). Various electronic features were also introduced to the 3 Series in the E46 generation, including satellite navigation, electronic brake-force distribution, rain-sensing wipers and LED tail-lights.Following the introduction of the E90 sedan in late 2004, the E46 began to be phased out. However the E46 coupé and convertible body styles remained in production until 2006.
The M3 version of the E46 was powered by the S54 straight-six engine. The M3 was released in late 2000 and was available in coupé and convertible body styles with no sedan body style available unlike its predecessor.BMW 3 Series (E90)
The BMW 3 Series (E90/E91/E92/E93) is the fifth generation of the BMW 3 Series compact executive car, which was produced from 2004 to 2013. The body styles of the range are:
4-door Sedan/Saloon (E90 Model Code)
Estate/Wagon (E91 Model Code, marketed as "Touring")
Coupé (E92 Model Code)
Cabriolet (E93 Model Code)Due to the separate model codes for each body style, the term "E9X" is sometimes used to describe this generation of the 3 Series.
The E90/E91 sedans and wagons began to be phased out following the introduction of their F30/F31 successors in 2012. However, the E92/E93 coupes and cabriolets remained in production until 2013, when they were replaced by the F32/F33 models.
The E92 335i coupe, introduced in 2006, was the first 3 Series model to be sold with a turbocharged petrol engine. The E9X family also saw the introduction of run-flat tyres to the 3 Series range. Consequently, cars with run-flats are not equipped with a spare tyre.
The E90/E92/E93 M3 is the only generation of M3 to be powered by a V8 engine. Released in 2007, it uses BMW's S65 engine and was produced in sedan, coupe and cabriolet body styles.BMW 5 Series
The BMW 5 Series is an executive car manufactured by BMW since 1972. It is the successor to the New Class Sedans and is currently in its seventh generation.
Initially, the 5 Series was only available in a sedan body style. The wagon/estate body style (called "Touring") was added in 1991 and the 5-door fastback (called "Gran Turismo") was produced from 2009 to 2017.
The first generation of 5 Series was powered by naturally aspirated four-cylinder and six-cylinder petrol engines. Following generations have been powered by four-cylinder, six-cylinder, V8 and V10 engines that are either naturally aspirated or turbocharged. Since 1982, diesel engines have been included in the 5 Series range.
The 5 Series is BMW's second best-selling model after the 3 Series. On January 29, 2008, the 5 millionth 5 Series was manufactured, a 530d sedan in Carbon Black Metallic.BMW's three-digit model naming convention began with the first 5 Series, thus the 5 Series was BMW's first model line to use "Series" in the name.
Since the E28, all generations of 5 Series have included an "M" model, called the BMW M5.BMW 7 Series
The BMW 7 Series is a full-size luxury sedan produced by the German automaker BMW since 1977. It is the successor to the BMW E3 "New Six" sedan and is currently in its sixth generation.
The 7 Series is BMW's flagship car and is only available in a saloon bodystyle (including long wheelbase and limousine models). It traditionally introduces technologies and exterior design themes before they trickle down to other models in BMW's lineup.The first generation of the 7 Series was powered by straight-6 petrol engines, and following generations have been powered by inline-4, straight-6, V8 and V12 engines with both natural aspiration and turbocharging. Since 1995, diesel engines have been optional in the 7 Series.
Unlike the 3 Series and 5 Series saloons, BMW has not produced a M model for the 7 Series (i.e. an "M7"). However, in 2014 an "M Performance" option became available for the 7 Series.BMW M3
The BMW M3 is a high-performance version of the 3 Series, developed by BMW's in-house motorsport division, BMW M GmbH. M3 models have been derived from the corresponding generations of the BMW 3 Series.
The initial model was available in a coupé body style. At times the M3 has also been available in saloon and convertible body styles. Due to the coupé and convertible models no longer being part of the 3 Series range from 2015, the F82/F83 coupe and convertible models are now called the M4 based on the newly introduced 4 Series. The M3 name remains in use solely for the saloon version.
Upgrades over the standard 3 Series automobiles include more powerful and responsive engines, improved handling/suspension/braking systems, aerodynamic body enhancements, lightweight components and interior/exterior accents with the tri-colour "M" (Motorsport) emblem.BMW M5
The BMW M5 is a high performance variant of the BMW 5 Series marketed under the BMW M sub-brand. It is considered an iconic vehicle in the sports sedan category. The majority of M5's have been produced in the sedan (saloon) body style, however the E34 and E60 generations were also available with a wagon (estate) body style in selected markets.
The first M5 model was hand-built in 1986 on the 535i chassis with a modified engine from the M1 that made it the fastest production sedan at the time. M5 models have been produced for every generation of the 5 Series since 1986.BMW Motorrad
BMW Motorrad is the motorcycle brand of the German company BMW, part of its Corporate and Brand Development division.BMW Motorrad has produced motorcycles since 1923, and achieved record sales for the fifth year in succession in 2015. With a total of 136,963 vehicles sold in 2015, BMW registered a 10.9% increase in sales in comparison with 2014.
In May 2011, the 2,000,000th motorcycle produced by BMW Motorrad was an R1200GS.BMW in Formula One
BMW has been involved in Formula One in a number of capacities since the inauguration of the World Drivers' Championship in 1950. The company entered occasional races in the 1950s and 1960s (often under Formula Two regulations), before building the BMW M12/13 inline-four turbocharged engine in the 1980s. This engine was the result of a deal between BMW and Brabham, which resulted in the team's chassis being powered by BMW engines from 1982 until 1987, a period in which Nelson Piquet won the 1983 championship driving a Brabham BT52-BMW. BMW also supplied the M12/13 on a customer basis to the ATS, Arrows, Benetton and Ligier teams during this period, with various degrees of success. In 1988, Brabham temporarily withdrew from the sport and BMW withdrew its official backing from the engines, which were still used by the Arrows team under the Megatron badge. Turbocharged engines were banned by the revised Formula One Technical Regulations for 1989, rendering the M12/13 obsolete.
BMW decided to return to Formula One in the late 1990s by signing an exclusive contract with the Williams team, which needed a new long-term engine supplier after the withdrawal of Renault in 1997. The programme resulted in the creation of a new V10 engine which made its race début in the Williams FW22 in 2000. The following year saw the partnership move from the midfield to challenging for race victories, but the desired championship remained elusive due to the dominance of Michael Schumacher and Ferrari in the first half of the 2000s. By 2005, the relationship between BMW and Williams had deteriorated, and BMW chose to part company and buy the rival Sauber team outright.
The BMW Sauber project lasted from 2006 until 2009, and resulted in a substantial increase in competitiveness for the Swiss former privateer team. Two podium finishes in the first year were followed by a solid third in the Constructors' Championship in 2007 (which became second when McLaren was disqualified). In 2008, Robert Kubica won the team's only race, the 2008 Canadian Grand Prix, and led the Drivers' Championship at one point, but the team chose to focus on development of its 2009 car and slipped back in the standings by the end of the season. The 2009 season was a major disappointment as the F1.09 chassis proved uncompetitive. Combined with the global financial recession and the company's frustration about the limitations of the contemporary technical regulations in developing technology relevant to road cars, BMW chose to withdraw from the sport, selling the team back to its founder, Peter Sauber.Daniel Ricciardo
Daniel Joseph Ricciardo ( "Ricardo"; born 1 July 1989) is an Australian racing driver who is currently competing in Formula One for the Renault F1 Team. He entered Formula One as a test driver for Scuderia Toro Rosso and made his debut at the 2011 British Grand Prix with the HRT team as part of a deal with Red Bull. He then raced for Toro Rosso for the 2012 and 2013 seasons. After Mark Webber announced his retirement from Formula One, Ricciardo was confirmed as his replacement at Red Bull Racing for 2014. In his first season with Red Bull, Ricciardo finished third in the championship with his first three Formula One wins, in Canada, Hungary, and Belgium. After two years without victory, Ricciardo won the 2016 Malaysian Grand Prix, eventually sealing third in the championship for the second time in three years at the 2016 Mexican Grand Prix. Ricciardo won the Azerbaijan Grand Prix in 2017 and the Chinese and Monaco Grands Prix in 2018. On 3 August 2018 it was announced that he will be joining Renault on a 2-year contract for the 2019 and 2020 F1 seasons.Formula BMW
Formula BMW was a junior racing formula for single seater cars. It was positioned at the bottom of the motorsport career ladder alongside the longer established Formula Ford category. Like Formula Ford, it was intended to function as the young kart racing graduate's first experience of car racing.
The new formula was created by BMW Motorsport in 2001, with the first of its championships being inaugurated in Germany in 2002. Selected competitors from each series meet in the World Final at the end of each season, with the promise of a Formula One test for the winner.
From 2011 onwards BMW ceased to support the Pacific and Europe series, in favour of the Formula BMW Talent Cup. The Talent Cup, which was the final Formula BMW championship in existence, ended after the 2013 season.Land Rover
Land Rover is a luxury car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008. The Land Rover is regarded as a British icon, and was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951.The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed into a brand encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport, and Range Rover Evoque.
Land Rovers are currently assembled in England, India, China, and other markets.Mini (marque)
Mini (stylised as MINI) is a British automotive marque, owned by BMW since 2000, and used by them for a range of small cars. The word Mini has been used in car model names since 1959, and in 1969 it became a marque in its own right when the name "Mini" replaced the separate "Austin Mini" and "Morris Mini" car model names. BMW acquired the marque in 1994 when it bought Rover Group (formerly British Leyland), which owned Mini, among other brands.The original Mini was a line of British small cars manufactured by the British Motor Corporation, and its successors. Their models included the Morris Mini-Minor and the Austin Seven, the Countryman, Moke, 1275GT and Clubman. Performance versions of these models used the name Cooper, due to a partnership with racing legend John Cooper. The original two-door Mini continued in production until 2000. Development of a successor began in 1995 and the new generation car was launched in 2001. The current Mini range includes the Hardtop/Hatch/Convertible (three-door hatchback), Clubman (estate), Countryman (five-door crossover), Coupe/Roadster and Paceman (three-door crossover based on the Countryman).
The Mini was originally a product of the British Motor Corporation, which in 1966 became part of British Motor Holdings. British Motor Holdings merged with Leyland Motors in 1968 to form British Leyland. In the 1980s, British Leyland was broken-up and in 1988 Rover Group, including Mini, was acquired by British Aerospace.
In 1994, Rover Group was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW, with BMW retaining the Mini brand.The Mini Hatch/Hardtop, Clubman, Coupe and Roadster are assembled at BMW's Plant Oxford in Cowley, England. The Mini Convertible and Countryman are assembled at VDL Nedcar in Born (Netherlands), the Mini Hatch/Hardtop is also assembled here besides the Oxford plant. The Paceman was till 2016 assembled by Magna Steyr in Austria. A total of 301,526 Mini vehicles were sold worldwide in 2012. Mini vehicles have been active in rallying and the Mini Cooper S won the Monte Carlo Rally on three occasions, in 1964, 1965 and 1967. Mini has participated in the World Rally Championship since 2011 through the Prodrive WRC Team.
In April 2013, Peter Schwarzenbauer became new Mini marque's managing director, succeeding Jochen Goller.Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited is a British luxury automobile maker. A wholly owned subsidiary of German group BMW, it was established in 1998 after BMW was licensed the rights to the Rolls-Royce brand name and logo from Rolls-Royce plc and acquired the rights to the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grill shape trademarks from Volkswagen AG. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited operates from purpose-built administrative and production facilities opened in 2003 across from the historic Goodwood Circuit in Goodwood, West Sussex, England, United Kingdom. Rolls-Royce Motors Cars Limited is the exclusive manufacturer of Rolls-Royce branded motor cars since 2003.
Although the Rolls-Royce brand has been in use since 1906, the Rolls-Royce Motor Cars subsidiary of BMW AG has no direct relationship to Rolls-Royce branded vehicles produced prior to 2003. The Bentley Motors Limited subsidiary of Volkswagen AG is the direct successor to Rolls-Royce Motors and various other predecessor entities that produced Rolls-Royce and Bentley branded cars between the foundation of each company and 2003, when the BMW-controlled entity started producing cars under the Rolls-Royce brand.
The Rolls-Royce Phantom four-door sedan was the first product offered for sale in 2003. Since then, the company has expanded its product line to include extended wheelbase, two-door coupé, and convertible versions of the Phantom sedan, as well as the smaller Ghost four-door sedan and Wraith two-door coupé.Sauber
Sauber Motorsport AG is a Swiss motorsport engineering company. It was founded in the 1970's (as PP Sauber AG) by Peter Sauber, who progressed through hillclimbing and the World Sportscar Championship to reach Formula One in 1993. In 2019, following a sponsorship deal, Sauber Motorsport AG renamed their Formula One racing team to Alfa Romeo Racing after operating it under their own name from 1993 until 2018.
Having not won a Grand Prix as an independent, the team was sold to BMW in 2005, and competed as BMW Sauber from 2006 to 2009, scoring one victory. At the end of the 2009 season BMW pulled out of Formula One and the team's future remained uncertain for several months, until it was sold back to Peter Sauber and granted a 2010 entry. Due to issues with the Concorde Agreement, the team remained as "BMW Sauber" for the 2010 season. In March 2010, Peter Sauber announced plans to change the team name during the season, but the FIA announced that they would have to wait until the end of the season to change their name. At the beginning of the 2011 season the team dropped BMW from their name.
Until mid-2016 Peter Sauber held a controlling 66.6% stake in the team, with the remainder belonging to then CEO Monisha Kaltenborn; she had been a leading figure in the team since BMW's withdrawal. The team was sold during the 2016 season to Swiss investment firm Longbow Finance S.A, with Pascal Picci taking over Peter Sauber's role as chairman of the board and president.Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as ROKiT Williams Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded by team owner Sir Frank Williams and automotive engineer Sir Patrick Head, it is still run by Williams. The team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams's two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations: Frank Williams Racing Cars (1969 to 1975) and Wolf–Williams Racing (1976). All of Williams F1 chassis are called "FW" then a number, the FW being the initials of team owner, Frank Williams.
The team's first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the following year, and Switzerland's Clay Regazzoni won Williams's first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. At the 1997 British Grand Prix, Canadian Jacques Villeneuve scored the team's 100th race victory, making Williams one of only three teams in Formula One, alongside Ferrari and fellow British team McLaren, to win 100 races. Williams won nine Constructors' Championships between 1980 and 1997. This stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000.
Drivers for Williams have included Australia's Alan Jones; Finland's Keke Rosberg; Britain's Nigel Mansell, Damon Hill and Jenson Button; France's Alain Prost; Brazil's Nelson Piquet and Ayrton Senna; and Canada's Jacques Villeneuve. Each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one Drivers' title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones, Rosberg and Villeneuve actually defended their title while still with the team. Piquet moved to Lotus after winning the 1987 championship, Mansell moved to the American-based Indy Cars after winning the 1992 championship, Prost retired from racing after his 4th World Championship in 1993, while Hill moved to Arrows after winning in 1996.
Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most successfully with Renault, winning five of their nine Constructors' titles with the French company. Along with Ferrari, McLaren, Benetton and Renault, Williams is one of a group of five teams that won every Constructors' Championship between 1979 and 2008 and every Drivers' Championship from 1984 to 2008.
Williams F1 also has business interests beyond Formula One racing. Based in Grove, Oxfordshire, UK, Williams has established Williams Advanced Engineering and Williams Hybrid Power which take technology originally developed for Formula One and adapt it for commercial applications. In April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a technology centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. They currently have Rokit as their title sponsor for the 2019 season.
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