BMC Evolutionary Biology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering all fields of evolutionary biology, including phylogenetics and palaeontology. It was established in 2001 and is part of a series of BMC journals published by BioMed Central.
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The barred hawk (Morphnarchus princeps) is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It has also been known as the black-chested hawk.
It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. 10,000 to 100,000 barred hawks are thought to exist throughout Central and South America. Barred hawks mainly live in the dense forests of the lowland and mountainous areas.Characiformes
Characiformes is an order of ray-finned fish, comprising the characins and their allies. Grouped in 18 recognized families, more than 2000 different species are described, including the well-known piranha and tetras.Cladobranchia
The Cladobranchia are a taxonomic clade of nudibranchs, sea slugs, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Dexiarchia.Euthyneura
Euthyneura is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs, which includes species from freshwater, marine, aquatic and terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the clade Heterobranchia.
Euthyneura are considered the crown group of Gastropoda, and are characterised by several autapomorphies, but are named for euthyneury. They are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Within this taxon, the Gastropoda have reached their peak in species richness and ecological diversity. This obvious evolutionary success can probably be attributed to several factors. Marine Opisthobranchia, e.g., have evolved several clades specialised on less used food resources such as sponges or cnidarians. A key innovation in the evolution of Pulmonata was the colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats.Various phylogenetic studies focused on Euthyneura: Dayrat et al. (2001), Dayrat & Tillier (2002) and Grande et al. (2004). Morphological analyses by Dayrat and Tillier (2002) demonstrated the need to explore new datasets in order to critically analyse the phylogeny of this controversial group of gastropods. Klussmann-Kolb et al. (2008) traced an evolutionary scenario regarding colonisation of different habitats based on phylogenetic hypothesis and they showed that traditional classification of Euthyneura needs to be reconsidered.Haplogroup R (mtDNA)
Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. Haplogroup R
is associated with the peopling of Eurasia after about 70,000 years ago, and is distributed in modern populations throughout the world outside of sub-Saharan Africa.Haplogroup R is a descendant of the macro-haplogroup N. Among the R clade's descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and JT (the ancestral haplogroup of J and T).Kryptotrochozoa
The Kryptotrochozoa (incl. Entoprocta + Ectoprocta) are a proposed Lophotrochozoa clade. It consists of the Nemertea and Lophophorata. It is controversial.Lophophorata
The Lophophorata are a Lophotrochozoan clade consisting of the Brachiozoa and the Bryozoa. They have a lophophore.Lophotrochozoa
Lophotrochozoa (, "crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia. The taxon was established as a monophyletic group based on molecular evidence.Medusozoa
Medusozoa is a clade in the phylum Cnidaria, and is often considered a subphylum. It includes the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa and Cubozoa, and possibly the parasitic Polypodiozoa. Medusozoans are distinguished by having a medusa stage in their often complex life cycle, a medusa typically being an umbrella-shaped body with stinging tentacles around the edge. With the exception of some Hydrozoa (and Polypodiozoa), all are called jellyfish in their free-swimming medusa phase.Myzostomida
The Myzostomida or Myzostomatida are an order of small marine worms, which are parasitic on echinoderms, mostly crinoids. These highly unusual and diverse annelids were first discovered by Friedrich Sigismund Leuckart in 1827.Nudipleura
Nudipleura are a clade of sea snails and sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks within the large clade Heterobranchia.Osnat Penn
Osnat Penn (Hebrew: אסנת פן) is an Israeli computational biologist. Penn is the third Israeli scientist in three years to win the UNESCO-L’Oréal fellowship, which she received in 2013 for her work on the genetic origins of autism. Penn is currently at the University of Washington in Seattle.Penn has been responsible for several different computer programs developed at Tel Aviv University in order to aid in biological research. GUIDANCE is a web server used for estimating alignment confidence scores. RASER, the RAte Shift EstimatoR, is used to test site-specific evolutionary rate shifts. The Pepitope Server is used to map epitopes using affinity-selected peptides. Her work with autism genetic sequencing which won her the UNESCO-L’Oréal award, worked to identify where there were genetic variations that linked to individuals displaying autism. Her work will also lead to prenatal screening and early diagnosis of autism.Penn has been published in Cell, Genome Research, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Nucleic Acids Research, Systematic Biology, BMC Evolutionary Biology, PLoS Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Proteins.Pseudozizeeria maha
Pseudozizeeria maha, the pale grass blue, is a small butterfly found in South Asia that belongs to the lycaenids or blues family.Scombriformes
Scombriformes is an order of bony fish containing nine families which were classified under the suborders Scombroidei and Stromateoidei, of the wider grouping known as Perciformes, Nelson (2016) recognised the order but subsequent workers have suggested that Scombriformes forms part of the larger Pelagiaria clade.Treefinder
Treefinder is a computer program for the likelihood-based reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequences. It was written by Gangolf Jobb, a former researcher at the University of Munich, Germany, and was originally released in 2004. Treefinder is free of charge, though the most recent license prohibits its use in the USA and eight European countries.UTC clade
The UTC clade is a grouping of green algae.It includes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae.Viridiplantae
Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them. Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them. They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins. More than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae exist.In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom, under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae. Adl et al., who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally. The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta as well as the basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae. Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes, Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae.
A taxonomic evaluation of eukaryotes based on myosin distribution showed the Viridiplantae lost class-I myosins.Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha is the clade containing the Cetacea (whales, dolphins, etc.) and their closest living relatives, the hippopotamuses, named by Waddell et al. (1999). It is defined as a crown group, including all species that are descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Hippopotamus amphibius and Tursiops truncatus. This would be a subgrouping of the Cetartiodactyla (which also includes pigs and ruminants). How recently whales and hippos share a common ancestor is unclear, though the genetic evidence is strong that the cetaceans arose from within the Artiodactyla, thus making the even-toed ungulate grouping a paraphyletic one.Whippomorpha is a mixture of English (wh[ale] + hippo[potamus]) and Greek (μορφή, morphē = form). Attempts have been made to rename the clade Cetancodonta but Whippomorpha maintains precedence.Xenoturbella japonica
Xenoturbella japonica is a marine benthic worm-like species that belongs to the genus Xenoturbella. It is found from western Pacific Ocean by a group of Japanese scientists from the University of Tsukuba. It was proposed in 2017 in a study published in the journal BMC Evolutionary Biology. X. japonica is known for lacking respiratory, circulatory and an excretory system.