BBC Television

BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927. It produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936.[2]

The BBC's domestic television channels have no commercial advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing.[3] The services are funded by a television licence.

As a result of the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, the BBC Television division was split, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios and the remaining parts of television (channels and genre commissioning, BBC Sport, BBC Three and BBC iPlayer) being renamed as BBC Content.[4]

BBC Television Symbol 1953
The "Television Symbol", known informally as the "Bats Wings" was the first BBC Television Service ident. It was created by Abram Games and was used from 1953 to 1961.[1]

History of BBC Television

The BBC operates several television networks, television stations (although there is generally very little distinction between the two terms in the UK), and related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation also produces a large number of its own programmes in-house and thereby ranks as one of the world's largest television production companies.

Early years (before 1939)

John Logie Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company in 1926; on 30 September 1929 he made the first experimental television broadcast for the BBC from its studio in Long Acre in the Covent Garden area of London via the BBC's London transmitter. Baird used his electromechanical system with a vertically-scanned image of 30 lines, which is just enough resolution for a close-up of one person, and a bandwidth low enough to use existing radio transmitters. The simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by using the BBC's new twin transmitter at Brookmans Park. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, and thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Baird's broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932.

The BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932. The studio moved to larger quarters in 16 Portland Place, London, in February 1934, and continued broadcasting the 30-line images, carried by telephone line to the medium wave transmitter at Brookmans Park, until 11 September 1935, by which time advances in all-electronic television systems made the electromechanical broadcasts obsolete.

After a series of test transmissions and special broadcasts that began in August 1936, the BBC Television Service officially launched on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London.[5][6] "Ally Pally" housed two studios, various scenery stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms, offices, and the transmitter itself, which then broadcast on the VHF band. BBC television initially used two systems on alternate weeks: the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system. The use of both formats made the BBC's service the world's first regular high-definition television service; it broadcast from Monday to Saturday between 15:00 and 16:00, and 21:00 and 22:00.[7] The first programme broadcast – and thus the first ever, on a dedicated TV channel – was "Opening of the BBC Television Service" at 15:00.[8] The first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937.

The two systems were to run on a trial basis for six months; early television sets supported both resolutions. However, the Baird system, which used a mechanical camera for filmed programming and Farnsworth image dissector cameras for live programming, proved too cumbersome and visually inferior, and ended with closedown (at 22:00) on Saturday 13 February 1937.[9]

Initially, the station's range was officially a 40 kilometres radius of the Alexandra Palace transmitter—in practice, however, transmissions could be picked up a good deal further away, and on one occasion in 1938 were picked up by engineers at RCA in New York, who were experimenting with a British television set.[a] The service was reaching an estimated 25,000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939.

Wartime closure (1939–1946)

On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning;[10] the government was concerned that the VHF transmissions would act as a beacon to enemy aircraft homing in on London. Also, many of the television service's technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort, in particular on the radar programme. The last programme transmitted was a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey's Gala Premier (1933), which was followed by test transmissions; this account refuted the popular memory according to which broadcasting was suspended before the end of the cartoon.[10]

According to figures from Britain's Radio Manufacturers Association, 18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, when production was halted by the war.

The remaining monopoly years (1946–1955)

BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying, 'Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?'. The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later.[11] Alexandra Palace was the home base of the channel until the early 1950s when the majority of production moved into the newly acquired Lime Grove Studios.

Postwar broadcast coverage was extended to Birmingham in 1949 with the opening of the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, and by the mid-1950s most of the country was covered, transmitting a 405-line interlaced image on VHF.

When the ITV was launched in 1955, the BBC Television Service (renamed "BBC tv" in 1960) showed popular programming, including comedies, drama, documentaries, game shows, and soap operas, covering a wide range of genres and regularly competed with ITV to become the channel with the highest ratings for that week. The channel also introduced the science fiction show Doctor Who on 23 November 1963 - at 17:16 - which went on to become one of Britain's most iconic and beloved television programmes.

1964 to 1967

BBC TV was renamed BBC1 in 1964, after the launch of BBC2 (now BBC Two), the third television station (ITV was the second) for the UK; its remit, to provide more niche programming. The channel was due to launch on 20 April 1964, but was put off the air by a massive power failure that affected much of London, caused by a fire at Battersea Power Station. A videotape made on the opening night was rediscovered in 2003 by a BBC technician. In the end the launch went ahead the following night, hosted by Denis Tuohy holding a candle. BBC2 was the first British channel to use UHF and 625-line pictures, giving higher definition than the existing VHF 405-line system.

1967 to 2003

60 BBC Years
A special ident was created in 1982 to celebrate 60 years of the BBC.

On 1 July 1967, BBC Two became the first television channel in Europe to broadcast regularly in colour, using the West German PAL system that was in use for decades until being gradually superseded by digital systems.[12] (BBC One and ITV began 625-line colour broadcasts simultaneously on 15 November 1969). Unlike other terrestrial channels, BBC Two does not have soap opera or standard news programming, but a range of programmes intended to be eclectic and diverse (although if a programme has high audience ratings it is often eventually repositioned to BBC One). The different remit of BBC2 allowed its first controller, Sir David Attenborough to commission the first heavyweight documentaries and documentary series such as Civilisation, The Ascent of Man and Horizon.

Attenborough was later granted sabbatical leave from his job as Controller to work with the BBC Natural History Unit which had existed since the 1950s. This unit is now famed throughout the world for producing high quality programmes with Attenborough such as Life on Earth, The Private Life of Plants, The Blue Planet, The Life of Mammals, Planet Earth and Frozen Planet.

National and regional variations also occur within the BBC One and BBC Two schedules. England's BBC One output is split up into fifteen regions (such as South West and East), which exist mainly to produce local news programming, but also occasionally opt out of the network to show programmes of local importance (such as major local events). The other nations of the United Kingdom (Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) have been granted more autonomy from the English network; for example, programmes are mostly introduced by local announcers, rather than by those in London. BBC One and BBC Two schedules in the other UK nations can vary immensely from BBC One and BBC Two in England.

Programmes, such as the politically fuelled Give My Head Peace (produced by BBC Northern Ireland) and the soap opera River City (produced by BBC Scotland), have been created specifically to cater for some viewers in their respective nations. BBC Scotland produces daily programmes for its Gaelic-speaking viewers, including current affairs, political and children's programming such as the popular Eòrpa and Dè a-nis?. BBC Wales also produces a large amount of Welsh language programming for S4C, particularly news, sport and other programmes, especially the soap opera Pobol y Cwm ('People of the Valley') briefly shown on BBC2 across the UK with subtitles in the 1990s.[13] The UK nations also produce a number of programmes that are shown across the UK, such as BBC Scotland's comedy series Chewin' the Fat, and BBC Northern Ireland's talk show Patrick Kielty Almost Live.

During the 1980s, the BBC came under pressure to commission more programmes from independent British production companies, and following the Broadcasting Act 1990 it was legally required to source 25% of its output from such companies by the terms of the Act. This eventually led to the creation of the "WoCC" (Window of Creative Competition) for independent production companies to pitch programmes to the BBC.[14]

Programmes have also been imported mainly from English-speaking countries: notable—though no longer shown—examples include The Simpsons from the United States and Neighbours from Australia. Programming from countries outside the English-speaking world consisted of feature films, shown in the original language with subtitles instead of being dubbed, with dubbing only used for cartoons and children's programmes.[15] These included programmes from Eastern Europe, including The Singing Ringing Tree from East Germany, although voice-over translation was used instead of dubbing for budgetary reasons.[16]

Ceefax, the first teletext service, launched on 23 September 1974. This service allowed BBC viewers to view textual information such as the latest news on their television. CEEFAX did not make a full transition to digital television, instead being gradually replaced by the new interactive BBCi service before being fully closed down on 22 October 2012.

In March 2003 the BBC announced that from the end of May 2003 (subsequently deferred to 14 July) it intended to transmit all eight of its domestic television channels (including the 15 regional variations of BBC 1) unencrypted from the Astra 2D satellite. This move was estimated to save the BBC £85 million over the next five years.

While the "footprint" of the Astra 2D satellite was smaller than that of Astra 2A, from which it was previously broadcast encrypted, it meant that viewers with appropriate equipment were able to receive BBC channels "free-to-air" over much of Western Europe. Consequently, some rights concerns have needed to be resolved with programme providers such as Hollywood studios and sporting organisations, which have expressed concern about the unencrypted signal leaking out. This led to some broadcasts being made unavailable on the Sky Digital platform, such as Scottish Premier League and Scottish Cup football, while on other platforms such broadcasts were not disrupted. Later, when rights contracts were renewed, this problem was resolved.

2006 onwards

The BBC Television department headed by Jana Bennett was absorbed into a new, much larger group; BBC Vision, in late 2006.[17] The new group was part of larger restructuring within the BBC with the onset of new media outlets and technology.

In 2008, the BBC began experimenting with live streaming of certain channels in the UK, and in November 2008, all standard BBC television channels were made available to watch online via BBC iPlayer.[18]

When Tony Hall became Director General in April 2013, he reverted the division to its original name of BBC Television. As Television it was responsible for the commissioning, scheduling and broadcasting of all programming on the BBC's television channels and online, as well as producing content for broadcast.[19]

Following the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, BBC Television was split into two divisions, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios controlled by Mark Linsey and the remaining parts of television (channels and genre commissioning, BBC Sport, BBC Three and BBC iPlayer) being renamed as BBC Content, controlled by Charlotte Moore.[4][20] As a result, the BBC Television division is now known internally as BBC Content and "BBC Television" as an entity has ceased to exist.[4][21][22]

Funding

The BBC domestic television channels do not broadcast advertisements; they are instead funded by a television licence fee which TV viewers are required to pay annually. This includes viewers who watch real-time streams or catch up services of the BBC's channels online or via their mobile phone. The BBC's international television channels are funded by advertisements and subscription.

Channels

Free-to-air in the UK

These channels are also available outside the UK in neighbouring countries e.g. Belgium, the Netherlands and the Republic of Ireland.

BBC UK analogue and digital channels viewing figures
BBC UK viewing figures 1981–2008: BBC 1 in red, BBC 2 in blue
BBC UK digital channels share of viewing
BBC UK viewing share, 2002–2008: BBC 3, pink; BBC 4, dark cyan; BBC News, red; CBBC, purple; CBeebies, light cyan
BBC One
The Corporation's primary network, broadcasting mainstream comedy, drama, documentaries, films, news, sport, and some children's programmes. BBC One is also the home of the BBC's main 30-minute news bulletins, currently shown at 13:00, 18:00, and 22:00 (on weekdays; times vary for weekend news bulletins) and overnight bulletins from BBC World News every Monday to Sunday. The main news bulletins are followed by local news. These are provided by production centres in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and a further 14 regional and sub-regional centres in England. The centres also produce local news magazine programming.
Shutdown of all UK analogue television stations began in 2008 and finished in October 2012, leaving only digital transmission for terrestrial services.
A high definition simulcast, BBC One HD, launched on 3 November 2010.
BBC Two
Home to more specialist programming, including comedy, documentaries, dramas, children's programming and minority interest programmes, as well as imported programmes from other countries, particularly the United States. An important feature of the schedule is Newsnight, a 50-minute news analysis programme shown each weeknight at 22.30. There are slight differences in the programming for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. The most notable is a separate final 20 minutes for Newsnight broadcast in Scotland.
A high definition simulcast, BBC Two HD, launched on 26 March 2013.
BBC Four
Niche programming for an intellectual audience, including specialist documentaries, occasional 'serious' dramas, live theatre, foreign language films and television programmes and 'prestige' archive television repeats.
A high definition simulcast, BBC Four HD, launched on 10 December 2013.
BBC News
A dedicated news channel. Time-shares with BBC World News 00:00–06:00 & 21:00-22:00 daily
A high definition simulcast, BBC News HD, launched on 10 December 2013.
BBC Parliament
The Corporation's dedicated politics channel, covering both the UK Parliament, Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, Northern Ireland Assembly, and international politics.
CBBC
For children aged seven and above.
A high definition simulcast, CBBC HD, launched on 10 December 2013.
CBeebies
For children under seven.
A high definition simulcast, CBeebies HD, launched on 10 December 2013.

Other public services

S4C
Although this Welsh language channel is not operated by the Corporation, the BBC contributes programmes funded by the licence fee as part of its public service obligation. The BBC used to broadcast Welsh-language programmes on its own channels in Wales, but these were transferred to S4C when it started broadcasting in 1982.
BBC Alba
A part-time Scottish Gaelic channel. Although it carries the BBC name, it is a partnership between the BBC and MG Alba, with the majority of funding coming from the Scottish Government via MG Alba. Scottish Gaelic programmes were also shown on BBC Two in Scotland – subject to approval from the BBC Trust, but moved to BBC Alba after digital switchover.
BBC Three
Home to mainly programming geared towards 16-34-year olds, particularly new comedy sketch shows and sitcoms.

A high definition simulcast, BBC Three HD, launched on 10 December 2013.

On 16 February 2016, BBC Three moved as an online-only content.

International news

BBC World News
An international, commercially-funded twenty-four-hour news channel, not officially available to UK viewers but is shown on BBC News/BBC One/BBC Two between 00:00-05:30 and at 19:00–19:30 on BBC Four and 21:00-22:00 on BBC News Channel.

BBC Studios

The BBC's wholly owned commercial subsidiary, BBC Studios, also operates several international television channels under BBC branding:

BBC America
A US general entertainment channel, distributed in co-operation with AMC Networks, showcasing British television programming.
BBC Arabic TV
A news and factual programming channel broadcast to the Middle East and North Africa. It was launched on 11 March 2008.
BBC Brit
An entertainment subscription television channel featuring male-skewed factual entertainment programming. Launched 1 February 2015 in Poland, April 2015 for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland replacing BBC Entertainment.
BBC Canada
A Canadian general entertainment channel, co-owned with Corus Entertainment. showing Canadian and British television programming.
BBC Earth
A documentary subscription television channel featuring premium factual programming. Launched 1 February 2015 in Poland, April 2015 for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland and as of 14 April 2015 in Hungary replacing BBC Knowledge also replaced BBC Knowledge in Asia (Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam) as of 3 October 2015 - 21h00 Singapore/Hong Kong Time[23]
BBC Entertainment
Broadcasts comedy, drama, light entertainment and children's programming by BBC and other UK production houses, available in the following regions: Europe (except Scandinavia and Eastern Europe), Turkey and Israel.
BBC First
An entertainment subscription television channel featuring drama, crime and comedy programming. The channel kicked off in Australia on 3 August 2014. Currently available in the following regions: Asia, Australia (BBC First (Australia)), Middle East & North Africa, Netherlands & Belgium (BBC First (Dutch TV channel)), Poland and South Africa.
BBC HD
A high-definition channel gradually replaced by other BBC Studios channels, currently still available in Turkey.
BBC Kids
A Canadian children's programming channel co-owned with Knowledge West Communications.
BBC Knowledge
Documentaries and factual programming, currently available in Australia and New Zealand.
BBC Lifestyle
Lifestyle programming, currently available in Asia, Poland and South Africa.
BBC UKTV
An entertainment channel in Australia and New Zealand, carrying drama and comedy programmes from the BBC, Talkback Thames, ITV, and Channel 4.

The BBC also co-owns the following channels in joint ventures with other broadcasters:

UKTV
Commercial television network in the United Kingdom, co-owned with Discovery Inc. The channels broadcast mainly BBC archive and specially produced programming.
BBC Persian

News channel that targets Persian-speaking countries including Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in the Persian/Dari/Tajiki language.

BBC Japan was a general entertainment channel, which operated between December 2004 and April 2006. It ceased operations after its Japanese distributor folded.

See also

References

  1. ^ They filmed the static-ridden output they saw on their screen, and this poor-quality mute film footage is the only surviving record of 1930s British television filmed directly from the screen. Some images of programmes do survive in newsreels, which also contain footage shot in studios while programmes were being made, giving a feel for what was being done, albeit without directly replicating what was being shown on screen.

External links

  1. ^ Nick Higham, 60 years since 'bat's wings' became first BBC TV symbol, BBC News, December 2 2013
  2. ^ Radio Times – The Journal of the BBC, issue dated 27 October 1957: The 21st Anniversary of BBC Television
  3. ^ "Total viewing summary Oct 7 – Oct 13 2013". BARB. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. % viewer-ship of all TV viewing: BBC1 (20.2), BBC2 (5.8), BBC3 (1.4), BBC4 (1.0), CBBC (0.6), Cbeebies (1.2), BBC News (1.0) = 31.2% of total viewer minutes relative to all other channels
  4. ^ a b c "Who we are and how we commission". BBC. 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  5. ^ "BBC Television - 2 November 1936 - BBC Genome". genome.ch.bbc.co.uk.
  6. ^ "History of the BBC". BBC.
  7. ^ Burns, R.W. (1998). Television: An International History of the Formative Years. London: The Institution of Electrical Engineers. pp. ix. ISBN 978-0-85296-914-4.
  8. ^ Radio Times for that date
  9. ^ Radio Times for that date (http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/research/general/radio-times/pre-war)
  10. ^ a b "The edit that rewrote history – Baird". Transdiffusion Broadcasting System. 31 October 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
  11. ^ Rohrer, Finlo (7 June 2006). "Back after the break". Magazine. BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  12. ^ TV Technology 8. Britain In Colour – and UHF. Screenonline, Richard G. Elen. Retrieved: 26 November 2010.
  13. ^ Welsh BBC adds to drama output, The Independent, 9 February 1993
  14. ^ BBC WoCC review, BBC Trust, 2012
  15. ^ The sad disappearance of foreign TV, The Guardian, 1 September 2010
  16. ^ Return of the teatime terror, Daily Telegraph, 30 March 2002
  17. ^ BBC Vision Press release BBC Press Office
  18. ^ "BBC - Press Office - BBC One and BBC Two to be simulcast from 27 November". www.bbc.co.uk.
  19. ^ "Television". BBC. 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  20. ^ "Mark Linsey is the new Director of BBC Studios". BBC Press Office. 22 March 2016.
  21. ^ Charlie Cooper, BBC to lose in-house programming guarantee under radical plan to open up public broadcaster to the private sector, The Independent 26 April 2016
  22. ^ Programme Supply, BBC Trust, April 2016
  23. ^ "BBC - BBC Earth to Launch in Asia - Media Centre". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
BBC Japan

BBC Japan was a television channel from the BBC available via satellite in Japan. Similar in format to BBC Prime (now BBC Entertainment), BBC Japan showed such BBC programmes as Blackadder and Fawlty Towers, with many of them subtitled in Japanese.The channel launched on December 1, 2004 and was available on Sky PerfecTV! satellite channel 110 and Online TV Company's IPTV service, but ceased broadcasting less than two years later.

BBC Lifestyle

BBC Lifestyle is an international television channel wholly owned by BBC Studios. The channel provides six programming strands: Food, Home & Design, Fashion & Style, Health, Parenting, and Personal Development.

BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage. The service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018.The department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million; it has 3,500 staff, 2,000 of whom are journalists. BBC News' domestic, global and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC also has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.

The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, and required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad.

BBC One

BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, and was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution. It was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997.

The channel's annual budget for 2012–13 was £1.14 billion. The channel is funded by the television licence fee together with the BBC's other domestic television stations, and shows uninterrupted programming without commercial advertising. It is currently the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV.

As of June 2013 the channel controller for BBC One was Charlotte Moore, who succeeded Danny Cohen initially as an Acting Controller from May 2013.

BBC Two

BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It covers a wide range of subject matter, but tends to broadcast more "highbrow" programmes than the more mainstream and popular BBC One. Like the BBC's other domestic TV and radio channels, it is funded by the television licence, and is therefore free of commercial advertising. It is a comparatively well-funded public-service network, regularly attaining a much higher audience share than most public-service networks worldwide.

Originally styled BBC2, it was the third British television station to be launched (starting on 21 April 1964), and from 1 July 1967, Europe's first television channel to broadcast regularly in colour. It was envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming, and while this tendency has continued to date, most special-interest programmes of a kind previously broadcast on BBC Two, for example the BBC Proms, now tend to appear on BBC Four instead.

BBC Two Northern Ireland

BBC Two Northern Ireland (Irish: BBC Thuaisceart Éireann a Dó) is a television station operated by BBC Northern Ireland. It is broadcast via digital terrestrial transmitters and from the SES Astra 2E satellite (transponder 48) at the 28.2° East orbital position.

The channel was branded onscreen as 'BBC Two NI' from October 2006 until February 2007, though not referred to as such by continuity announcers. Unique idents for Northern Ireland featuring the robotic figure 2 were used during this time, showing the Giant's Causeway and the feature eating an Ulster Fry.

Until 28 October 2006, there were two separate services – 'BBC Two Northern Ireland"', an analogue-only service, referred to as "BBC Two", both in idents and continuity, and a digital-only opt-out, 'BBC Two NI', (the successor to BBC Choice Northern Ireland) which carried extra regional programming and continuity between 6pm and midnight. This has all now ended and the two Northern Ireland services have been merged.

BBC World Service Television

BBC World Service Television, often abbreviated to WSTV (World Service Television), was the name of two BBC international satellite television channels between 1991 and 1995. It was the BBC's first foray into worldwide television broadcasting. In Europe, it was the successor to BBC TV Europe, which it replaced on 11 March 1991. The service was also launched in Asia as a 24-hour news and information service with minor differences, a precursor to BBC World News, launched on 14 October 1991.Unlike the BBC World Service at the time, it was not funded by the British government with a grant-in-aid. Instead, it was funded either by subscription or by commercial advertising, with advertisements that were inserted locally by the cable or satellite providers. In the years that followed, where not broadcast via a particular local provider, the BBC would insert news headlines, trailers for their own programming, and other updates to fill the gaps, these being known as "break fillers".

HARDtalk

Hardtalk (styled as HARDtalk) is a BBC television and radio programme broadcast on the BBC News Channel, on BBC World News, and on BBC World Service.

Broadcast times and days vary depending on the broadcasting platform, your geographic location, and any breaking news stories.HARDtalk provides "in-depth interviews with hard-hitting questions and sensitive topics being covered as famous personalities from all walks of life talk about the highs and lows in their lives."It is also available on BBC iPlayer.

History of BBC television idents

The history of BBC television idents begins in the early 1950s, when the BBC first displayed a logo between programmes to identify its service. As new technology has become available, these devices have evolved from simple still black and white images to the sophisticated full colour short films seen today. With the arrival of digital services in the United Kingdom, and with them many more new channels, branding is perceived by broadcasters to be much more important, meaning that idents need to stand out from the competition.

This article describes the development of the BBC's main television channels' identities.

Kick Start (TV series)

Kick Start was a motorcycle trials series on BBC television that aired between 1979 and 1988. The idea originated from Nick Brittan, the organiser of the 1978 Lombard RAC Rally, who thought top trials motorcyclists, competing over a hazardous track and obstacles, would make exciting television. It was produced by BBC Pebble Mill producer Derek Smith, who also created Top Gear.

Later... with Jools Holland

Later... with Jools Holland (previously known as ...Later with Jools Holland) is a contemporary English music television show hosted by Jools Holland. A spin-off of The Late Show, it has been running in short series since 1992 and is a part of BBC Two's late-night line-up, usually at around 11 pm to 12 midnight. The day of transmission has varied, but currently it is usually recorded on a Tuesday for Saturday broadcast and features a mixture of both established and new musical artists, from solo performers to bands and larger ensembles.

The show is considered an institution, having notched up millions of fans around the world. It is currently broadcast in America on MTV Live (formerly known as Palladia); previously it had been shown on Ovation, BBC America, Fuse, and Dave. The Ovation and Fuse broadcasts leave out several performances (and usually one or two performers entirely) to air commercials within a one-hour timeslot. It is also shown in Australia on the UKTV channel and ABC2, in Canada on HIFI and AUX TV, in Germany on ZDFkultur, in Spain on Canal+ Xtra, in Croatia on HRT 2, in Latin America on Film&Arts and in Belgium, France, Portugal, Switzerland, and the United Arab Emirates on iConcerts HD. And in Ireland on TG4.

The 200th programme was broadcast on 1 February 2008. The 250th edition was broadcast in September 2010.

Shepherd's Bush Empire

Shepherd's Bush Empire (currently known as O2 Shepherd's Bush Empire for sponsorship reasons, and formerly called BBC Television Theatre) is a music venue in Shepherd's Bush, London, run by the Academy Music Group. It was built in 1903 as a music hall and in 1953 became the BBC Television Theatre. Since 1994, it has operated as a music venue. It is a Grade II listed building.

Sony BBC Earth

Sony BBC Earth is an Indian pay television channel owned by BBC Studios and Sony Pictures Networks. The channel broadcasts BBC programming in English, Hindi, Tamil and Telugu through its four audio tracks available. The BBC entered into a joint venture with Multi Screen Media to launch the channel in India, which was finally launched on 6 March 2017, following regulatory approval of the joint venture.

Kareena Kapoor was appointed the brand ambassador for this channel.

Television Centre, London

Television Centre is a building complex in White City, West London, that was the headquarters of BBC Television between 1960 and 2013. The first BBC staff moved into the Scenery Block in 1953, and the centre was officially opened on 29 June 1960. It is one of the most readily recognisable facilities of its type, having appeared as the backdrop for many BBC programmes. Parts of the building are Grade II listed, including the central ring and Studio 1.

Most of the BBC's national television and radio news output came from Television Centre (TVC), and in later years most recorded television was output from the nearby Broadcast Centre at 201 Wood Lane, care of Red Bee Media. Live television events from studios and routing of national and international sporting events took place within Television Centre before being passed to the Broadcast Centre for transmission.It was announced on 21 September 2010 that the BBC would cease broadcasting from Television Centre in 2013. On 13 June 2011 the BBC announced that Television Centre was on the market, and that it was "inviting bid proposals from people looking for a conventional, freehold property or those interested in a joint venture", suggesting that it may yet remain connected to the BBC.In July 2012 it was announced that the complex had been sold to property developers Stanhope plc for around £200 million and that the BBC would retain a continued presence at Television Centre through its commercial subsidiaries BBC Studios and Post Production (BBC Studioworks since 2016) and BBC Worldwide. BBC Studios and Post Production (relocated to Elstree Studios) was due to move back to Television Centre to operate Studio 1, 2 and 3 in 2015, but it was announced in July 2014 that it had agreed with the developers, Stanhope, to move back in 2017, at the same time as other key tenants, to enable the most efficient overall site construction programme to take place. BBC Worldwide moved into office space in the Stage 6 building following extensive refurbishment in 2015.The radio and television news departments moved to Broadcasting House in central London, the home of BBC Radio, as part of a reorganisation. BBC News moved to new facilities in Broadcasting House on 18 March 2013, but TVC remained in active use with many programmes being taped in the studios until it closed for redevelopment officially on 31 March 2013. BBC TVC was one of the largest such facilities in the world and was the second-oldest operational television studio in the United Kingdom, after Granada Studios where Granada Television was based for many decades.Stanhope said in April 2014 that the new Television Centre development would "pay homage to the original use of the building" and retain original features of the buildings including the "doughnut", atomic dot wall and Helios statue. The new Television Centre will be opened up to the public and will offer entertainment and leisure facilities, including a new branch of members' club Soho House, offices aimed at the creative sector and approximately 1,000 new homes, together with pedestrian access through the site providing connectivity with the local area, including Hammersmith Park. The refurbished Studios 1, 2 and 3 reopened in September 2017 and, since the closure of ITV's London Studios, have been the recording location for Good Morning Britain, Lorraine, This Morning and Loose Women.The building is 4 miles (6 kilometres) west of central London, in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. The nearest Underground stations are White City and Wood Lane.

Television presenter

A presenter is a person who introduces or hosts television programs (or segments thereof such as an infomercial advertiser). Nowadays, it is common for minor celebrities in other fields to take on this role, but some people have made their name solely within the field of presenting, particularly within children's television series, to become television personalities.

The Graham Norton Show

The Graham Norton Show (or simply Graham Norton) is a British comedy chat show presented by Graham Norton. It was initially broadcast on BBC Two, from 22 February 2007, before moving to BBC One in October 2009. It currently airs on Friday evenings, and is usually repeated a few nights later.

The Science of Doctor Who

The Science of Doctor Who is a televised lecture by physicist Brian Cox discussing the nature of space and time as related to the science fiction series Doctor Who. Cox covers topics including the nature of black holes, time dilation, time as a dimension in which to travel and the possibilities of alien life. The lecture is held at the Royal Institution's lecture hall and interspersed with small segments of Cox on the TARDIS with the Eleventh Doctor, played by Matt Smith.

Tonight (1957 TV programme)

Tonight is a British current affairs television programme, presented by Cliff Michelmore, that was broadcast on BBC live on weekday evenings from 18 February 1957 to 18 June 1965. The producers were the future Controller of BBC1 Donald Baverstock and the future Director-General of the BBC Alasdair Milne. The audience was typically seven million viewers.

Whose Doctor Who

Whose Doctor Who (a.k.a. 'Whose Dr. Who') was a 60-minute television documentary, (part of the BBC's The Lively Arts series) which was first transmitted on Sunday, 3 April 1977, on BBC 2.

The programme was the first in-depth documentary chronicling the long-running BBC TV series Doctor Who, being first broadcast the day after the final episode of the show's fourteenth season was transmitted on BBC1. Introduced by Melvyn Bragg, the programme features many clips from episodes of the show transmitted to date, along with interviews of cast and fans, including families, children, students, teachers, psychologists and educationalists. Tom Baker and outgoing producer Philip Hinchcliffe both contributed interviews, while behind-the-scenes footage of the recording of The Talons of Weng-Chiang (the most recently broadcast adventure) from rehearsals and pre-production planning, were included.

The show was never repeated on the BBC, but has been included on both the original and 'special edition' DVD releases of The Talons of Weng-Chiang.

The programme was produced and directed by Tony Cash, with Bill Morton as Executive Producer.

Clips featured in the documentary came from the following Doctor Who serials (or episodes):

The Zarbi, The Seeds of Death, Doctor Who and the Silurians*, Genesis of the Daleks, An Unearthly Child, The Three Doctors, Robot, Terror of the Zygons, The Daleks, The Mind Robber, Planet of the Spiders, The Time Warrior, The Claws of Axos*, The Invasion, The Talons of Weng-Chiang, Spearhead from Space, Terror of the Autons*, The Hand of Fear, The Seeds of Doom, Pyramids of Mars, The Monster of Peladon, The Krotons, The Dimensions of Time , The Brain of Morbius, The Time Monster*, The Dæmons, The Waking Ally, Planet of the Daleks, The Face of Evil, and Four Hundred Dawns.

'*'Clips included from these episodes were shown from monochrome 16mm film copies, the original colour videotapes had been wiped. See also Doctor Who missing episodes.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.