Béjaïa (Arabic: بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Berber languages: Bgayet, Bgayeth), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia. Béjaïa is the largest principally Kabyle-speaking city in the Kabylie region of Algeria. The history of Béjaïa explains the diversity of the local population.
بجاية / Bgayeth / Bgayet
Location of Béjaïa, Algeria within Béjaïa Province
|• Total||120.22 km2 (46.42 sq mi)|
|Elevation||949 m (3,114 ft)|
|• Density||1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
The town is overlooked by the mountain Yemma Gouraya, whose profile is said to resemble a sleeping woman. Other nearby scenic spots include the Aiguades beach and the Pic des Singes (Monkey Peak); the latter site is a habitat for the endangered Barbary macaque, which prehistorically had a much broader distribution than at present. All three of these geographic features are located in the Gouraya National Park. The Soummam river runs past the town.
Under French rule, it was formerly known under various European names, such as Budschaja in German, Bugia in Italian, and Bougie [buˈʒi] in French. The French and Italian versions, due to the town's wax trade, eventually acquired the metonymic meaning of "candle".
Béjaïa stands on the site of the ancient city of Saldae, a minor port in Carthaginian and Roman times, in an area at first inhabited by Numidian Berbers and founded as a colony for old soldiers by emperor Augustus. It was an important town and a bishopric in the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and later Sitifensis.
In the fifth century, Saldae became the capital of the short-lived Vandal Kingdom of the Germanic Vandals, which ended in about 533 with the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and later the Exarchate of Carthage.
After the 7th-century Muslim conquest, it was refounded as "Béjaïa"; the Hammadid dynasty made it their capital, and it became an important port and centre of culture.
The son of a Pisan merchant (and probably consul), posthumously known as Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250), there learned about Muslim mathematics (which he called "Modus Indorum") and Hindu-Arabic numerals. He introduced these and modern mathematics into medieval Europe. A mathematical-historical analysis of Fibonacci's context and proximity to Béjaïa, an important exporter of wax in his time, has suggested that it was actually the bee-keepers of Béjaïa and the knowledge of the bee ancestries that truly inspired the Fibonacci sequence rather than the rabbit reproduction model as presented in his famous book Liber Abaci.
According to Muhammad al-Idrisi, the port was, in the XIth century, a market place between Mediterranean merchant ships and caravans coming from the Sahara desert. Christian merchants settled fundunqs (or Khans) in Bejaïa. The Italian city of Pisa was closely tied to Béjaïa, where it built one of its two permanent consulates in the African continent.
After a Spanish occupation (1510–55), the city was taken by the Ottoman Turks in the Capture of Bougie in 1555. For nearly three centuries, Béjaïa was a stronghold of the Barbary pirates (see Barbary States). The city consisted of Arabic-speaking Moors, Moriscos and Jews increased by Jewish refugees from Spain, with the Berber peoples not in the city but occupying the surrounding villages and travelling to the city occasionally for the market days.
City landmarks include a 16th-century mosque and a fortress built by the Spanish in 1545.
A picture of the Orientalist painter Maurice Boitel, who painted in the city for a while, can be found in the museum of Béjaïa.
It was captured by the French in 1833 and became a part of colonial Algeria. Most of the time it was the seat ('sous-préfecture') of an arrondissement (mid 20th century, 513,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 'Bougiates' in the city itself) in the Département of Constantine, until Bougie was promoted to département itself in 1957.
That same day, at 4:40 PM, a German Luftwaffe air raid struck Béjaïa with thirty Ju 88 bombers and torpedo planes. The transports Awatea and Cathay were sunk and the monitor HMS Roberts was damaged. The following day, the anti-aircraft ship SS Tynwald was torpedoed and sank, while the transport Karanja was bombed and destroyed.
Christianity survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old city of Saldae, and the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter from Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085) exists, addressed to clero et populo Buzee (the clergy and people of Béjaïa), in which he writes of the consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian North Africa.
No longer a residential bishopric, Saldae (v.) is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. and still has incumbents by that title (mostly of the lowest (episcopal) rank, some of the intermediary archiepiscopal rank).
This titular see was for a long time, alternatively and concurrently with the city's authentic Roman Latin name Saldae (v.), called Bugia, the Italian language form (used in the Roman Curia) of Béjaïa.
The 'modern' form and title, Bugia, seems out of use, after having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :
|Cap Carbon Lighthouse|
Cap Carbon Lighthouse in 2013
|Year first constructed||1906|
|Tower shape||cylindrical tower with balcony and lantern rising from the keeper’s house|
|Markings / pattern||white tower, black lantern roof|
|Tower height||14.60 metres (47.9 ft)|
|Focal height||224.10 metres (735.2 ft)|
|Range||29 nautical miles (54 km; 33 mi)|
|Characteristic||Fl (3) W 20s.|
|Managing agent||Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime|
The population of the city in 2008 in the latest census was 177,988.
The northern terminus of the Hassi Messaoud oil pipeline from the Sahara, Béjaïa is the principal oil port of the Western Mediterranean. Exports, aside from crude petroleum, include iron, phosphates, wines, dried figs, and plums. The city also has textile and cork industries.
Béjaïa has an official friendly relationship (protocole d'amitié) with:
Etymology: < French bougie wax candle, < Bougie (Arabic Bijiyah), a town in Algeria which carried on a trade in waxAvailable online to subscribers
Atkinson, An Army At Dawn
The 2016 CAF Confederation Cup Final was the final of the 2016 CAF Confederation Cup, the 13th edition of the CAF Confederation Cup, Africa's secondary club football competition organized by the Confederation of African Football (CAF).
The final was contested in two-legged home-and-away format between MO Béjaïa of Algeria and TP Mazembe of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The first leg was hosted by MO Béjaïa at the Stade Mustapha Tchaker in Blida on 29 October 2016, while the second leg was hosted by TP Mazembe at the Stade TP Mazembe in Lubumbashi on 6 November 2016. The winner earned the right to play in the 2017 CAF Super Cup against the winner of the 2016 CAF Champions League.TP Mazembe defeated MO Béjaïa 5–2 on aggregate to win the competition for the first time in its history.2018–19 Algerian Cup
The 2018–19 Algerian Cup (Arabic: كأس الجزائر 19-2018) is the 54th edition of the Algerian Cup. The winner will qualify to the 2019–20 CAF Confederation Cup, The final will be played in July 5, 1962 Stadium.Adekar District
Adekar District is a district of Béjaïa Province, Algeria.Akfadou
Akfadou is a town in northern Algeria in the Béjaïa Province. Alternatively the town and its local area are known as Agfadou. This locale is noted for its local population of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus. Notable features in the area include Gouraya National Park.Amizour
Amizour (Arabic: أميزور) is a town in northern Algeria of the Béjaïa Province.Aokas District
Aokas District is a district of Béjaïa Province, Algeria.Bejaia Province
The Bejaia province (Arabic: ولاية بجاية, ⵜⴰⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ, French: Wilaya de Béjaïa), stylized Béjaïa in French, is a province of Algeria in the Kabylie region. The province's capital city is Béjaïa.
Gouraya National Park is located in Béjaïa Province. A population of an endangered primate species, the Barbary macaque, is found within the park; this primate has a severely restricted and disjunctive range.Beni Mellikeche
At Mlikec is a town and commune in northern Algeria.Chelata
Chelata is a town in northern Algeria.Ifenain Ilmathen
Ifenain Ilmathen is a town in northern Algeria.Ighil Ali
Ighil Ali is a town in northern Algeria.JSM Béjaïa
Jeunesse Sportive Madinet de Béjaïa (Arabic: الشبيبة الرياضية لمدينة بجاية), known as JSM Béjaïa or simply JSMB for short, is an Algerian football club based in Béjaïa. The club was founded in 1936 and its colours are green and red. Their home stadium, Stade de l'Unité Maghrébine, has a capacity of 18,000 spectators. The club is currently playing in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 2.MO Béjaïa
Mouloudia Olympique de Béjaïa (Arabic: مولودية بجاية), referred to commonly as MO Béjaïa or MOB for short, is a professional Algerian football club based in Béjaïa, Algeria. The club was founded in 1954 and its colours are green and black. Their home stadium, Stade de l'Unité Maghrébine, has a capacity of 18,000 spectators. The club is currently playing in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1.Maghrebi Unity Stadium
Maghrebi Unity Stadium (Arabic: ملعب الوحدة المغاربية) is a multi-use stadium in Béjaïa, Algeria. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of JSM Béjaïa and MO Béjaïa. The stadium holds 18,000 people.Sidi Aïch District
Sidi Aïch District is a district of Béjaïa Province, Algeria.Tazmalt District
Tazmalt District is a district of Béjaïa Province, Algeria.Tichy
Tichy is a town and commune in Béjaïa Province, northern Algeria.Tizi N'Berber
Tizi N'Berber is a town in northern Algeria.University of Bejaia
The University of Béjaïa (French: Université Abderrahmane Mira or Université de Béjaïa, Kabyle: Tasdawit n'Bgayet/ⵝⴰⵚⴷⴰⵯⵉⵝ ⵏ ⴱⴴⴰⵢⵝ) is a university in Béjaïa, Algeria. It is named after Abderrahmane Mira.
Set up in 1983, it now has some 41,000 students and 1,600 teaching staff.
|Climate data for Béjaïa|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.7
|Average high °C (°F)||16.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||99.7
|Average relative humidity (%)||78.5||77.6||77.9||77.9||79.9||76.9||75.0||74.6||76.4||76.3||75.3||76.0||76.9|
|Source #1: NOAA (1968-1990)|
|Source #2: climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity)|
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