Azure (color)

Azure (/ˈæʒər, ˈeɪʒər/ AZH-ər, AY-zhər)[2][3] is a bright cyan-blue color that is often described as the color of the sky on a clear day.[4]

On the RGB color wheel, "azure" (hexadecimal #007FFF) is defined as the color at 210 degrees, i.e., the hue halfway between blue and cyan. In the RGB color model, used to create all the colors on a television or computer screen, azure is created by adding a little green light to blue light. The complementary color of azure is orange.

In the X11 color system which became a standard for early web colors, azure is depicted as a pale cyan or white cyan.

Azure
 
Granville - Vue sur Chausey
    Color coordinates
Hex triplet#007FFF
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 127, 255)
HSV       (h, s, v)(210°, 100%, 100%)
SourceOn the RGB color wheel, Azure is defined as the colour halfway between blue and cyan. The colour halfway between blue and cyan on the RGB color wheel has a hex code of 007FFF.[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Azurblau Pigment
Azure pigment

Etymology and history

Lapis lazuli block
A slab of lapis lazuli, the mineral from which azure took its name

The color azure ultimately takes its name from the intense blue mineral lapis lazuli. Lapis is the Latin word for "stone" and lāzulī is the genitive form of the Medieval Latin lāzulum, which is taken from the Arabic لازورد lāzaward, itself from the Persian لاژورد lāžaward, which is the name of the stone in Persian[5] and also of a place where lapis lazuli was mined.[6][7]

The name of the stone came to be associated with its color. The French azur, the Italian azzurro, the Polish lazur, Romanian azur and azuriu, the Portuguese and Spanish azul, Hungarian azúr, and the Catalan atzur, all come from the name and color of lapis lazuli.

The word was adopted into English from the French, and the first recorded use of it as a color name in English was in 1374 in Geoffrey Chaucer's work Troilus and Criseyde, where he refers to "a broche, gold and asure" (a brooch, gold and azure).[8][9][10]

Azure also describes the color of the mineral azurite, both in its natural form and as a pigment in various paint formulations. In order to preserve its deep color, azurite was ground coarsely. Fine-ground azurite produces a lighter, washed-out color. Traditionally, the pigment was considered unstable in oil paints, and was sometimes isolated from other colors and not mixed.

The use of the term spread through the practice of heraldry, where "azure" represents a blue color in the system of tinctures. In engravings, it is represented as a region of parallel horizontal lines, or by the abbreviation az. or b. In practice, azure has been represented by any number of shades of blue. In later heraldic practice a lighter blue, called bleu celeste ("sky blue"), is sometimes specified.

Distinction among indigo, azure and cyan

According to the logic of the RGB color wheel, indigo colors are those colors with hue codes between 255 and 225 (degrees), azure colors are those colors with hue codes between 195 and 225, and cyan colors are those colors with hue codes between 165 and 195. Another way of describing it could be that cyan is a mixture of blue and green light, azure is a mixture of blue and cyan light, and indigo is a mixture of blue and violet light.

All of the colors shown below in the section shades of azure are referenced as having a hue between 195 and 225 degrees, with the exception of the very pale X11 web color azure - RGB (240, 255, 255) - which, with a hue of 180 degrees, is a tone of cyan, but follows the artistic meaning of azure as sky blue.

Azure in nature

Insects
Birds

In culture

See also

References

  1. ^ On colour plate 33 (page 89) of the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color by Maerz and Paul, the colours on the right side of colour plate 33 from top to bottom represent the most highly saturated colours on the color wheel from cyan to azure, and the colours on the bottom of colour plate 33 from right to left represent the most highly saturated colours on the colour wheel from azure to blue. The colour sample that represents azure is colour sample L12 on Plate 33 on Page 89. See reference to Azure on Page 190 in the index. See also discussion of the color azure, Page 149.
  2. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  3. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  4. ^ "azure | Definition of azure in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 4 January 2019., "Definition of AZURE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ Senning, Alexander (2007). "lapis lazuli (lazurite)". Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemoetymology. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-444-52239-9.
  7. ^ Weekley, Ernest (1967). "azure". An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. New York: Dover Publications. p. 97.
  8. ^ "azure, n. and adj". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  9. ^ Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Project Gutenberg EBook of Troilus and Criseyde". Troilus and Criseyde. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  10. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190. Also Azure @ Dictionary.Reference.com. Also Azur @ CNRTL.fr (in french).
Azure

Azure may refer to:

Azure (color), a hue of blue

Shades of azure, shades and variations

Azure (barley), a malting barley variety

Azure (design magazine), Toronto, Ontario

Azure (magazine), a periodical on Jewish thought and identity

Azure (heraldry), a blue tincture on flags or coats of arms

Azure (album), an album by jazz flugelhornist Art Farmer

"Azure" (song), by Duke Ellington

Azure, Alberta, a locality in Canada

Azure, Montana, a census-designated place in the United States

Azure Window, a former natural arch in Malta

Bentley Azure, a car

Microsoft Azure, a cloud computing platform

Mozilla Azure, a graphics abstraction API

Azureus

Azureus may refer to:

Azure (color), (Latin: Azureus)

Azureus (software), former name of the BitTorrent client Vuze

Azureus Inc., former name of the BitTorrent company Vuze, Inc.

Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus', Blue Poison Dart Frog

Azurophilic granule

An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain. In white blood cells and hyperchromatin, staining imparts a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known for containing azurophils loaded with a wide variety of anti-microbial defensins that fuse with phagocytic vacuoles. Azurophils may contain myeloperoxidase, phospholipase A2, acid hydrolases, elastase, defensins, neutral serine proteases, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, lysozyme, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, and proteoglycans.

Azurophil granules are also known as "primary granules".Furthermore, the term "azurophils" may refer to a unique type of cells, identified only in reptiles. These cells are similar in size to so-called heterophils with abundant cytoplasm that is finely to coarsely granular and may sometimes contain vacuoles. Granules may impart a purplish hue to the cytoplasm, particularly to the outer region. Occasionally, azurophils are observed with vacuolated cytoplasm.

Blue poison dart frog

The blue poison dart frog or blue poison Kevin frog or known by its native name, Kaiwan, (Dendrobates tinctorius "azureus") is a poison dart frog found in the forests surrounded by the Sipaliwini savanna, which is located in southern Suriname and adjacent far northern Brazil. D. tinctorius "azureus" is also known by its indigenous Tirio name, okopipi. Its scientific name comes from its azure color. While frequently considered a valid species in the past, recent authorities treat it as a variant of D. tinctorius.

Blue–green distinction in language

Many languages do not distinguish between what in English are described as "blue" and "green" and instead use a cover term spanning both. To describe this English lexical gap, linguists use the portmanteau word grue, from green and blue, which the philosopher Nelson Goodman coined in his 1955 Fact, Fiction, and Forecast to illustrate the "new riddle of induction".

The exact definition of "blue" and "green" may be complicated by the speakers not primarily distinguishing the hue, but using terms that describe other color components such as saturation and luminosity, or other properties of the object being described. For example, "blue" and "green" might be distinguished, but a single term might be used for both if the color is dark. Furthermore, green might be associated with yellow, and blue with black or gray.

According to Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's 1969 study Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution, distinct terms for brown, purple, pink, orange and grey will not emerge in a language until the language has made a distinction between green and blue. In their account of the development of color terms the first terms to emerge are those for white/black (or light/dark), red and green/yellow.

Contrayerva

Contrayerva, or contrajerva, is the medicinal rhizome of various tropical Central American and South American species of Dorstenia in the family Moraceae, mainly Dorstenia contrajerva and the closely related Dorstenia drakena but also Dorstenia brasiliensis.. The word contrayerva means “counter herb” in Spanish. It was given this name since a 16th century description (see below) claimed that the leaves of a herb (yerva = hierba) were used by South American Indians to counter the deadly poisonous effect of the same herb (“contra yerva”) when used as an arrow poison. Seventeenth century herbalists and botanists identified this herb as the aromatic root that had been brought from Peru to England by Francis Drake, and claimed that it was an antidote against all kinds of poison. By the late 18th century contrayerva had lost its reputation as an antidote, but it continued to be listed in European and American pharmacopoeias and herbals until the 1920s as a gentle stimulant, tonic and diaphoretic. It is still used in folk medicine in Central and South America.

Dorstenia contrajerva

Dorstenia contrajerva is a plant species in the family Moraceae. It is native to Northern South America and Central America, and is cultivated elsewhere. The species name "contrajerva" is the Latinized form of the plant's Spanish name, "contrahierba," a name for plants used for treating poisoning and venomous bites and stings, and for which its rootstocks are used in folk medicine (as contrayerva). It is the type species of the Dorstenia genus and was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.

History of Thai money

The evolution of money in Thailand used as a medium of exchange and to make payment before the adoption of Thai baht coins and banknotes currently in use, included designs and forms which have been found over various period of time. For Thai people, money was considered as the symbol of civilization. Money itself reflected belief, faith in religion, culture, customs and traditions of each era and also serve as a significant record in the development and history of Thailand.

List of English words of Arabic origin (K-M)

The following English words have been acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into English. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering English.

To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. A handful of dictionaries has been used as the source for the list. Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted; for Islamic words, see Glossary of Islam. Rare and archaic words are also omitted. A bigger listing including many words very rarely seen in English is available at Wiktionary dictionary.

Lithodora diffusa

Lithodora diffusa, the purple gromwell, syn. Lithospermum diffusa, is a species of flowering plant in the family Boraginaceae. It is a mat-forming perennial growing to 15 cm (6 in) tall by 60 cm (24 in) or more wide, with dark green, hairy evergreen leaves and masses of blue or white 5-lobed flowers. It is suitable for cultivation in a rock garden or alpine garden.Although there is a variety with white flowers, L. diffusa var. alba, the blue-flowered varieties are most valued in gardens for the intense azure color of their abundant blooms. Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use, of which 'Grace Ward' and 'Heavenly Blue' have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.Lithodora diffusa is hardy in USDA zones 6 - 8, and should be planted in full sun to partial shade. It needs a well drained soil, as it is susceptible to root rot. It requires vernalization to flower.The Ancient Greek term lithodora literally means "stone gift", referring to its preferred habitat. Diffusa means "spreading", and refers to the plant's growth habit.

Municipalities of Finland

The municipalities (Finnish: kunta; Swedish: kommun) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental, self-governing administrative units of the country. The entire country is incorporated into municipalities and legally, all municipalities are equal, although certain municipalities are called cities or towns (Finnish: kaupunki; Swedish: stad). Municipalities have the right to levy a flat percentual income tax, which is between 16 and 22 percent, and they provide two thirds of public services. Municipalities control many community services, such as schools, health care and the water supply, and local streets. They do not maintain highways, set laws or keep police forces, which are responsibilities of the central government.

Navy blue

Navy blue is a very dark shade of the color blue.

Navy blue got its name from the dark blue (contrasted with white) worn by officers in the British Royal Navy since 1748 and subsequently adopted by other navies around the world. When this color name, taken from the usual color of the uniforms of sailors, originally came into use in the early 19th century, it was initially called marine blue, but the name of the color soon changed to navy blue.An early use of navy blue as a color name in English was in 1840 though the Oxford English Dictionary has a citation from 1813.

In practice, actual blue uniforms of the United States Navy and other navies have become outright black in color, in order to combat fading.

Safety orange

Safety orange (also known as blaze orange, vivid orange, OSHA orange, hunter orange, or Caltrans orange) is a hue. Safety orange is used to set objects apart from their surroundings, particularly in complementary contrast to the azure color of the sky (azure is the complementary color of orange, and therefore there is a very strong contrast between the two colors). The color is commonly used for hunting during the rifle season, and is also used for quail hunting. Most places, such as construction sites, use safety orange to help ensure the safety of others.

ANSI standard Z535.1-1998 states how safety orange is defined in the following notation systems:

Munsell Notation:5.0YR (Hue) 6.0/15 (Value/Chroma)Approximate PMS (Pantone) Color (mixing directions):13 parts Yellow, 3 parts Warm Red, ​1⁄4 part BlackPantone Number152CIE Data:x = 0.5510 y = 0.4214 Y% = 30.05Note that this CIE color point is outside the gamut of common color spaces like sRGB or Adobe RGB.The closest CIE color point that is still in the sRGB gamut is x = 0.54091, y = 0.40869, Y% = 30.05, corresponding to the sRGB-255 coordinates (232, 118, 0).The Adobe RGB color space is larger than the sRGB color space; the closest "safety orange" CIE color point that is still in the Adobe RGB gamut is x = 0.54467, y = 0.41424, Y% = 30.05, corresponding to the AdobeRGB-255 coordinates (206, 118, 0).

Safety orange is the color usually used in the United States for traffic cones (starting in 1961), stanchions, barrels, and other construction zone marking devices. OSHA requires that certain construction equipment must be painted safety orange. Two large trucking companies, Allied Van Lines and Schneider National, paint their trucks and trailers safety orange. In Europe, Dayglo orange (or "luminous orange"; RAL 2005) serves the same purpose.

Safety orange is the same color as blaze orange, the shade of orange (Color No. 12199) required by United States law (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade, Section 1150.3) to be on the tips of barrels of replica guns such as airsoft guns, and cap or toy guns. Hunter orange is also the color of hats, caps, and other safety wear required to be worn while hunting in most US states.

Shades of azure

Azure ( AZH-ər, AZ-yoor) is a variation of blue that is often described as the color of the sky on a clear day.

On the RGB color wheel, "azure" (hexadecimal #007FFF) is defined as the color at 210 degrees, i.e., the hue halfway between blue and cyan. In the RGB color model, used to create all the colors on a television or computer screen, azure is created by adding a little green light to blue light. The complementary color of azure is orange.

In the X11 color system which became a standard for early web colors, azure is depicted as a pale cyan or white cyan.

Shades of blue

Varieties of the color blue may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness), or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a blue or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Tufts Blue

Tufts Blue is the tone of azure blue used in association with Tufts University.

Tufts University Relations defines "Tufts Blue" as corresponding to the Pantone color of 279 or the process color of 70c 30m 0y 0k.

UCLA Blue

UCLA Blue is the dark azure color used in association with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). It is described as a deep sky blue and is accompanied by a sun gold, UCLA Gold. Both are colloquially referred to as 'blue and gold'.

UCLA Blue was approved by the Chancellor of UCLA in March 2004.The hexadecimal value of the color is 3284BF. UCLA Blue is a Pantone color.

UCLA Blue is used by the school's academic and administrative units, which is different from True Blue adopted by UCLA Athletics. Still, journalists often refer to the UCLA sports teams' color as "UCLA Blue".

Yale Blue

Yale Blue is the dark azure color used in association with Yale University.

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