Azuero Peninsula

Azuero Peninsula (Spanish: Península de Azuero) is a large peninsula in southern Panama. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean in the south; the Pacific and Gulf of Montijo to the west, and by the Gulf of Panama in the east. The peninsula is effectively divided into two regions; the Western Azuero and the Eastern Azuero, as no serviceable roads join the two peninsula regions past the Pan-American Highway.

The Eastern Azuero Peninsula is known for baseball and is also a center of activity during the annual carnaval (carnival), with Las Tablas being the hub. Pedasi is a small fishing town with sport fishing.

The Western Azuero Peninsula is known for its cattle ranching, farming, fishing, sunsets and beaches.

Tourism has begun to increase in the area both for the aforementioned sport fishing, surfing and for the local charm of cities like Chitré, Las Tablas and Pedasi. Due to a rise in tourism, real estate development has begun. The area enjoys some of the best weather in Panama being in a region known as the "Arco Seco" (dry arc).

Azuero Peninsula NASA
Azuero Peninsula seen from space (false color)


Azuero is divided into three provinces, Herrera, Los Santos (which are entirely on the peninsula), and Veraguas which extends into it on the west side of the peninsula. Most of the people live on the east coastal region. The southern tip is sparsely populated, and western area (the Veraguas area) is just now opening up to development. The largest towns are Chitré, the capital of Herrera, and Las Tablas. The main road to the eastern Azuero peninsula connects to the Pan-American Highway in Divisa and runs south along the eastern side of the peninsula. The road to the western Azuero connects to the Pan-American just east of Santiago.

Punta Mariato on the western tip of the peninsula is the southernmost point on the mainland of Central America.


The Azuero region was one of the first parts of Panama to be settled more than 10,000 years ago, and the area in the north of the peninsula was cultivated thousands of years before the arrival of the Spaniards.


Its long history of cultivation and grazing has had a negative impact on the environment, resulting in what is sometimes called the Sarigua desert in the northeastern area of the peninsula, even though it is not technically a desert. Along the coast there are areas of mangroves and just inland is a dry coastal forest called Albina. The Azuero is one of the most heavily deforested parts of Panamá, although sustainable land management systems such as SilvoPastoral grazing systems are emerging.[1]

In the extreme south, Cerro Hoya is a national park and home of most of the remaining jungle habitat in the Azuero region. Isla Canas, a coastal island connected via a sandbar to the peninsula, is used by a large number of sea turtles to lay their eggs each year.


  1. ^ "Trees and Cattle: They can live together! - Azuero Earth Project". 23 December 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2018.

External links

Coordinates: 7°40′N 80°35′W / 7.667°N 80.583°W

Alejandro M. Castillero Pinilla

Alejandro M. Castillero Pinilla (born 1972 in Chitré, Panama) is an attorney, real estate investor, shareholder of Nazareno Livestock Cattle Ranch, and founding partner of Castillero & Castillero law firm in Chitré, the capital of the province of Herrera, on the Azuero Peninsula of Panama.In August 2009, Castillero was named Technical Coordinator of PRONAT — the National Land Administration Program, the sole government entity responsible for facilitating the titling process in Panama — by Panama President Ricardo Martinelli. Since that time, under the Martinelli administration, he and his PRONAT team have, on average, titled more than 2,500 properties per month.Financed by Inter-American Development Bank), the extent of this land titling initiative is unprecedented for the Central American country, and is critical to achieving the Panama federal government’s goal of titling the entire country within five years to accelerate investment opportunities nationwide.

The impact of Castillero’s and his team’s early work at PRONAT came to fruition on December 31, 2009 when Law 80 was passed, facilitating possessory rights and free land titles across the Panamanian coastal zones and islands. These regions, incidentally, are home to many indigenous peoples, whose agrarian livelihoods render most unable to pay even modest amounts for the titles that stand to name them rightful owners of land which, in most cases, has sustained their families for generations.

With this in mind, PRONAT made titles for properties of five hectares or less available free-of-charge to the possessor. For those who wish to title more than five hectares — or buy currently unoccupied untitled land from the government — a price table, based on property location and size, is included in the law, alleviating discrepancies and legal confusion.

Castillero earned his Law and Political Science degree from Santa Maria La Antigua University in Panama City, Panama, and later, a master's degree in international banking and financial law from Boston University, USA.

Castillero has held many important posts throughout his career, namely, National Director of Copyrights at the Ministry of Education, Legal Advisor to the Agriculture Affairs Committee] of the National Legislative Assembly, and Legal Advisor to the Superintendency of Banks.

Castillero stepped down in 2009 as CEO of Cascor Realty to accept his public position as Director of PRONAT, but remains active in various philanthropic initiatives and charitable organizations. Alejandro is a founding member of the Rotary Club of Chitré, Treasurer of the Herrera sub-Program of The Special Olympics, and President of the Eneida Moreno de Castillero Foundation, a local organization dedicated to advancing the public welfare of the province of Herrera and the entire Azuero region.

Azuero howler

The Azuero howler (Alouatta coibensis trabeata) a type of monkey that is a subspecies of the Coiba Island howler A. coibensis. This subspecies is endemic to the Azuero Peninsula in Panama. The Azuero howler is distinguished primarily by its golden flanks and loins, and browner appearance on the rest of its body.Although generally considered a subspecies of A. coibensis, there is some debate within the scientific community as to whether A. coibensis itself is a valid species. If not, A. c. trabeata would be considered subspecies of the mantled howler, A. palliata. In that case its trinomial name would be A. p. trabeata.

Azuero spider monkey

The Azuero spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis) is a possible subspecies of spider monkey that is in critical danger of extinction according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Common names of this subspecies include mono charro, mono charao and mono araña. The Azuero subspecies is one of three types of spider monkeys in Panama; Ateles geoffroyi panamensis with a range spanning from Costa Rica to Darién excluding the Azuero, Ateles geoffroyi fusciceps, with a range spanning Panamá and Colón provinces, and Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis, the Azuero spider monkey, whose range encompasses only the Azuero Peninsula.

Calabazo virus

Calabazo virus is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA hantavirus species of the Bunyavirales order. It is a novel New World microtine rodent-borne hantavirus discovered in Central America on the Azuero Peninsula of Panama in early 2000. Human infection with Calabazo virus results in respiratory illness similar to Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome but it is not severe or fatal and rarely requires hospitalization.


Chitré (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃiˈtɾe]) is a city and corregimiento, the capital of the Panamanian province of Herrera.

with a population of 9,092 as of 2010 but in its metropolitan area it has a population of 80,000 inhabitants. It is also the seat of Chitré District.

Chitré is located about 7 km inland from the Gulf of Panama on the Azuero Peninsula. The name Chitré comes from the native tribe Chitra. In the city, there is a district, also called Chitré, which is subdivided into five corregimientos. The corregimientos are San Juan Bautista, Llano Bonito, Monagrillo, La Arena and Chitré.


Divisa may refer to:

Divisa, Panama, a town in Azuero Peninsula

Divisa Alegre, a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais

Divisa Nova, a Brazilian municipality in the state of Minas Gerais

Da Divisa River, a river of Santa Catarina state in southeastern Brazil

Salto da Divisa, a Brazilian municipality in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais

Edwina von Gal


Edwina von Gal is an American landscape designer based in East Hampton, New York. Her firm, Edwina von Gal + Co founded in 1984, is based in East Hampton, NY and focuses on natural, sustainable designs. She has worked with numerous architects, designers and art world luminaries, among them Maya Lin, Annabelle Selldorf, Richard Gluckman, Richard Meier, Larry Gagosian, Cindy Sherman, David Maupin, Stefano Tonchi, Calvin Klein, and Richard Serra. She designed the park for Panama’s Biomuseo, with Frank Gehry. Her approach emphasizes sustainability, natural landscapes, and the use of native species.In 2008 she founded the Azuero Earth Project in Panama to promote chemical free reforestation with native trees on the Azuero Peninsula.

In 2013 she founded the Perfect Earth Project to promote chemical-free, non-agricultural land management in the US, and is its current president.

Her husband Jay Chiat, died in 2002. She has a daughter, Ariel Sheldon, and a grandson, Dylan.


Founding member and past president of Metro Hort Group

Member of the Board “What is Missing?” Maya Lin’s environmental media artwork

Member, Advisory Council, Philip Johnson Glass HouseAwards:

Quill and Trowel Award for Garden Writing, 1998

Institute of Classical Architecture and Art’s Arthur Ross Award, 2012

Decoration and Design Building Stars of Design Award, Landscape Design, 2013

Guild Hall Lifetime Achievement In the Visual Arts, 2017

NY School of Interior Design Green Design Award, 2018

Isamu Noguchi Award, 2018.Publications:

Fresh Cuts Workman Publishing, 1997

The Perfect Yard Handbook, 2016Articles:

Vogue "A Glorious Riot" Dec 2014

Architectural Digest"Going Greener" May 2016

The New York Times Magazine "Zen Rock Garden" Sept 4, 2005 in Design

Cultured "A Landscape Designer Paints Minimalist Pictures in Plants" Fall, 2015

Emerald-eyed tree frog

The emerald-eyed tree frog, Hypsiboas crepitans, is a species of frog in the family Hylidae found in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, dry savanna, moist savanna, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, freshwater springs, inland deltas, arable land, pastureland, plantations, rural gardens, urban areas, heavily degraded former forests, water storage areas, ponds, aquaculture ponds, irrigated land, and seasonally flooded agricultural land.

This species has two disjunctive populations. The first population ranges through Panama (Azuero Peninsula, central Panama and eastern lowlands), northern Colombia (Orinoco and Caribbean regions only), most of Venezuela and partially into northern Brazil, the islands of Trinidad and Tobago and throughout much of the Guianas. The second population is largely restricted to the Atlantic Forest region of Brazil. It is present at elevations of between 0-2,300m asl.

Isla Iguana Wildlife Refuge

The Isla Iguana Wildlife Refuge is a 58-hectare wildlife reserve located 5 kilometers off the Los Santos Province on the Azuero Peninsula in Panama.

La Yeguada

La Yeguada (also known as Chitra-Calobre) is a massive stratovolcano located in Veraguas Province, Panama, north of the Azuero Peninsula.

Las Tablas, Los Santos

Las Tablas (Spanish pronunciation: [las ˈta.βlas]) is the capital of the Panamanian province of Los Santos, with a population of 8,945 as of 2010. It is located a few kilometres inland from the Gulf of Panama on the Azuero Peninsula. Las Tablas is a recognised national centre of Panamanian folk: Art, music, gastronomy, architecture, culture and literature. The only Panamanian president to serve three terms, Belisario Porras, was from Las Tablas.

It is known for a lively yearly Carnival, in which the city splits into two competing factions, "Calle Arriba" (Uptown, literally "Street Above") and "Calle Abajo" (Downtown / Street Below), both centred on two streets of the same name. Each faction will have a carnival queen, a parade, fireworks, music, a decorated plaza, food stands, presentations, concerts, surveys, games, contests, etc., all attempting to overpower the other faction's efforts.

List of Panamanian monkey species

At least six monkey species are native to Panama. A seventh species, the Coiba Island howler (Alouatta coibensis) is often recognized, but some authors treat it as a subspecies of the mantled howler, (A. palliata). An eighth species, the black-headed spider monkey is also often recognized, but some authorities regard it as a subspecies of Geoffroy's spider monkey. All Panamanian monkey species are classified taxonomically as New World monkeys, and they belong to four families. The Coiba Island howler, mantled howler, black-headed spider monkey and Geoffroy's spider monkey all belong to the family Atelidae. The white-faced capuchins and Central American squirrel monkey belong to the family Cebidae. the family that includes the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. The Panamanian night monkey belongs to the family Aotidae, and Geoffroy's tamarin belongs to the family Callitrichidae.

The mantled howler, the Panamanian night monkey, Geoffroy's spider monkey and the Panamanian white-faced capuchin all have extensive ranges within Panama. Geoffroy's tamarin also has a fairly wide range within Panama, from west of the Panama Canal to the Colombian border. The range of the black-headed spider monkey and Colombian white-faced capuchin within Panama are limited to the eastern portion of the country near the Colombian border. The Central American squirrel monkey only occurs within Panama in the extreme western portion of the country, near Costa Rica. It now has a smaller range within Panama than in the past, and is no longer found in its type locality, the city of David. As its name suggests, the Coiba Island howler is restricted to Coiba Island. The Azuero howler monkey (Alouatta coibensis trabeata or Alouatta palliata trabeata), which is considered a subspecies of either the Coiba Island howler or the mantled howler, is restricted to the Azuero Peninsula.The black-headed spider monkey is the largest Panamanian monkey with an average size of 8.89 kilograms (19.6 lb) for males and 8.8 kilograms (19 lb) for males. Geoffroy's spider monkey is the next largest, followed by the howler monkey species. Geoffroy's tamarin is the smallest Panamanian monkey, with an average size of about 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb).One Panamanian monkey, the black-headed spider monkey, is considered to be critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and Geoffroy's spider monkey is considered to be endangered. The Central American squirrel monkey was once considered endangered, but its conservation status was upgraded to vulnerable in 2008. The Coiba Island howler is also considered to be vulnerable. Three species, the mantled howler, the white-faeced capuchin and Geoffroy's tamarin are rated as "least concern" from a conservation standpoint.

List of rivers of Panama

This is a list of rivers in Panama.

Los Santos Province

Los Santos (Spanish pronunciation: [los ˈsantos]) is a province of Panama, reaching from the La Villa river in the North to the Pacific Ocean in the south and east. It is part of the Azuero Peninsula, bounded by the province of Herrera to the north and northeast, and by Mariato District of Veraguas Province to the West. The City of Las Tablas is the capital and most populous city. There are seven administrative districts under the jurisdiction of Los Santos Province. Los Santos's area is 3,809.4 km ², and its population is 95,540 inhabitants in 2019.In this region are the oldest human settlements in the Isthmus of Panama. It was part of the cultural region of Gran Cocle where one of the first ceramic styles of the Americas developed. The first Europeans to explore Los Santos were the Spanish in 1515 under the command of Gonzalo de Badajoz. Upon the arrival of Europeans the area was ruled by the cacique Antataura or Cutara, and was known as the Land of Mr. Paris or Parita from Ngäbere Bari-ta meaning Confederation of Peoples, having under his control six other Indian chiefdoms: Guararí, Quemá, Chiracoitia, Huere, Guanata and Usagaña. The only province that was not under his dominion was Escoria. Gaspar de Espinosa succeeded in conquering and annexing Pariba to the Spanish Empire in 1516, decimating nearly all of the native population.

Geographically, Los Santos is located in the 'Arco Seco', name given to the strip of land between the Gulf of Panama and the Central Mountain range which includes areas of the provinces of Coclé, Herrera and Veraguas in the south of the Isthmus of Panama. Its climate is mainly a tropical savanna climate with moderate temperatures, strongly influenced by the winds of the Pacific Ocean crashing against the mountains, and the Humboldt Current. The average annual rainfall is 1,200 mm, allowing the growth of either dry or humid rainforest. Its highest point is located at the peak of Cerro Hoya with 1559 metres. Other major peaks are Cambutal hill (1400 metres) and Mount The Ñopos (1068 metres).

The modern province of Los Santos, was created in January 1945 replacing the defunct province of Azuero according to Cabinet Decree No. 13, leaving its territorial regime regulated by the second chapter of the Law 58 of July 29, 1998, losing the Territory of Quebro in this process.

Although Los Santos closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Panama, and the vast majority of the population speaks Spanish, the province has retained a distinct cultural identity. Los Santos' culture is the result of the passage of different peoples and civilizations that, over time, have shaped a particular cultural identity. These people, some very different from each other, have been slowly leaving an imprint seated among the inhabitants. It is one of the last regions in Panama where Spanish voseo is the standard form for use.

Mariato District

Created in 2001, Mariato District is a district (distrito) in the southeastern corner of Veraguas Province in Panama. The district seat is the town of Llano del Catival, also known simply as Mariato.

Geographically, the district totaling 1,381 km² comprises the west-facing coast of the Azuero peninsula fronting the Gulf of Montijo. It shares the peninsula with Los Santos and Herrera Province, separated by a crest of low mountains, the Macizo de Azuero. The highest peak is Cerro Hoya (1,559 m) in the far south.Punta Mariato at the southern tip of the district also holds the title as the southernmost point of North America.Mariato is thinly populated with only 5,564 residents (2019 official estimate), dispersed over 149 settlements. The district seat, Llano del Catival, is the largest population center with 2,490 people (2010), accounting for 43% of the entire district.

Panama Bight

The Panama Bight is a marine ecoregion on the Pacific coast of the Americas.

The Panama Bight extends eastwards from the Azuero Peninsula in Panama along the coast of the Gulf of Panama and Archipelago de las Perlas. It continues south along the entire Pacific coast of Colombia to the coast of northern Ecuador. The Nicoya marine ecoregion bounds it on the north, and the Guayaquil marine ecoregion bounds it on the south.

The Panama Bight ecoregion is home to rich coral beds in the near shore waters. While coral diversity is lower here than in the Caribbean Sea on the other side of Panama, the coral cover tends to be higher. In fact, the density of coral coverage here-90 percent coverage is common-is rarely seen in the Caribbean. In addition to the coral beds, enclaves of Panama Bight mangroves can be found in the tidal zone.

Pedasí, Los Santos

Pedasí (Spanish pronunciation: [peðaˈsi]) is a town and corregimiento situated on the south-eastern tip of the Azuero Peninsula on Panama’s Pacific coast. It is the capital of Pedasí District in Los Santos Province. It had a population of 2,410 as of 2010. Its population as of 1990 was 1,494; its population as of 2000 was 1,830.It is principally a fishing village.Pedasí's town boasts a public health clinic, two banks, a library, and a handful of restaurants, mini - supermarkets and small shops. The town is equipped with telephone and Internet service. Pedasí is known for lively annual carnivals, pristine beaches, and activities such as sport fishing, diving and surfing, as well as its proximity to several of Panama's national parks and preserves.

Pedasí town consists mainly of a central road (Avenida Central), a plaza (city center). About two blocks away are several nicely maintained civic buildings, surrounded by quiet, residential blocks.With its quaint architecture and neatly laid-out streets, Pedasí is one of the main attractions of the Los Santos region.


In Spanish grammar, voseo (Spanish pronunciation: [boˈse.o]) is the use of vos as a second-person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects. In dialects that have it, it is used either instead of tú, or alongside it. Voseo is seldom taught to students of Spanish as a second language, and its precise usage varies across different regions. Nevertheless, in recent years it has become more accepted across the Spanish-speaking world as a valid part of regional dialects. Use of tú for the second-person singular (the form that is considered standard) is known as tuteo.

Vos is used extensively as the second-person singular in Rioplatense Spanish (Argentina and Uruguay), Eastern Bolivia, Paraguayan Spanish, and Central American Spanish (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, southern parts of Chiapas and some parts of Oaxaca in Mexico).

Vos had been traditionally used even in formal writing in Argentina, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Uruguay. Nowadays it is very common to see billboards and other advertising media using voseo. In the dialect of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (known as 'Rioplatense Spanish'), vos is also the standard form of use, even in mainstream media.

Vos is present in other countries as a regionalism, for instance in the Maracucho Spanish of Zulia State, Venezuela (see Venezuelan Spanish), in the Azuero peninsula of Panama, in various departments in Colombia, and in parts of Ecuador (Sierra down to Esmeraldas). In Peru, voseo is present in some Andean regions and Cajamarca, but the younger generations have ceased to use it. It is also present in Ladino (spoken by Sephardic Jews throughout Israel, Turkey, the Balkans, Morocco, Latin America and the United States), where it replaces usted. In the United States, Salvadoran Americans are by far the largest voseo users followed by other Central Americans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, and Costa Ricans.Voseo can also be found in the context of using verb conjugations for vos with tú as the subject pronoun (verbal voseo), as in the case of Chilean Spanish, where this form coexists with the ordinary form of voseo.

It has been claimed that the countries that use voseo today have in common that they were geographically isolated during colonial times; regions with good communications with Spain at that time—today's Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Peru—do not use voseo, or its use is confined to remote areas—this is the case in Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador. In colonial times, there was, by law, no regular boat communication between today's Argentina and Spain.

Yellow isthmus rat

The yellow isthmus rat (Isthmomys flavidus) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found only in Panama. It was discovered by W. W. Brown, Jr. on the southern slope of Volcan de Chiriqui (8° 49' N, 82° 32' W). He found it common in the upland forest from 1000 to 1500m, but no specimens were taken above or below these elevations (Bangs 1902; Goldman 1920; Goodwin 1946). Museum records specify two isolated populations in western Panama, one at Cerro Colorado where R. Pine et al. collected in 1980 (8° 31' 60N, 81° 49' 0W) and at Cerro Hoya on the Azuero Peninsula by C. Handley in 1962 (7° 23' N, 80° 38' W). The presence of I. flavidus or a closely allied form in Costa Rica is probable (Goodwin 1946), however, no specimens have been reported. There are no currently known fossil records of Isthmomys (McKenna and Bell 1997).

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