Azerbaijani (/ˌæzəbaɪˈdʒɑːni, ˌɑː-, -ˈʒɑːni/) or Azeri (/æˈzɛəri, ɑː-, ə-/), sometimes also Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a term referring to two Turkic lects (Caucasian Azerbaijani and Iranian Azerbaijani) that are spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who live mainly in Transcaucasia and Iran. Caucasian Azerbaijani and Iranian Azerbaijani have significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. ISO 639-3 groups the two lects as a "macrolanguage".
Azerbaijani has official status in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (a federal subject of Russia) but Azerbaijani does not have official status in Iran, where the majority of Azerbaijanis live. It is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia and Turkey and by diaspora communities, primarily in Europe and North America.
Both Azerbaijani lects are members of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. The standardized form of Caucasian Azerbaijani (spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) is based on the Shirvani dialect, while Iranian Azerbaijani uses the Tabrizi dialect as its prestige variety. Azerbaijani is closely related to Turkish, Qashqai, Gagauz, Turkmen and Crimean Tatar, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages.
|Azərbaycan dili, آذربایجان دیلی, Азәрбајҹан дили[note 1]|
|Region||Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan), Caucasus|
|23 million (2018)|
Official language in
Historically the language was referred to locally as Türki meaning "Turkic" or Azərbaycan Türkcəsi meaning "Azerbaijani Turkish" and scholars such as Vladimir Minorsky used this definition in their works, distinguishing it from İstanbul Türkçesi ("Istanbul Turkish"), the official language of Turkey. Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan region (historic Azerbaijan) it is based on the Tabrizi one.
Prior to the establishment of the Pan-Turkist Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, who adopted the name of "Azerbaijan" for political reasons in 1918, the name of "Azerbaijan" was exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. After the establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR, on the order of Soviet leader Stalin, the "name of the formal language" of the Azerbaijan SSR was "changed from Turkish to Azeri".
Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic") which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe, and northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations. Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian. Azerbaijani is, perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian languages have exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.
Turkic language of Azerbaijan gradually supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northern Iran, and a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus, particularly Udi and Old Azeri. By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region, and was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids and Afsharids.
The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (c. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian, and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.
Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in what is now the Azerbaijan Republic, popularized by the scholars such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski. Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.
The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes – from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script – while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956. After independence, the Azerbaijan Republic decided to switch back to the Latin script.
The first examples of Azerbaijani literature date to the late 1200s following the Mongol conquest and were written in Arabic script. In the 1300s, Kadi Burhan al-Din, Hesenoghlu, and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azerbaiijani as a language through poetry and other literary works. The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī (which means "sinner" in Persian) during the fifteenth century During the 16th century, the poet, writer and thinker Fuzûlî wrote mainly in Azerbaijani but also translated his poems into Arabic and Persian.
Starting in the 1830s, several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani. In 1875 Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی ) ("The Ploughman") became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire. It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi, a journalist and education advocate. Following the rule of the Qajar dynasty Iran was ruled by Reza Shah who banned the publication of texts in Azerbaijani. Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan it is based on the Tabrizi dialect.
Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry. His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world. It was translated into more than 30 languages.
In the mid-19th century, Azerbaijani literature was taught at schools in Baku, Ganja, Shaki, Tbilisi, and Yerevan. Since 1845, it has also been taught in the Saint Petersburg State University in Russia. In 2018, Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Indiana University, UCLA, and University of Texas at Austin. The vast majority, if not all Azerbaijani language courses teach Caucasian Azerbaijani written in the Latin script and not Iranian Azerbaijani written in the Arabic script.
Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan, the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian. From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Iranian Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. Per the 1829 Caucasus School Statute, Azerbaijani was to be taught in all district schools of Ganja, Shusha, Nukha (present-day Shaki), Shamakhi, Quba, Baku, Derbent, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Akhaltsikhe, and Lankaran. Beginning in 1834, it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.
Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani is classified by Ethnologue as a "macrolanguage and Caucasian Azerbaijani (spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) and Iranian Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran, Iraq and Syria) are each classified as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords." The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encodes Caucasian Azerbaijani and Iranian Azerbaijani as distinct languages. Both languages also have dialects, with 21 Caucasian Azerbaijani dialects and 11 Iranian Azerbaijani dialects.
Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are also morphological and phonological differences. Four varieties have been accorded ISO 639-3 codes: Caucasian Azerbaijani, Iranian Azerbaijani, Salchuq, and Qashqai. Glottolog, based on Johanson (2006) and Pakendorf (2007), classifies Caucasian Azerbaijani with Salchuq in one branch of the Oghuz languages and Iranian Azerbaijani with Qashqai in another.
According to the Linguasphere Observatory, all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which Caucasian and Iranian Azerbaijani are "inner languages".
Caucasian Azerbaijani, or Caucasian Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey. It is also spoken in southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia. As of 2011 there are some 9.23 million speakers of Caucasian Azerbaijani including 4 million monolingual speakers (many Caucasian Azerbaijani speakers also speak Russian, as is common throughout former USSR countries).
The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since 1992, it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late 1990s.
Ethnologue lists 21 Caucasian Azerbaijani dialects: Quba, Derbend, Baku, Shamakhi, Salyan, Lenkaran, Qazakh, Airym, Borcala, Terekeme, Qyzylbash, Nukha, Zaqatala (Mugaly), Qabala, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Ganja, Shusha (Karabakh), Karapapak.
Iranian Azerbaijani is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan) and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Iraq and Turkey, with smaller communities in Syria. In Iran, the Persian word for Azerbaijani Turkic is borrowed as Torki "Turkic". In Iran, it is spoken in East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and parts of Kurdistan, Hamadan, Markazi, Qazvin and Gilan. It is also widely spoken in Tehran and across Tehran Province, as Turks form by far the largest minority in the city and the wider province, comprising about 25% to 1/3, of its total population. The CIA World Factbook reports in 2010 the percentage of Iranian Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide, and ethnic Turks form by far the second largest ethnic group in Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation. Ethnologue reports 10.9 million Iranian Azerbaijani in Iran in 2016 and 13,823,350 worldwide. The ethnic population of Azeris in Iran is higher than the total number of Iranian Azerbaijani speakers because Iranian Azerbaijani is not an official language.
Dialects of Iranian Azerbaijani include: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Qarapapaq, Tabrizi, Qashqai, Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Muqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragözlü, Pishaqchi, Bayatlu, Qajar.
Historically, Azerbaijani and Turkish speakers have been able to communicate with relative ease. One example of this is when Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (who spoke Azerbaijani) met with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey (who spoke Turkish) in 1934.
Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can communicate with each other but both languages have substantial variation and mutual intelligibility is enhanced when Azerbaijani speakers have been exposed to Turkish television (e.g. Turkish soap operas) or when Turkish speakers have been exposed to Azerbaijani pop music. Most Azerbaijanis, however, are exposed to Turkish television, and, therefore, they tend to be better able to understand Turkish than vice versa. There are also numerous Turkish schools in the Republic of Azerbaijan that give students more exposure to Turkish than the average Turkish-speaker has to Azerbaijani.
Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed.
Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azeri and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:
The vowels of the Azerbaijani are, in alphabetical order, a /ɑ/, e /e/, ə /æ/, ı /ɯ/, i /i/, o /o/, ö /œ/, u /u/, ü /y/. There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.V boundary or fixing the pair as VC/CV pair, depending on the word.
The typical phonetic quality of Iranian Azeri vowels is as follows:
Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet. In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for Caucasian Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow. For instance, until an Aliyev decree on the matter in 2001, newspapers would routinely write headlines in the Latin script, leaving the stories in Cyrillic; the transition also resulted in some misrendering of İ as Ì.
In Iran, Azerbaijani is still written in the Persian alphabet, and in Dagestan, in Cyrillic script.
The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter. The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility. The letters Әə, Xx, and Qq are available only in Azerbaijani for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish.
no longer in use;
replaced by 1991 version)
(Azerbaijan since 1991)
still official in Dagestan)
Azerbaijan until 1929)
|Aa||Аа||Аа||آ / ـا||/ɑ/|
|Əə||Əə||Әә||ا / َ / ە||/æ/|
|Hh||Hh||Һһ||ﺡ / ﻩ||/h/|
|Ꞑꞑ||ݣ / نگ||/ŋ/|
|Ss||Ss||Сс||ﺙ / ﺱ / ﺹ||/s/|
|Tt||Tt||Тт||ﺕ / ﻁ||/t/|
|Zz||Zz||Зз||ﺫ / ﺯ / ﺽ / ﻅ||/z/|
Azerbaijani Turkic also uses a, e, i, o and u with the macron:
In the case of length distinction, these letters are used for Arabic and Persian borrowings from the Islamic period, most of which have been eliminated from the language. Native Turkic words have no vowel length distinction, and for them the macron is used solely to indicate palatalization.
Azerbaijani Turkish, when written in the Latin or Cyrillic script, transcribes any foreign names into Azerbaijani spelling, e.g. Bush becomes Buş and Schröder becomes Şröder. No epenthetic vowels are written for syllabic forms nonconforming to Azerbaijani in this process. Hyphenation across lines directly corresponds to spoken syllables as in other Turkic languages. Punctuation and capitalisation is based on Russian orthography.
Some samples include:
Azerbaijani has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is a strong tu-vos distinction in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish (as well as in many other languages). The informal "you" is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal "you" is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example).
As in many Romance languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Azerbaijani has a phonetic writing system, so pronunciation is easy: most words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled in the modern Azerbaijani alphabet.
|Category||English||Azerbaijani (in Latin script)|
|Basic expressions||yes||hə /hæ/|
|goodbye||sağ ol /ˈsɑɣ ol/|
|sağ olun /ˈsɑɣ olun/ (formal)|
|good morning||sabahınız xeyır /sɑbɑhɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/|
|good afternoon||günortanız xeyır /ɟynoɾt(ɯn)ɯz xejiɾ/|
|good evening||axşamın xeyır /ɑxʃɑmɯn xejiɾ/|
|axşamınız xeyır /ɑxʃɑmɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/|
|brown||qəhvəyi / qonur|
For numbers 11–19, the numbers literally mean "10 one, 10 two" and so on.
Greater numbers are constructed by combining in tens and thousands larger to smaller in the same way, without using a conjunction in between.
Significant differences from South Azerbaijani [azb] in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. A member of macrolanguage Azerbaijani
Until 1918, when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.
The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to 1918, unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.
Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Cyrillic script was still in use for newspapers, shops, and restaurants. Only in 2001 did then president Heydar Aliyev declare “a mandatory shift from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet” ... The transition has progressed slowly.
Agdam (Azerbaijani: Ağdam) is a rayon in southwestern Azerbaijan. Its capital is the city of Alibeili. It is a disputed region, with the western half controlled by the unrecognized Republic of Artsakh.Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan
The Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan (AFFA; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Futbol Federasiyaları Assosiasiyası, AFFA) is the governing body of football in Azerbaijan. Formed in 1992, it is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.
AFFA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the AFFA Amateur League. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the Azerbaijan Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's and youth national football teams and leagues.
AFFA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA.Azerbaijan First Division
The Azerbaijan First Division (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Birinci Divizionu) is the second highest professional division in Azerbaijani professional football. The division is run by AFFA.Azerbaijan Premier League
The Azerbaijani Premier League (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Premyer Liqası), currently named Topaz Premyer Liqası after its main sponsor, is the top tier in Azerbaijani club football. The league is contested by 8 teams, in which the season runs from August to May. The winner enters the UEFA Champions League from the first qualifying round.The Azerbaijani Premier League was first organized in 2007 and succeeded the Top Division (Azerbaijani: Yüksək Liqa), which existed from 1992 to 2007.
Since 1992, a total of 8 clubs have been crowned champions of the Azerbaijani football system. The current champions are Qarabağ, who won the title in the 2017–18 season for the sixth time.Azerbaijan Regional League
The Azerbaijan Regional League (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Region Liqası) is the third tier of football in the Azerbaijani football league system. Regional League is run by the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan (AFFA).Azerbaijani Wikipedia
The Azerbaijani Wikipedia (North Azerbaijani: Azərbaycanca Vikipediya, South Azerbaijani: تورکجه ویکیپدیا) is a Wikipedia in Azerbaijani language (the editing interface and the main page have been temporarily accessible via South Azerbaijani subtitles), launched in January 2002. As of 30 November 2010 it had 42,518 articles (size 4, including 20 featured articles) and 14,523 uploaded files in its content, as well as 23,766 registered users (including seven administrators and two bureaucrats). The editorial process is being supported by forty bots.
Within the first two years of its existence the article number in Azerbaijani Wikipedia reached 3,000. As of November 2010 the local list of requested articles contains ten entries (seven biographical, two scientific and one unspecified). Pending November 2010 translation requests comprise three English and three Turkish entries.
The categorization is maintained through nine topic categories: culture, geography, history, life, mathematics, nature, science, society and technology. Hidden categories embrace 111 entries. The backlog category contains 14 subcategories.There are also fourteen portals about architecture, biology, chemistry, history, Islam, geography, literature, medicine, philosophy, Azerbaijani cinema, Azerbaijani military, as well as country-specific ones about Georgia, Turkey and Azerbaijan itself.Azerbaijani Wikipedia is constantly increasing its number of articles, but at some point in 2015 this number somewhat decreased returning to values smaller than 100,000.Azerbaijani hip hop
Azerbaijani hip hop (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan hip-hopu) is the musical genre which became popular in Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan in mid-1990s. It's a mix of native meykhana genre of Azerbaijani music with Western hip hop.Kalbajar District
Kalbajar District (Azerbaijani: Kəlbəcər), is a district of Azerbaijan. Kalbajar is a Turkic word meaning Castle on the mouth of the river. The entire region is now under the control of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh, making up part of the province of Shahumyan Region. Azeri population of Kalbajar were displaced by the fighting and currently live as internally displaced persons in other regions of Azerbaijan.Khazar Lankaran FK
Khazar Lankaran FK (Azerbaijani: Xəzər Lənkəran Futbol Klubu) is an Azerbaijani football club based in Lankaran, who last played in the Azerbaijan Premier League during the 2015–16 season. Since the summer of 2016 the club has concentrated on youth football. Since foundation in 2004, they played in the Azerbaijan Premier League for twelve-seasons, winning the title once, and the Azerbaijan Cup three times. Khazar were also a member of the European Club Association, an organization that replaced the previous G-14 which consists of major football clubs in Europe.Lankaran
Lankaran (Azerbaijani: Lənkəran) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran. It has a population of 51,300 (2014). It is next to but independent of Lankaran rayon. The city forms a distinct first-order division of Azerbaijan.Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Azerbaijan)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Xarici İşlər Nazirliyi) is a Cabinet-level governmental agency in Azerbaijan Republic in charge of conducting and designing Azerbaijani Foreign policy.President of Azerbaijan
The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the head of state of Azerbaijan.
The Constitution states that the president will be the embodiment of executive power, commander-in-chief, "representative of Azerbaijan in home and foreign policies", and that he "shall have the right of immunity [from prosecution]." The president rules through his executive office, the Presidential Administration, consisting of a group of secretaries and departmental ministers. Additionally, there is a Cabinet of Ministers regarding economic and social policy and a Security Council regarding foreign, military, and judicial matters.
Chief military advisors to the President of Azerbaijan have included Turkish Air Force Brig. Gen. Yasar Demirbulak (1992–1994), Maj. Gen. Nuraddin Sadykhov (1993–1999), Col. Gen. Tofig Aghahuseynov (1997–2002) and National Security Lt. Gen. Vahid Aliyev (since April 2002).
Among the agencies directly subordinate to the President is the Special State Protection Service.Qabala
Gabala (Azerbaijani: Qəbələ, Гәбәлә; Lezgian: Кьвепеле, Q̇wepele, قوهپهله, also known as Qabala, is a city in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the capital of the Qabala Rayon. The municipality consists of the city of Gabala and the village of Küsnat. Before 1991 the city was known as Kutkashen, but after the Republic of Azerbaijan's independence the town was renamed in honour of the much older city of Gabala, the former capital of Caucasian Albania, the archaeological site of which is about 20 km southwest.Qubadli District
Qubadli (Azerbaijani: Qubadlı rayonu) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. However, it has been de facto controlled by the forces of the Republic of Artsakh as part of its Qashatagh Province since the Nagorno-Karabakh War. According to the last Soviet census of 1989, population was 28,110. According to undated Azerbaijani data, the population was 34,100. Qubadli was part of Ancient Armenia and the Kingdom of Artsakh but was deliberately excluded from the Karabakh Autonomous Region in 1923, but then reunited with the rest of Nagorno-Karabakh (today called Artsakh) during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.Sabail FK
Sabail FK (Azerbaijani: Səbail Futbol Klubu), pronounced [sæba:il] is an Azerbaijani football club based in Baku. The club participates in the Azerbaijan Premier League.Salyan, Azerbaijan
Salyan (Azerbaijani: Salyan), is a city in and the seat of the Salyan Rayon of Azerbaijan. The city of Salyan is industrialized and known for processing caviar.Simurq PIK
Simurq PIK (Azerbaijani: Simurq Peşəkar Idman Klubu) was an Azerbaijani football club based in Zaqatala.Ə
Ə ə, also called schwa or inverted e, is an additional letter of the Latin alphabet, used in the Azerbaijani language, in Gottscheerish, and in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ dialect of Halkomelem. Both the majuscule and minuscule forms of this letter are based on the form of an upside down e, while the Pan-Nigerian alphabet pairs the same lowercase letter with Ǝ.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), minuscule ə is used to represent the mid central vowel or a schwa. A superscript minuscule ᵊ is used to modify the preceding consonant to have a mid central vowel release.
The letter was used in the Uniform Turkic Alphabet, for example in Janalif for the Tatar language in the 1920s–1930s. In the Latin Azerbaijani and Chechen alphabets, Ə represents the near-open front unrounded vowel, /æ/. Also, in a romanization of Pashto, the letter Ə is used to represent [ə]. When some Roman orthographies in the Soviet Union were converted to use the Cyrillic script in the 1930s and 1940s, this letter has been adopted verbatim.
In the Latin transliteration of Avestan, the corresponding long vowel is written as schwa-macron, Ə̄/ə̄.
An r-colored vowel can be represented using ɚ.
A schwa with a retroflex hook (ᶕ) is used in phonetic transcription.