Azemmour

Azemmour or Azamor (Arabic: أزمّور Azemmour, Berber: ⴰⵣⵎⵎⵓⵔ Azemmour, meaning: olive; Portuguese: Azamor) is a Moroccan city, lying at the Atlantic ocean coast, on the left bank of the Oum Er-Rbia River, 75 km southwest of Casablanca.[1]

Azemmour

ⴰⵣⵎⵎⵓⵔ / أزمور

Azamor
Town
Azemmour from Oum Er-Rbia
Azzemour,wall
Azzemour,oldcityfromwall
Azzemour,oldmosque
Azemmour old city.
Azemmour is located in Morocco
Azemmour
Azemmour
Location of Azemmour in Morocco
Coordinates: 33°17′16″N 8°20′32″W / 33.28778°N 8.34222°WCoordinates: 33°17′16″N 8°20′32″W / 33.28778°N 8.34222°W
Country Morocco
RegionCasablanca-Settat
ProvinceEl Jadida

History

Azemmour is generally identified as the Punic Azama,[2] latinized as Asama.[3]

Before 1486, it was a dependency of the King of Fez. In 1486 its inhabitants became vassals and tributaries of João II of Portugal.[4]

In 1513 Azemmour's governor Moulay Zayam refused to pay the tribute and mustered a powerful, well-equipped army. Manuel responded to this challenge by sending a massive fleet of 500 ships and 15 thousand soldiers (Bergreen, 19). James, Duke of Braganza led this army and on September 1st he conquered the city with no resistance from its inhabitants. Ferdinand Magellan, the man famed for leading the first-ever circumnavigation of the earth, was among the Portuguese soldiers there; he lost his horse in skirmishes outside the city.[5] Portuguese control of the city lasted only for a short period; it was abandoned by João III of Portugal in 1541 due to his court's economic difficulties.[6]

Geography

Azemmour is located on the Oum Er-Rbia River 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of Casablanca.[1]

Azemmour's beach is a place for surfing and kitesurfing.[7] Also called Haouzia, the area's flora includes eucalyptus and pine.[8]

Culture

A spring festival used to be held annually in Azemmour in March. It was first held in 2007.[9] The patron saint of Azemmour is Abu Shuayb. His mausoleum was built on the order of Mohammed ben Abdallah. Each year, a moussem is celebrated to honour him. The Old City's walls are decorated by several local artists.[10] The city features a Portuguese medina, which has three parts, a Jewish mellah, a kasbah, and the old medina.[1] A historic lighthouse called Sidi Boubeker is located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) north of Azemmour.[8]

Notable natives or residents

  • Estevanico, also known as Esteban the Moor, was enslaved and traveled with a Spanish expedition to North America in 1527. He is the first African to travel with explorers in North America and was one of four men out of several hundred to survive shipwrecks on the Florida and Texas coasts, Native American slavery and attacks, and other setbacks over a six-year period before he and his party reached safety in a Spanish colonial town.[1][11]

See also

Images

20090807 Azemmour Morocco 2

Azemmour old city.

Azemmour from Oum Er-Rbia

Azemmour seen from Oum Er-Rbia River.

Azemmour synagogue

Synagogue.

Azemmour embroidery, Morocco, 18th century

Azemmour embroidery, 18th century

Braun Azemmour UBHD

Azemmour 16th century.

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Fodor's Travel Publications, Inc (2012). Fodor's Morocco. Fodors Travel Publications. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-307-92832-0.
  2. ^ Fodor (1967), p. 271.
  3. ^ Lacroix (1998), p. 170.
  4. ^ Lhoussain Simour (19 November 2014). Recollecting History beyond Borders: Captives, Acrobats, Dancers and the Moroccan-American Narrative of Encounters. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4438-7142-6.
  5. ^ EPUB 2-3 (23 October 2013). Ferdinand Magellan. Infobase Learning. ISBN 978-1-4381-4851-9.
  6. ^ Leonor Freire Costa; Pedro Lains; Susana Münch Miranda (3 May 2016). An Economic History of Portugal, 1143–2010. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-107-03554-6.
  7. ^ "Azemmour Travel Guide - VirtualTourist". www.virtualtourist.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  8. ^ a b DK (2 February 2015). DK Eyewitness Travel Guide Morocco. DK Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-4654-3832-4.
  9. ^ Marcello Balbo (15 May 2012). The Medina: Restoration and Conservation of Historic Islamic Cities. I.B.Tauris. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-84885-713-1.
  10. ^ Travel guide of Lonely Planet: Morocco, 9th Edition Feb 2009, ISBN 978-1-74104-971-8 p. 149.
  11. ^ Edward E. Curtis (2010). Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-4381-3040-8.

Bibliography

  • Fodor, Eugene (1967), Morocco 1967, Fodor's Modern Guides, Philadelphia: David McKay Co.
  • Lacroix, W.F.G. (1998), Africa in Antiquity: A Linguistic and Toponymic Analysis of Ptolemy's Map of Africa, Together with a Discussion of Ophir, Punt, and Hanno's Voyage, Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change, No. 28, Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik Saarbrücken GmbH.
Abdallah Laroui

Abdallah Laroui (Arabic: عبدالله العروي‎; born 7 November 1933) is a Moroccan historian and novelist writing in Arabic and French. He is considered one of Morocco's leading intellectuals.Born in Azemmour, Laroui taught at the University Mohammed V in Rabat until 2000. He has written five novels (o.a. L'Exil (Sindbad-Actes Sud, 1998)).

Abderrahman El Majdoub

Sidi Abderrahman el Majdoub (Arabic: عبد الرحمان المجذوب‎, 1506-1568), also transcribed as Mejdub, full name al-Shaykh Abu Zayd Abderrahman al-Majdoub Ibn Ayyad Ibn Yaacub Ibn Salama Ibn Khashan al-Sanhaji al-Dukkali, was a North African poet, Sufi and mystic. He was born into a Berber family. Many lines of his poems are known throughout the Maghreb, and his work is the source of many proverbs (e.g. "doubt is the beginning of wisdom").

El Majdoub was born in Tit a village near Azemmour, in Morocco, in 1506 and moved to Meknes after his wedding with his cousin Fatima, whose father was the brother of Abderrahman's father. He mentions his birthplace and origins in many of his Quaterns. He memorized the entire Quran and the 10 different ways of recitation. He lived during the rise of the Saadi dynasty under the reign of Mohammed ash-Sheikh and Abdallah al-Ghalib. This period also saw the rise of the Othoman Empire in Algeria and Tunisia.El Majdoub died in 1568 in Meknès, in Morocco. His tomb is in Meknes, near gate Aissa, where later the mausoleum of Moulay Ismail was built. The tomb attracts many visitors every day.

Abu Shuayb

Abu Shuayb Ayub Ibn Said Erredad al-Sanhaji Assariya (French transliteration Abou Chouaib) (died 1176-7) is the patron saint of Azemmour, Morocco. His mausoleum in Azemmour was built on the order of Mohammed ben Abdallah. It stands on the remains of a Roman building. Abu Shuayb lived in the time of the Almohad and Almoravid dynasties. He was a student of Abu Abdallah Mohammed Amghar and teacher of Abu Yazza, who in his turn was teacher of Abu Madyan. His brotherhood is called the Shuaybiya.In Azemmour is also the mausoleum of Laila Aisha Bahria, Abu Shuayb's pupil, who travelled from Baghdad to visit him. She died in Azemmour.

Ain-Diab Circuit

The Ain-Diab Circuit was a Formula One road circuit built in 1957, south west of Ain-Diab in Morocco, using the existing coast road and the main road from Casablanca to Azemmour that ran through the Sidi Abderhaman forest. Prior to 1957, the Anfa Circuit and the Agadir circuit were used for the Moroccan Grand Prix.

The 4.724 miles (7.603 km) course was designed by the Royal Automobile Club of Morocco and given a full blessing from Sultan Mohammed V. It took six weeks to construct. The site hosted a non-championship F1 race in 1957. On 19 October 1958 the course was the venue for the 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix, the final round in the 1958 Formula One season. It was won by Stirling Moss driving a Vanwall, completing the 53 laps in 2h 09m 15.1s.There was a terrible accident during the race, when the engine on the Vanwall of Stuart Lewis-Evans seized and the car spun and crashed. He was fatally burned, dying in hospital in England six days later.

Asama

Asama may mean:

Mount Asama, a volcano in Japan

Asama Shrine, a category of Shinto shrine in Japan

Japanese cruiser Asama, a cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Asama, a train service in Japan

Azemmour, sometimes known in antiquity as Azama or Asama

Battle of Azemmour

The Battle of Azemmour took place in Morocco, on 28 and 29 August 1513 between the Portuguese Empire and the Moroccan Wattasid dynasty.

Azemmour, dependent on the King of Fes, even enjoying of great autonomy, paid vassalage to the king João II of Portugal since 1486. The disagreements generated with the governor Moulay Zayam, who refused to pay tribute to Manuel I of Portugal and prepared an army to defend itself, caused King Manuel to send a fleet to that city on 15 August 1513.

On 1 September the Portuguese army, led by James, Duke of Braganza, took the city without resistance.

Prior to his voyage of circumnavigation, Ferdinand Magellan fought in this battle, where he received a severe knee wound. After taking leave without permission, he fell out of favor at the Portuguese royal court.

The battle resulted in the conquest of Azemmour, which was named Azamor by the Portuguese.

Carta Pisana

The Carta Pisana is a map probably made at the end of the 13th century, about 1275-1300. New research suggests that it was made a century later. It was found in Pisa, hence its name. It shows the whole Mediterranean, the Black Sea and a part of the atlantic coast, from the north of present-day Morocco (down to roughly the 33rd parallel north, with the town of Azemmour) to the present-day Netherlands, but the accuracy of the map is mostly limited to the Mediterranean. It is the oldest surviving nautical chart (that is, not simply a map but a document showing accurate navigational directions). It is a portolan chart, showing a detailed survey of the coasts, and many ports, but bears no indication on the topography or toponymy of the inland. On the map, North is on the top, in contrast to other maps of the same period such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi (ca. 1300), where East is on the top.

Casablanca-Settat

Casablanca-Settat (Arabic: الدار البيضاء - سطات‎, Berber languages: ⴰⵏⴼⴰ - ⵙⵟⵟⴰⵜ) is one of the twelve administrative regions of Morocco. It covers an area of 20,166 km² and recorded a population of 6,861,739 in the 2014 Moroccan census, 69% of which lived in urban areas. The capital of the region is Casablanca.

Chaouia (Morocco)

Chaouia (Arabic: الشاوية‎) is a historical and ethno-geographical region of Morocco. It is bounded by the Oum Er-Rbia River to its southwest, the oued Cherrate to its northeast, the plain of Tadla to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest. The enclave covers a land area of nearly 14 000 km².

Geographically, the Chaouia can be divided into two sub-regions: low and high. The low Chaouia being the coastal part while the high Chaouia is further inland. Soils vary in fertility: The dark tirs is prized for its high yields and is found among the Mdhakra, Ouled Hriz and Oulad said. There is also the red hamri terra rosa.

Throughout Morocco's history, the Chaouia was famous for farming wheat and barley, which were exported in years of abundance from Casablanca, Fédala or Azemmour. Chaouia sheep was also prized for its wool, which was also exported to Marseille where it was known as wardigha in reference to one of the tribes in the interior.

Nowadays, the Chaouia is part of the Casablanca-Settat administrative region.

Chiadma

The Chiadma are an Arabic-speaking tribe of Berber descent, located on the Atlantic coast of Morocco in the region between Safi and Essaouira.

El-Abid River

The Oued El Abid River is a river in Morocco, near Douar El. The El-Abid River is at Latitude33°7'12.8" (33.1202°)n and Longitude8°6'2.5"(8.1007°)w and has an average elevation of 40 metres (130 ft) above sea level. It rises in the High Atlas Mountains and enters the Atlantic Ocean at Azemmour west of Casablanca.

El Jadida Province

El Jadida Province (in Arabic: الجديدة) is a province of Morocco, located in the region of Casablanca-Settat. The province takes its name from the chief city of El Jadida. Its population in 2006 was 1,128,098.

Estevanico

Estevanico (c. 1500–1539) ("Little Esteban") was one of the first native Africans to reach the present-day continental United States. He is known as Esteban de Dorantes, Estebanico, and Esteban the Moor, or Mustafa Azemmouri. Enslaved as a youth by the ruling Portuguese, he was sold to a Spanish nobleman and taken in 1527 on the Spanish Narváez expedition to establish a colony in Florida. He was one of four survivors among 300 men who explored the peninsula. By late 1528 the group had been reduced to 80 men, who survived being washed ashore at Galveston Island after an effort to sail homemade crafts across the Gulf of Mexico.

For eight years, he traveled with Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, and Alonso del Castillo Maldonado across northern New Spain (present-day U.S. Southwest and northern Mexico). They finally reached Spanish forces in Mexico City in 1536.

Later Estevanico served as the main guide for a return expedition to the Southwest. Spaniards believe that he was killed in the Zuni city of Hawikuh in 1539. That is speculative, as the two Indians who reported back to Friar Marcos de Niza did not see him killed but only assumed he had been killed. Estevanico was the first non-Native to visit Pueblo lands.

Olbia

Olbia (Italian: [ˈɔlbja] (listen), locally [ˈolbja]; Sardinian: Terranoa; Gallurese: Tarranoa) is a city and comune of 60,345 inhabitants (May 2018) in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northeastern Sardinia (Italy), in the Gallura sub-region. Called Olbia in the Roman age, Cività in the Middle Ages (Giudicati period) and Terranova Pausania before the 1940s, Olbia was again the official name of the city during the period of Fascism.

Oum Er-Rbia River

Oum Er-Rbia (Arabic: أم الربيع‎, "the mother of springtime"; Berber: Wansifen, وانسيفن, "the one of the rivers"; Portuguese: rio Morbeia) is a large, long and high-throughput river in central Morocco.

The river is 555 kilometres (345 mi) long. With an average water throughput of 105 m3/s, Oum Er-Rbia is the second-largest river in Morocco after the Sebou River. It originates in the Middle Atlas and passes through the city of Khénifra, arriving at its mouth at the Atlantic Ocean at the port of Azemmour, located on its left bank. Oum Er-Rbia has six dams, the most important of which is Al Massira Dam. Its most important tributaries are El-Abid River, Tessaoute River, and Lakhdar River.

The historical Berber nickname of the river was Asif n Isaffen, meaning "the river of rivers". According to scholars, the original Berber common name of the river is Wansifen and was only changed recently, circa 16th or 17th century, and a nearby village called Oum Rabia might have influenced this change.Oum Er-Rbia is fed by a large number of groundwater springs. The area near its headwaters is called "The Forty Springs" as a result, although that is a poetic term rather than an exact count.

Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects

Pre-Hilalian dialects are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa. They constitute, along with the Hilalian dialects, the larger Maghrebi Arabic family.

R301 (Morocco)

R301 is a coastal highway in Western Morocco connecting the cities of Essaouira and El Jadida. This paved highway varies between two and four lanes of travel. In many locations views of the Atlantic Ocean coastline are available. There are a number of coastal bridges spanned by the B301 including one over the Wadi Oum er-Rbia estuary at Azemmour. At the southern part of the R301 lies some of the earliest recorded settlement history in Morocco: the archaeological ruins of Mogador, which were originally Phoenician from at least as early as the first millennium BC.

Sidi Bennour

Sidi Bennour (Arabic: سيدي بنور) is a city in Sidi Bennour Province, Casablanca-Settat, Morocco. Historically speaking, the name derives from the name of a famous sufi saint called Abi Yannur (Arabic: أبي يَنّور); "Sidi" is a common Arabic title attributed to a male Muslim who is a descendent of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and/or is pious. His full name was Abi Yannur Abdullah Bin Wakris, a Moroccan Berber who lived in the 12th century . He is renowned for being one of the teachers of Abu Ayyub Assariyah _ a famous Moroccan sufi _ whose mausoleum is located in the city of Azemmour.The little information about his life can be found in books about Moroccan sufism such as ( Unsu Al Faqir) by Ibn Al Khatib and ( Attashawuf Ila Rijal Attasawuf ) by Ibn Azayyat. Sayyidi/Sidi Bennour is situated some 67 kilometers south of the city of El Jadida and 120 kilometers northwest of the former imperial city, Marrakech. According to the 2004 census Sidi Bennour has a population of 39,593; however, since becoming the municipality of the newly formed Sidi Bennour province in 2011, the population has significantly increased.

Zaydan An-Nasser

Zaydan An-Nasser Bin Ahmed (Arabic: زيدان الناصر بن أحمد‎) (? – September 1627) was the embattled Saadi Sultan of Morocco from 1603 to 1627, ruling only over the southern half of the country after his brother Mohammed esh Sheikh el Mamun took the northern half and a Sanhaji rebel from Tafilalt (Ahmed ibn Abi Mahalli) marched on Marrakesh claiming to be the Mahdi. All of which exacerbated by a context of chaos that ensued a plague pandemic which left a third of the country dead, the end of the Anglo-Spanish war (Treaty of London (1604)) —which broke the Anglo-Dutch axis that Morocco was relying upon as a means of protection from Spain, and so caused the Spanish navy to resume devastating raids on the Moroccan coast— and the rebellion of one of his provincial governors who established his own independent republic between Azemmour and Salé. He was the son and appointed heir of Ahmad al-Mansur, and resided mostly in Safi where he became encircled after being driven out of Marrakesh and failed military campaigns against the rebellious brother in the north.

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