Ayesha Jalal

Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, Urdu: عائشہ جلال‎) is a Pakistani-American historian who serves as the Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University, and was the recipient of the 1998 MacArthur Fellow.

Born in Lahore, Jalal studied at Wellesley College before moving to Trinity College, Cambridge where she received her doctorate in 1983. She stayed at Cambridge until 1987, working as a fellow of Trinity College and later as a Leverhulme Fellow. She moved to Washington, D.C. in 1985, to work as a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center and later as Academy Scholar at the Harvard University's Academy for International and Area Studies. In 1999, she joined Tufts University as a tenured professor.[1][2][3][4]

The bulk of her work deals with the creation of Muslim identities in modern South Asia.[5]

Ayesha Jalal
ResidenceBoston, Massachusetts, United States
NationalityPakistani, American
Alma materWellesley College
Trinity College, Cambridge
AwardsMacArthur Fellows Program, Sitara-i-Imtiaz
Scientific career
FieldsHistory and Sociology
InstitutionsUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison
Columbia University
Lahore University of Management Sciences
Tufts University
Harvard University

Early life

Ayesha Jalal was born in Lahore in Pakistan to Hamid Jalal, a senior Pakistani civil servant, and is the grandniece of the renowned Urdu fiction writer Saadat Hasan Manto. She came to New York City at the age of 14 when her father was posted at the Pakistan Mission to the United Nations.

She obtained her BA, majoring in History and Political Science, from Wellesley College, USA, and her doctorate in history from Trinity College at University of Cambridge, where she wrote her Ph.D. dissertation: 'Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan'.


Ayesha Jalal has been Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge (1980–84), Leverhulme Fellow at the Center of South Asian Studies, Cambridge (1984–87), Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars in Washington, DC (1985–86) and Academy Scholar at Harvard University's Academy for International and Area Studies (1988–90). She has taught at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Tufts University, Columbia University, Harvard University and Lahore University of Management Sciences.

She is among the most prominent American academics who writes on the history of South Asia. In her book The Sole Spokesman (Cambridge University Press, 1985 and 1994), Jalal gives her perspective of what happened in the years between the 1937 elections and the Partition of the Indian subcontinent, identifying the factors which led to the creation of Pakistan and provides new insights into the nature of the British transfer of power in India. In particular, she focuses on the role of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the All-India Muslim League, and the main proponent of the Two Nation Theory on which the demand for Pakistan was based. Jinnah claimed to be the sole spokesman of all Indian Muslims, not only in provinces where they were in a majority but also in the provinces where they were in a minority. Yet given the political geography of the subcontinent it was clear that there would always be as many Muslims outside a specifically Muslim state as inside it. This book investigates how Jinnah proposed to resolve the contradiction between assertions of a separate Muslim "nation" and the need for a strategy which could safeguard the interests of all Indian Muslims. It does so by identifying Jinnah's real political aims, the reasons why he was reluctant to bring them into the open, and his success or failure in achieving them.

Jalal's other books include: The State of Martial Rule: the Origins of Pakistan's Political Economy of Defence (Cambridge University Press, 1990); Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: a Comparative and Historical Perspective (Cambridge University Press 1995); Modern South Asia: History, Culture and Political Economy, coauthored with Sugata Bose (Routledge 1998); Self and Sovereignty: the Muslim Individual and the Community of Islam in South Asia since c.1850 (Routledge, 2000) and Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia (Harvard University Press, 2008). Her most recent book based on the Lawrence Stone Lectures she gave at the Davis Center at Princeton University is called The Pity of Partition: Manto's Life, Times and Work Across the India Pakistan Divide (Princeton University Press, forthcoming March 2013).


A leading historian of Pakistan as well as South Asia, Jalal has received numerous awards and acknowledgements including the Prize Fellowship from Trinity College (1980–84), the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship (1998-2003)[6] and the Sitara-i-Imtiaz, one of Pakistan's highest civilian awards, in 2009.[7]



  • Jalal, Ayesha (1990). The state of martial rule: the origins of Pakistan's political economy of defence. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521051842.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (1994). The sole spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League, and the demand for Pakistan. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521458504. First published 1985.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (1995). Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia: a comparative and historical perspective. Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9789693506297.
  • Jalal, Ayesha; Bose, Sugata (1997). Nationalism, democracy, and development: state and politics in India. Delhi New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195639445.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2000). Self and sovereignty individual and community in South Asian Islam since 1850. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415220774.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2008). Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674047365.
  • Jalal, Ayesha; Bose, Sugata (2011). Modern South Asia: history, culture, political economy (3rd ed.). London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415779432.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2013). The pity of partition: Manto's life, times, and work across the India-Pakistan divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691153629.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2014). The struggle for Pakistan: a Muslim homeland and global politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674052895.

Chapters in books

  • Jalal, Ayesha (1997), "Exploding Communalism : The Politics of Muslim Identity in South Asia" (PDF), in Bose, Sugata; Jalal, Ayesha, Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195644425, retrieved 15 April 2018.
  • Jalal, Ayesha (2009), "Freedom and equality: from Iqbal's philosophy to Sen's ethical concerns", in Kanbur, Ravi; Basu, Kaushik, Arguments for a better world: essays in honor of Amartya Sen | Volume II: Society, institutions and development, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 452–469, ISBN 9780199239979.


  1. ^ "Department of History - Tufts University". ase.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  2. ^ "Jalal, Ayesha". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  3. ^ Chishty-Mujahid, Nadya (2015-02-01). "COVER STORY: The Struggle for Pakistan by Ayesha Jalal". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  4. ^ Chotiner, Isaac (2014-12-26). "Pakistan: The Land of the Pure". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  5. ^ "Pakistan needs to breed more historians". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  6. ^ "Ayesha Jalal — MacArthur Foundation". www.macfound.org. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  7. ^ "Ayesha Jalal: Borderline politics". The Express Tribune. 2014-04-20. Retrieved 2017-02-10.

External links

A'isha (name)

A'isha (Arabic: عائشة‎, Āʾisha; also spelled A'aisha, Aisha, Aishah, Aicha, Aishat, Aisya, Aisyah, Ayşe, Aiša, Ajša, Aïcha, Aisyah, Ayesha or Iesha) is an Arabic female given name which means "She who lives" or "womanly". The name Aisha originated from Aisha, the last and youngest wife of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and is a popular name among Muslim women.

Ayesha is a common variant spelling in the Arab World and countries with a high population of Sunni Muslims such as the United States, where it was ranked 2,020 out of 4,275 for females of all ages in the 1990 US Census. The name Ayesha was briefly popular among English-speakers after it appeared in the book She by Rider Haggard., as well as the song "Aicha" by French Algerian singer Khaled.

Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni

Moulana Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni (November 11, 1898 – 1970) was a traditional Islamic scholar, Sufi master, poet, and leader. He was the founder of the Islamic college Jamia-Talimat-e-Islamiya located in Karachi.

Aligarh Institute Gazette

The Aligarh Institute Gazette (Urdu: اخبار سائنٹیفک سوسائٹی‬) was the first multilingual journal of India, introduced, edited, and published in 1866 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan which was read widely across the country. Theodore Beck later became its editor.

Allah Bux Soomro

Allah Bux Muhammad Umar Soomro (1900 – May 14, 1943) (Sindhi: اللهَ بخشُ سوُمَرو‎), (Khan Bahadur Sir Allah Bux Muhammad Umar Soomro OBE till September 1942) or Allah Baksh Soomro, was a zamindar, government contractor, Indian independence activist and politician from the province of Sindh in British India. He is considered to be amongst the best premiers of the province. He was referred to as Shaheed or "martyr".

Allah Bux Soomro was born in 1900 in Shikarpur in the Bombay Presidency in an affluent family. He founded the Sind Ittehad Party and served as the Chief Minister of Sindh from March 23, 1938 to April 18, 1940 and March 7, 1941 to October 14, 1942. He was assassinated, allegedly by religious extremists, in 1943. His son Rahim Bux Soomro was also a politician in Pakistan. His nephew, Elahi Bux Soomro was the speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan and is a Veteran Politician

Bengal Legislative Assembly

The Bengal Legislative Assembly was the largest legislature in British India, serving as the lower chamber of the legislature of Bengal (now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal). It was established under the Government of India Act, 1935. The assembly played an important role in the final decade of undivided Bengal. The Leader of the House was the Prime Minister of Bengal. The assembly's lifespan covered the anti-feudal movement of the Krishak Praja Party, the period of World War II, the Lahore Resolution, the Quit India movement, suggestions for a United Bengal and the partition of Bengal and partition of British India.

Many notable speeches were delivered by Bengali statesmen in this assembly. The records of the assembly's proceedings are preserved in the libraries of the Parliament of Bangladesh and the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

Cripps Mission

The Cripps Mission was a failed attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. The mission was headed by a senior minister Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Privy Seal and leader of the House of Commons. Cripps belonged to the left-wing Labour Party, traditionally sympathetic to Indian self-rule, but was also a member of the coalition War Cabinet led by the Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who had long been the leader of the movement to block Indian independence.

Cripps was sent to negotiate an agreement with the nationalist Congress leaders, who spoke for the majority Indians, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League, who spoke for the minority Muslim population. Cripps worked to keep India loyal to the British war effort in exchange for a promise of elections and full self-government (Dominion status) once the war was over. Cripps discussed the proposals, which he had drafted himself, with the Indian leaders and published them. Both the major parties rejected his proposals, and they were also unacceptable to Churchill; no middle way was found and the mission failed. Congress moved towards the Quit India movement whereby it refused to cooperate in the war effort; in response, the British imprisoned practically the entire Congress leadership for the duration of the war. Jinnah and the Muslims, to whom Cripps had offered the right to opt out of a future Union, supported the war effort and gained in status in British eyes. He was surprised to see that the right to opt out of a future Union was included.

Husain Haqqani

Husain Haqqani (حُسَین حقّانی‬; born 1 July 1956, alternately spelled Hussain Haqqani) is a Pakistani journalist, academic, political activist and former ambassador of Pakistan to Sri Lanka and the United States.

Haqqani has written two books on Pakistan: Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, and Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding. His analysis has appeared in publications including The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Foreign Affairs, and Foreign Policy. He has also been a speaker at the Aspen Ideas Festival. Haqqani is currently a Senior Fellow and Director for South and Central Asia at the Hudson Institute in Washington, D.C. and co-editor of Hudson's signature journal Current Trends in Islamist Ideology.Haqqani worked as a journalist from 1980 to 1988, and then as political adviser for Nawaz Sharif and later as a spokesperson for Benazir Bhutto. From 1992 to 1993 he was ambassador to Sri Lanka. In 1999, he was exiled following criticisms against the government of then-President Pervez Musharraf. From 2004 to 2008 he taught international relations at Boston University. He was appointed as Pakistan's ambassador in April 2008, but his tenure ended after the Memogate incident, when the claim was made that he had been insufficiently protective of Pakistan's interests. A judicial commission was set up by the Supreme Court of Pakistan to probe the allegations against him. According to commission's report which was issued in June 2012, Haqqani was declared guilty of authoring a memo which called for direct US intervention into Pakistan, though Pakistan's Supreme Court noted that the commission was only expressing an opinion. In February 2019, Pakistan's Chief Justice suggested the entire Memogate affair was a waste of time, saying that "Pakistan was not so fragile a country that it could be rattled by the writing of a memo."

Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot

Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan of Mamdot (31 December 1906 - 16 October 1969) was a Pakistani politician from the Punjab and a key supporter of the Pakistan Movement in British India.

Lahore Literary Festival

The Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) is an international literary festival held annually in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The festival is considered to be one of South Asia's premier cultural events.LLF 2015 drew over 75,000 visitors to the halls and grounds of Alhamra Arts Centre to hear various Punjabi, Pakistani and international speakers including Romila Thapar, Abdullah Hussein, Ayesha Jalal, Asma Jahangir, Eve Ensler, Roger Cohen, Mohsin Hamid, Laurent Gayer, Rahul Singh, Hameed Haroon, Yasmine El Rashidi, Naseeruddin Shah, Joe Sacco, Romesh Gunesekera, Ziauddin Sardar, Osman Samiuddin, Mushtaq Soofi, and Aminatta Forna.

Lahore University of Management Sciences

The Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS; لاہور یونیورسٹی آف مینجمنٹ سائنسز‬) is a private, independent research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.LUMS was founded in 1984 by Syed Babar Ali and patronage of the business–industrial community spearheaded by Syed Aarim. With advice from the Harvard Business School and a $10 million grant from USAID it established a graduate business school in 1986. The university has since then expanded, launching a liberal arts undergraduate school in 1994, an engineering school in 2008, a law school in 2004 and an education school in 2017. The university launched a National Outreach Programme (NOP) in 2001 to provide financial aid to students and in 2015, in partnership with Afghan government, launched a scholarship programme for Afghan students to diversify its student body.As of 2017, the university has a student body of approximately 4,000 graduate and undergraduate students, a faculty of 248 out of which nearly three quarters have doctoral degrees. Its campus spreads over a 100 acres where more than half its student population and more than half its faculty lives. Its business school is accredited by AACSB.It is also one of two business schools in Pakistan to be certified by the South Asian Quality Assurance System and is ranked as one of the top business schools in the country. The university is also a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities.LUMS is ranked as the top varsity in Pakistan in the QS University Rankings for the year 2016, 111th in Asia and among the top 700 in the world. It is also ranked by QS as among the top 300 universities globally for business and among the top 400 universities globally in mathematics. Following a liberal arts curriculum, LUMS is one of Pakistan's most expensive, selective and progressive universities. LUMS counts several prominent Pakistani intellectual's and public figures among its alumni and current and former faculty including Umar Saif, Hina Rabbani Khar, Adil Najam, Arif Zaman, Amer Iqbal, Ayesha Jalal, Asad Abidi, Osama Siddique and Pervez Hoodbhoy. It also counts several Fulbright, Chevening and Rhodes scholars among its alumni. In 2013 fifty LUMS students won fulbright scholarships, while in 2014 fifty seven LUMS students won fulbrights scholarship. in 2017 LUMS student Saman Tariq Malik, an English major won rhode scholarship followed by Sana Naeem, a Law major in 2018. LUMS graduate of 2013, Kanza Azeemi won Saïd Prize for 'outstanding academic excellence and contribution to the MBA and wider Oxford community' for the year 2016-2017 at Saïd Business School, Oxford University.

List of Pakistani women writers

This is a list of women writers who were born in Pakistan or whose writings are closely associated with that country.

List of people from Lahore

Below is a list of people who are known for their association with Lahore. It does not necessarily mean that they were born in the city or were even nationals of the country.

Maulana Wahiduddin Khan

Wahiduddin Khan (born 1 January 1925), known with the honorific Maulana, is an Islamic scholar and peace activist known for having written a commentary on the Quran and having translated it into contemporary English.He has received the Demiurgus Peace International Award, under the patronage of the former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev; India's third-highest civilian honor, the Padma Bhushan, in January 2000; the National Citizens' Award, presented by Mother Teresa and the Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award (2009). He was conferred with the Sayyidina Imam Al Hassan Ibn Ali Peace Award (2015) in Abu Dhabi.

Muslim Rajputs

Muslim Rajputs or Musulman Rajputs, are patrilineal descendants of Rajputs of Northern regions of the Indian subcontinent who are followers of Islam. Today, Muslim Rajputs can be found in Northern India and some parts of Pakistan. They are further divided into different clans.

Prime Minister of Bengal

The Prime Minister of Bengal was the head of government of Bengal Province and the Leader of the House in the Bengal Legislative Assembly in British India. The position was dissolved upon the Partition of Bengal in 1947.

Punjabi diaspora

The Punjabi diaspora refers to the descendants of ethnic Punjabis who emigrated out of the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent to the rest of the world. Punjabis are one of the largest ethnic groups in both the Pakistani and Indian diasporas. The Punjabi diaspora numbers around 10 million, mainly concentrated in Britain, North America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.

Rangila Rasul

Rangila Rasul or Rangeela Rasool (meaning Colorful Prophet) was a book published during a period of confrontation between Arya Samaj and Muslims in Punjab during the 1920s. The controversial book concerned the marriages of Muhammad.

Saadat Hasan Manto

Saadat Hasan Manto (; Urdu: سعادت حسن منٹو‬‎, pronounced [sa'ādat 'hasan 'maṅṭō]; 11 May 1912 – 18 January 1955) was a Pakistani writer, playwright and author born in Ludhiana, British India. Writing mainly in Urdu language, he produced 22 collections of short stories, a novel, five series of radio plays, three collections of essays, two collections of personal sketches. His best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Manto was known to write about the hard truths of society that no one dared to talk about. He is best known for his stories about the partition of India immediately following independence in 1947.Manto was tried for obscenity six times; thrice before 1947 in British India, and thrice after independence in 1947 in Pakistan, but never convicted. He is acknowledged as one of the finest 20th century Urdu writers and is the subject of two biographical films, Manto, directed by Sarmad Khoosat and the 2018 film Manto, directed by Nandita Das.

Syed Nazeer Husain

Syed Nazeer Husain Dehlawi (1805–1902) was a leading scholar of the reformist Ahl-i Hadith movement and one of its major proponents in India. Earning the appellation shaykh al-kull (teacher of all, or the shaykh of all knowledge) for his authority among early Ahl-i Hadith scholars, he is regarded, alongside Siddiq Hasan Khan (1832–1890), as the founder of the movement and has been described as "perhaps the single most influential figure in the spread of the Ahl-i-Ḥadīth".

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.