Axum or Aksum (/ˈæksuːm/; Tigrinya: ኣኽሱም Ak̠ʷsəm; Amharic: አክሱም Ak̠sum) is an historic city in Tigray, Ethiopia. The town has a population of 56,500 residents (2010) and is governed as an urban wäräda.

The original capital of the Kingdom of Aksum, it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in Africa. Axum was a naval and trading power that ruled the region from about 400 BCE into the 10th century. In 1980, UNESCO added Axum's archaeological sites to its list of World Heritage Sites due to their historic value.

Axum is located in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the Tigray Region, near the base of the Adwa mountains. It has an elevation of 2,131 metres (6,991 ft) and is surrounded by La'ilay Maychew wäräda.


Northern Stelae Park
Northern Stelae Park
Flag of Axum

Axum is located in Ethiopia
Coordinates: 14°7′15″N 38°43′40″E / 14.12083°N 38.72778°ECoordinates: 14°7′15″N 38°43′40″E / 14.12083°N 38.72778°E
Country Ethiopia
2,131 m (6,991 ft)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
CriteriaCultural: i, iv
Inscription1980 (4th Session)


NE 565ad
The Kingdom of Aksum and other polities in 565

Axum was the centre of the marine trading power known as the Aksumite Kingdom, which predated the earliest mentions in Roman-era writings. Around 356 CE, its ruler was converted to Christianity by Frumentius. Later, under the reign of Kaleb, Axum was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Sasanian Empire which had adopted Zoroastrianism. The historical record is unclear, with ancient church records the primary contemporary sources.

It is believed it began a long and slow decline after the seventh century due partly to the Persians and then the Arabs contesting old Red Sea trade routes. Eventually Aksum was cut off from its principal markets in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe and its trade share was captured by Arab traders of the era. The Kingdom of Aksum was finally destroyed by Empress Gudit, and eventually some of the people of Aksum were forced south and their old way of life declined. As the kingdom's power declined so did the influence of the city, which is believed to have lost population in the decline, similar to Rome and other cities thrust away from the flow of world events. The last known (nominal) king to reign was crowned in about the 10th century, but the kingdom's influence and power ended long before that.

Its decline in population and trade then contributed to the shift of the power center of the Ethiopian Empire south to the Agaw region as it moved further inland. The city of Axum was the administrative seat of an empire spanning one million square miles. Eventually, the alternative name (Ethiopia) was adopted by the central region, and subsequently, the present modern state.[1]

The Aksumite Kingdom and Ethiopian Church

Church Our Lady Mary Zion Axum Ethio
Dome and Belltower of the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion

The Kingdom of Aksum had its own written language, Ge'ez, and developed a distinctive architecture exemplified by giant obelisks, the oldest of which (though much smaller) date from 5000–2000 BCE.[2] The kingdom was at its height under King Ezana, baptized as Abreha, in the 4th century (which was also when it officially embraced Christianity).[3]

Ark of the Covenant church in Axum Ethiopia
The Chapel of the Tablet

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church claims that the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum houses the Biblical Ark of the Covenant, in which lie the Tablets of Stone upon which the Ten Commandments are inscribed.[4] Ethiopian traditions suggest that it was from Axum that Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, journeyed to visit King Solomon in Jerusalem and that the two had a son, Menelik, who grew up in Ethiopia but traveled to Jerusalem as a young man to visit his father's homeland. He lived several years in Jerusalem before returning to his country with the Ark of the Covenant. According to the Ethiopian Church and Ethiopian tradition, the Ark still exists in Axum. This same church was the site where Ethiopian emperors were crowned for centuries until the reign of Fasilides, then again beginning with Yohannes IV until the end of the empire. Axum is considered to be the holiest city in Ethiopia and is an important destination of pilgrimages.[4][5] Significant religious festivals are the Timkat festival (known as Epiphany in western Christianity) on 19 January (20 January in leap years) and the Festival of Maryam Zion on November 24.

In 1937, a 24-metre (79-foot) tall, 1,700-year-old Obelisk of Axum, broken into five parts and lying on the ground, was found and shipped by Italian soldiers to Rome to be erected. The obelisk is widely regarded as one of the finest examples of engineering from the height of the Axumite empire. Despite a 1947 United Nations agreement that the obelisk would be shipped back, Italy balked, resulting in a long-standing diplomatic dispute with the Ethiopian government, which views the obelisk as a symbol of national identity. In April 2005, Italy finally returned the obelisk pieces to Axum amidst much official and public rejoicing; Italy also covered the $4 million costs of the transfer. UNESCO assumed responsibility for the re-installation of this stele in Axum, and by the end of July 2008 the obelisk had been reinstalled (see panographic photos in external links below). It was unveiled on 4 September 2008.[6][7]

Axum and Islam

The Kingdom of Aksum has a longstanding relationship with Islam. According to ibn Hisham,[8] when Muhammad faced oppression from the Quraysh clan, he sent a small group that included his daughter Ruqayya and her husband Uthman to Axum. Sahama, the Aksumite king,[9] gave them refuge and protection. He refused the requests of the Quraish clan to send these refugees back to Arabia. These refugees did not return until the sixth Hijri year (628), and even then many remained in Ethiopia, eventually settling at Negash in what is now the Misraqawi Zone.

There are different traditions concerning the effect these early Muslims had on the ruler of Axum. The Muslim tradition is that the ruler of Axum was so impressed by these refugees that he became a secret convert.[10] On the other hand, Arabic historians and Ethiopian tradition state that some of the Muslim refugees who lived in Ethiopia during this time converted to Orthodox Christianity. There is also a second Ethiopian tradition that, on the death of Ashama ibn Abjar, Muhammed is reported to have prayed for the king's soul, and told his followers, "Leave the Abyssinians in peace, as long as they do not take the offensive."[11]

Main sights

Axoum partie moderne
Street in Axum

The major Aksumite monuments in the town are steles. These obelisks are around 1,700 years old and have become a symbol of the Ethiopian people's identity.[12] The largest number are in the Northern Stelae Park, ranging up to the 33-metre-long (3.84 metres wide, 2.35 metres deep, weighing 520 tonnes) Great Stele, believed to have fallen and broken during construction.[13] The Obelisk of Axum (24.6 metres high, 2.32 metres wide, 1.36 metres deep, weighing 170 tonnes) was removed by the Italian army in 1937, and returned to Ethiopia in 2005 and reinstalled July 31, 2008.[12] This stele was already broken into pieces before being shipped. The next tallest is the 24-metre (20.6 metres high above the front baseplate, 2.65 metres wide, 1.18 metres deep, weighing 160 tonnes) King Ezana's Stela. Three more stelae measure 18.2 metres high, 1.56 metres wide, 0.76 metres deep, weighing 56 tonnes; 15.8 metres high, 2.35 metres wide, one metre deep, weighing 75 tonnes; 15.3 metres high, 1.47 metres wide, 0.78 metres deep, weighing 43 tonnes.[14] The stelae are believed to mark graves and would have had cast metal discs affixed to their sides, which are also carved with architectural designs. The Gudit Stelae to the west of town, unlike the northern area, are interspersed with mostly 4th century tombs.


The other major feature of the town are the old and new Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion. The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion was built in 1665 by Emperor Fasilides and said to have previously housed the Ark of the Covenant. The original cathedral, said to have been built by Ezana and augmented several times after was believed to have been massive with 12 naves. It was burned to the ground by Gudit, rebuilt, and then destroyed again during the Abyssinian–Adal war of the 1500s. It was again rebuilt by Emperor Gelawdewos (completed by his brother and successor Emperor Minas) and Emperor Fasilides replaced that structure with the present one. Only men are permitted entry into the Old St. Mary's Cathedral (some say as a result of the destruction of the original church by Gudit). The New Cathedral of St. Mary of Zion stands next to the old one, and was built to fulfill a pledge by Emperor Haile Selassie to Our Lady of Zion for the liberation of Ethiopia from the Fascist occupation. Built in a neo-Byzantine style, work on the new cathedral began in 1955, and allows admittance to women. Emperor Haile Selassie interrupted the state visit of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II to travel to Axum to attend the dedication of the new Cathedral and pay personal homage, showing the importance of this church in the Ethiopian Empire. The Queen visited the Cathedral a few days later. Between the two cathedrals is a small chapel known as The Chapel of the Tablet built at the same time as the new cathedral, and which is believed to house the Ark of the Covenant. Emperor Haile Selassie's consort, Empress Menen Asfaw, paid for its construction from her private funds. Admittance to the chapel is closed to all but the guardian monk who resides there. Entrance is even forbidden to the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church, and to the Emperor of Ethiopia during the monarchy. The two cathedrals and the chapel of the Ark are the focus of pilgrimage and considered the holiest sites in Ethiopia to members of its Orthodox Church.

Dungur, with the Gudit stelae field immediately beyond it

Other attractions in Axum include archaeological and ethnographic museums, the Ezana Stone written in Sabaean, Ge'ez and Ancient Greek in a similar manner to the Rosetta Stone, King Bazen's Tomb (a megalith considered to be one of the earliest structures), the so-called Queen of Sheba's Bath (actually a reservoir), the 4th-century Ta'akha Maryam and 6th-century Dungur palaces, Pentalewon Monastery and Abba Liqanos and the Lioness of Gobedra rock art

Local legend claims the Queen of Sheba lived in the town.


Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as subtropical highland (Cwb).[15]

Climate data for Axum
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
Average low °C (°F) 7.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
Source: (altitude: 2133m)[15]


According to Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), as of July 2012 (est.) the town of Axum's population was 56,576. The census indicated that 30,293 of the population were females and 26,283 were males.[16] The 2007 national census showed that the town population was 44,647, of whom 20,741 were males and 23,906 females). The majority of the inhabitants said they practised Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 78.03% reporting that as their religion, while 10.89% of the population were Muslim.[17]

The 1994 national census reported a total population for this city of 27,148, of whom 12,536 were men and 14,612 were women. The largest ethnic group reported was the Tigrayan (98.54%) and Tigrinya was spoken as a first language by 98.68%. The majority of the population practised Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity with 85.08% reported as embracing that religion, while 14.81% were Muslim.[18]


Axum Airport Stehmann-1
The Axum Airport terminal building.

Air transportation in Axum is served by the Axum Airport.


The Axum University was established in Axum in May 2006 on a greenfield site, four kilometers (2.45 miles) from the town center; the inauguration ceremony was held on 16 February 2007. The current area of the campus is 107 hectares, with ample room for expansion. The establishment of a university in Axum is expected to contribute much to the ongoing development of the country in general and of the region in particular.

See also


  1. ^ G. Mokhtar, UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. II, Abridged Edition (Berkeley: University of Aksum Press, 1990), pp. 215-35. ISBN 0-85255-092-8
  2. ^ Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 871.
  3. ^ Fage, J. D., A History of Africa (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 53–4. ISBN 0-415-25248-2
  4. ^ a b Hodd, Mike, Footprint East Africa Handbook (New York: Footprint Travel Guides, 2002), p. 859. ISBN 1-900949-65-2.
  5. ^ See Linda Kay Davidson and David Gitlitz Pilgrimage, from the Ganges to Graceland: an Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2002), 17–18.
  6. ^ "Ethiopia unveils ancient obelisk". BBC News. 4 September 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  7. ^ "The Reinstallation of the Axum Obelisk" (PDF). UNESCO. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  8. ^ ibn Hisham, The Life of the Prophet
  9. ^ Nimer, Ph.D., Muḥammad. "Exegesis, Social Science and the Place of the Jews in the Qur'an". Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  10. ^ Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad (Oxford, 1955), 657–58.
  11. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 42f
  12. ^ a b "Mission accomplished: Aksum Obelisk successfully reinstalled". UNESCO. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  13. ^ Phillipson, David W. (2003). "Aksum: An archaeological introduction and guide". Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 38 (1): 1–68. doi:10.1080/00672700309480357.
  14. ^ Scarre, Chris Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World 1999
  15. ^ a b "Climate: Aksum - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 2013-12-09.
  16. ^ "National Statistics-population-2011 by town and sex". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  17. ^ Census 2007 Tables: Tigray Region Archived November 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Tables 2.1, 2.4, 2.5 and 3.4.
  18. ^ 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Results for Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Vol. 1, part 1 Archived November 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Tables 2.2, 2.13, 2.16, 2.20 (accessed 30 December 2008)

Further reading

  • Francis Anfray. Les anciens ethiopiens. Paris: Armand Colin, 1991.
  • Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9
  • David W. Phillipson. Ancient Ethiopia. Aksum: Its antecedents and successors. London: The British Brisith Museum, 1998.
  • David W. Phillipson. Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia, 1993–7. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 2000. ISBN 1-872566-13-8
  • Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6 online edition
  • Stuart Munro-Hay. Excavations at Aksum: An account of research at the ancient Ethiopian capital directed in 1972-74 by the late Dr Nevill Chittick London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1989 ISBN 0-500-97008-4
  • Sergew Hable Sellassie. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270 Addis Ababa: United Printers, 1972.
  • African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

External links


Armah (Arabic: أرمها‎) (reigned 614–631), known in some Muslim sources as Al-Najashi (Arabic: النجاشي‎), was a king of the Kingdom of Aksum. He is primarily known through the coins that were minted during his reign. However, it has been suggested as long ago as 1895 that he was identical to Ashama ibn-Abjar (Arabic: أصحمة بن أبجر‎) or Sahama, who gave shelter to the Muslim emigrants around 615–6 at Axum.

Scholar of ancient Ethiopia Stuart Munro-Hay (1947–2004) states that either Armah or Gersem were the last Axumite kings to issue coins. Bronze coins from the reign of Armah show him depicted as a full-length figure enthroned, with Christian cross motifs throughout.Armah's silver coins have an unusual reverse, showing a structure with three crosses, the middle one gilded. Munro-Hay quotes W.R.O. Hahn as suggesting that this is an allusion to the Holy Sepulchre, as a reference to the Persian capture of Jerusalem in 614.

Army of the Ethiopian Empire

The Armies of the Ethiopian Empire have existed since earliest times. Ethiopia maintained a sizable contingent of her forces in her Sabbean Garrisons which expanded out to project power over colonies in Yemen and to protect Caravans or trade routes.

At home Ethiopian Forces under the command Prince Nastesen (Iskindr) inflicted a humiliating defeat on the Persian Army of Cambyses. The Prince had been Ordered by His Mother the Candace to draw the Persian Forces deep into Ethiopian territory before engaging them. He did this so well that Cambyses Army was never able to recover and those let alive had to retreat back to Egypt. Cambyses did not attempt to reconquer Ethiopia.About the 2nd century AD, there arose the Axumites rapidly supplanting the Damot. The Axumite however paid homage to their former masters. The Judaic rulers of Damot were held in the highest esteem by the new Axumite Empire.

There is evidence in inscriptions and archaeological finds that attest to the presence of Axumite troops in Yemen as early as AD 200. This suggests that Axum was no less involved in the Arabian matters than Damot during the reigns of GDRT, and his successors `DBH and Sembrouthes, During the reign of Ousanas, Ezanas father, Axum traded and projected its influence as far as India, where coins minted in Ousanas' reign were discovered in 1990.

This lasted until the 4th century when Twin Axumite Emperors Ezana and Sezana became converted to the new Christian Faith.

Axum's Armies were launched into the former tributary Kingdom of Nubia devastating it to the point it never recovered its former glory or was ever an independent polity again.

In 520, during the reign of Emperor Kaleb Ella Atsbeha, Axum received an appeal from the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian. At first Axum re-occupied an abandoned fort at Najran with cavalry troops admonishing the local ruler Yusuf Hathar who as a consequence of his conversion to Judaism and the urging of the Persian Sassanian Kings had vigorously undertaken the persecution of Christian pilgrims. Axum was not a new power there Yusuf Hathar who had taken the throne name of Dhu Nuwas may have genuinely been mollified by his actions. The elderly commander Arayat, the uncle of the Emperor, led a company of cavalry into Najran charged with protecting Christian pilgrims on the road to Jerusalem from Banditry. However, peace proved fleeting: perhaps as a result of encouragement from the Persians else out of humiliation Dhu Nuwa's men attacked the Fort of Najran. What happened afterward is debated. By some accounts the garrison fought back and died. Witness later accused Dhu Nuwas of having killed the soldiers in their sleep and then massacring all others who had sought their protection.

Dhu Nuwas may have believed, and perhaps even received assurances, that the Sassanians would protect his fledgling empire with a sizable force. It is doubtful if he knew that Aryat led the Garrison that he would kill the Emperor's uncle without knowing with certainty that Kaleb would exact revenge. It was said that Emperor Kaleb received news of the massacre and the death of his beloved uncle as he was coming out of the Church. He ordered the entire court back into Church and ordered the priests to give the assembled nobles and soldiers including himself the last rites of the Christian faith.

He ordered the entire Imperial host to war. The first attempt at crossing was not successful: the army unable to land was forced to return to Adulis dropped anchor in Yemen.

Under the command of its Emperor Abraha the Axumite Army of spearmen, swordsmen, elephants, cavalry and Archers defeated the Army of Himyar.

It was apparent that Kaleb had not gone there just to punish a wayward vassal. Holding a trial for Dhu Nuwas, Kaleb gave Dhu Nuwas to his own people so they may exact their own justice. He appointed a local Christian named Safwa administrator, left Abraha, his cousin, in charge of the sizable portion of the Axumite Host and returned home to Axum with the rest.

The target was an usurper, Yusuf Hathar that had begun to make a name of himself consolidating power in the region. A recent convert to Judaism, he had become a client of the Sassanian Persians, avowed enemies of the Western Roman Empire.

appealed for the Ethiopian Emperor. Ethiopian Imperial Army existed in one form or another since the founding of the Ethiopian Empire in the 13th century.

During the First Italo–Ethiopian War, the Army of the Ethiopian Empire was able to defeat the army of the Kingdom of Italy at the battle of Adwa.

During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Army of the Ethiopian Empire consisted of the Imperial Bodyguard, a central army, and several armies of provincial forces. The Ethiopian army was defeated soundly, after giving considerable difficulty to the Italians. The Italians employed mass aerial bombing of mustard gas to win the Battle of Amba Aradam.

On 12 September 1974, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men called the Derg deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. The Army of the Ethiopian Empire became the Army of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Axum (programming language)

Axum (previously codenamed Maestro) is a domain-specific concurrent programming language, based on the Actor model, that was under active development by Microsoft between 2009 and 2011. It is an object-oriented language based on the .NET Common Language Runtime using a C-like syntax which, being a domain-specific language, is intended for development of portions of a software application that is well-suited to concurrency. But it contains enough general-purpose constructs that one need not switch to a general-purpose programming language (like C#) for the sequential parts of the concurrent components.The main idiom of programming in Axum is an Agent (or an Actor), which is an isolated entity that executes in parallel with other Agents. In Axum parlance, this is referred to as the agents executing in separate isolation domains; objects instantiated within a domain cannot be directly accessed from another. Agents are loosely coupled (i.e., the number of dependencies between agents is minimal) and do not share resources like memory (unlike the shared memory model of C# and similar languages); instead a message passing model is used. To co-ordinate agents or having an agent request the resources of another, an explicit message must be sent to the agent. Axum provides Channels to facilitate this.

Channels can be regarded as a directional pathway to communicate between agent instances. The member functions of a Channel object, after it has been bound to an agent instance, can be used to communicate with it. A Channel contains input and output ports, which are queues which are used to send data to an agent or receive data from one. To co-ordinate the communication between agents, Axum allows each channel to have a user-defined protocol for communication. The protocol is defined as a state machine. The data sent over a channel can be optionally restricted to conform to a certain pre-defined schema. The compiler and runtime will enforce the conformance with the schema. Under the hood, a schema is translated into a serializable .NET class that contains only properties and side effect-free methods.The Axum project reached the state of a prototype with working Microsoft Visual Studio integration. Microsoft had made a CTP of Axum available to the public, but this has since been removed.

Although Microsoft decided not to turn Axum into a project, some of the ideas behind Axum are used in TPL Dataflow in .Net 4.5.

Axum Airport

Axum Airport (Tigrinya: ኣኽሱም ዮሃንስ ራብዓይ መዕረፍ ነፈርቲ) (IATA: AXU, ICAO: HAAX), also known as Emperor Yohannes IV Airport, is an airport serving Axum, a city in the northern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. The name of the city and airport may also be transliterated as Aksum. The facility is located 5.5 km (3.4 miles) to the east of the city.The airport is named after Yohannes IV, the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1872 to 1889.

Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion

The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion (Amharic: ርዕሰ አድባራት ቅድስተ ቅዱሳን ድንግል ማሪያም ፅዮን Re-ese Adbarat Kidiste Kidusan Dingel Maryam Ts’iyon) is an Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in Ethiopia. It is claimed to contain the Ark of the Covenant. It is located in the town of Axum, Tigray. The original church is believed to have been built during the reign of Ezana the first Christian ruler of the Kingdom of Axum (Present-day Eritrea and Ethiopia), during the 4th century AD, and has been rebuilt several times since then.

Donna Axum

Donna Idelle Axum (January 3, 1942 – November 4, 2018) was an American beauty pageant winner, author, television executive producer, philanthropist and model. She was crowned Miss America in 1964. One month earlier she had been crowned Miss Arkansas.

After her Miss America win, Axum taught classes at Texas Tech University and worked in television such as starring on The Noon Show and Good Morning Arkansas. Aside from Miss America, Axum was an active civic leader as she served on the National Committee for the Performing Arts of the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. after being nominated by President Bill Clinton, the Fort Worth Symphony, the Van Cliburn Foundation and Texas Christian University College of Fine Arts Board of Visitors.

Emperor of Ethiopia

The Emperor of Ethiopia (Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. The Emperor was the head of state and head of government, with ultimate executive, judicial and legislative power in that country. A National Geographic Magazine article called imperial Ethiopia "nominally a constitutional monarchy; in fact [it was] a benevolent autocracy".

Ezana of Axum

‘Ezana of Axum (Ge'ez: ዒዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 AD) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan. He himself employed the style (official title) "king of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan". Tradition states that ‘Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida (Ousanas) while still a child and his mother, Sofya served as regent.


Saint Frumentius (Ge'ez: ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum. He is sometimes known by other names, such as Abuna ("Our Father") and Aba Salama.He was ethnically a Syro-Phoenician Greek born in Tyre. As a boy, he was captured with his brother, and they became slaves to the King of Axum. He freed them shortly before his death, and they were invited to educate his young heir. They also began to teach Christianity in the region. Later, Frumentius traveled to Alexandria, Egypt, where he appealed to have a bishop appointed and missionary priests sent south to Axum. Thereafter, he was appointed bishop and established the Church in Ethiopia, converting many indigenous people, as well as the king. His appointment began a tradition that the Patriarch of Alexandria appoint the bishops of Ethiopia.

Italian submarine Axum

Italian submarine Axum was an Adua-class submarine built in the 1930s, serving in the Regia Marina during World War II. She was named after an ancient city of Axum in Ethiopia.

Kaleb of Axum

Kaleb (c. 520) is perhaps the best-documented, if not best-known, King of Axum, a kingdom that was situated in modern-day Eritrea and Tigray, Ethiopia.

Procopius of Caesarea calls him "Hellestheaeus", a variant of his throne name Ella Atsbeha or Ella Asbeha (Histories, 1.20). Variants of his name are Hellesthaeus, Ellestheaeus, Eleshaah, Ella Atsbeha, Ellesboas, and Elesboam, all from the Greek Ελεσβόάς, for “The one who brought about the morning” or “The one who collected tribute.”

At Aksum, in inscription RIE 191, his name is rendered in unvocalized Gə‘əz as KLB ’L ’ṢBḤ WLD TZN (Kaleb ʾElla ʾAṣbeḥa son of Tazena). In vocalized Gə‘əz, it is ካሌብ እለ አጽብሐ (Kaleb ʾƎllä ʾAṣbəḥa).

Kaleb, a name derived from the Biblical character Caleb, is his given biblical name; on both his coins and inscriptions he left at Axum, as well as Ethiopian hagiographical sources and king lists, he refers to himself as the son of Tazena. He may be the "Atsbeha" or "Asbeha" of the Ethiopian legends of Abreha and Asbeha,Abraham and asbeha are the baptismal names for Ezana and Siezana.

Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom located in what is now Tigray Region (northern Ethiopia) and Eritrea. Axumite Emperors were powerful sovereigns, styling themselves King of kings, king of Aksum, Himyar, Raydan, Saba, Salhen, Tsiyamo, Beja and of Kush.

Ruled by the Aksumites, it existed from approximately 100 AD to 940 AD. The polity was centered in the city of Axum and grew from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period around the 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD.

Aksum became a major player on the commercial route between the Roman Empire and Ancient India. The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own Aksumite currency, with the state establishing its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush. It also regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian Peninsula and eventually extended its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. The Manichaei prophet Mani (died 274 AD) regarded Axum as one of the four great powers of his time, the others being Persia, Rome, and China.The Aksumites erected a number of monumental stelae, which served a religious purpose in pre-Christian times. One of these granite columns is the largest such structure in the world, at 90 feet. Under Ezana (fl. 320–360) Aksum adopted Christianity. In the 7th century, early Muslims from Mecca sought refuge from Quraysh persecution by travelling to the kingdom, a journey known in Islamic history as the First Hijra.The kingdom's ancient capital, also called Axum, is now a town in Tigray Region (northern Ethiopia). The Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century. Tradition claims Axum as the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba.

List of Abunas of Ethiopia

This is a list of the Abunas of Ethiopia, the spiritual heads of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The Abuna is known officially as Patriarch and Catholicos of Ethiopia, Archbishop of Axum and Ichege of the See of Saint Taklehaimanot. Abune Merkorios acceded to this position in May 1988, while Abune Mathias acceded on 28 February 2013. Currently, both men are serving as Co-Patriarchs, following an agreement made on 27 July 2018.The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is part of the Oriental Orthodox communion, and it was granted autocephaly by Cyril VI, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, in 1959.

List of Star Trek characters (A–F)

This article lists characters of Star Trek in their various canonical incarnations. This includes fictional major characters and fictional minor characters created for Star Trek, fictional characters not originally created for Star Trek, and real-life persons appearing in a fictional manner, such as holodeck recreations.

List of kings of Axum

The kings of Axum ruled an important trading nation in the area which is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, from approximately 100–940 AD.

Migration to Abyssinia

The Migration to Abyssinia (Arabic: الهجرة إلى الحبشة‎, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (Arabic: هِجْرَة‎ hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca. They sought refuge in the Christian Kingdom of Aksum, present-day Eritrea and Ethiopia (formerly referred to as Abyssinia, an ancient name whose origin is debated), in 9 BH (613 CE) or 7 BH (615 CE). The Aksumite monarch who received them is known in Islamic sources as the Negus (Arabic: نجاشي‎ najāšī) Ashama ibn Abjar. Modern historians have alternatively identified him with King Armah and Ella Tsaham. Some of the exiles returned to Mecca and made the hijra to Medina with Muhammad, while others remained in Abyssinia until they came to Medina in 628.

Miss America 1964

Miss America 1964, the 37th Miss America pageant, was held at the Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey on September 7, 1963 and was broadcast on CBS.

Donna Axum became the first Miss Arkansas to win the crown.

Nonnosus (historian)

Nonnosus (Greek: Νόννοσος, translit. Nónnosos) was a Byzantine ambassador under Justinian I. In around 530, he led a mission to the Red Sea area, visiting Axum, Ḥimyar, and the Arabs. His account of his visit to Axum provides a first-hand account of meeting the Axumite Negus at his royal court. Regarding his visit to the court of Axum, Nonnosus writes that he entered Ethiopia through the port city of Adulis and journeyed their overland to Axum. Nonnosus writes that along the way he saw a herd of 5000 elephants in the vicinity of Aua, which lies between Adulis and Axum. Upon meeting the Negus Kaleb of Axum, Nonnosus states that he had to kiss the ring of the regent and prostrate himself before him.

An abbreviated account of the meeting reads: "He was largely nude, wearing only a loincloth together with a pearl-encrusted shawl over his shoulders and belly, bracelets on his arms, a golden turban with four tassels on each side, and a golden torque on his neck. In the company of his courtiers he stood astride a spectacular gold-leafed palanquin mounted on the circular saddles of four elephants that been yoked together"

Upon his return he wrote a history of his embassy, which has survived only in a condensed version form attributed to Photios I of Constantinople. This claims that his father, Abraham, had been an ambassador to the Arabs and that his uncle, also Nonnosus, was sent on an embassy by Anastasius I.

Obelisk of Axum

The Obelisk of Axum (Amharic: የአክሱም ሐውልት) is a 4th-century AD, 24-metre-tall (79-feet) granite stele/obelisk, weighing 160 tonnes, in the city of Axum in Ethiopia. It is ornamented with two false doors at the base and features decorations resembling windows on all sides. The obelisk ends in a semi-circular top part, which used to be enclosed by metal frames.

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