Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by its "pencil roots" which are aerial roots. It is commonly known as api api which in the Malay language means "fires", a reference to the fact that fireflies often congregate on these trees.[2] Species of Avicennia occur worldwide south of the Tropic of Cancer.

The taxonomic placement of Avicennia is contentious. In some classifications it has been placed in the family Verbenaceae, but more recently has been placed by some botanists in the monogeneric family Avicenniaceae. Recent phylogenetic studies have suggested that Avicennia is derived from within Acanthaceae, and the genus is included in that family in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system.

Designation of species is made difficult by the great variations in form of Avicennia marina. Between eight and ten species are usually recognised, with Avicennia marina further divided into a number of subspecies.

The generic name honours Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037).[3]

Avicennia germinans
Avicennia germinans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Acanthaceae
Subfamily: Avicennioideae
Genus: Avicennia

See text


Sceura Forssk.[1]


Members of the genus are among the most salt tolerant mangroves and are often the first to colonise new deposits of sediment. The sap is salty and excess salt is secreted through the leaves. The spreading root system provides stability in shifting substrates. There are vertical roots called pneumatophores projecting from the mud, thus the term "pencil roots". These are used in gas exchange as there is very little oxygen available in the mud. The flowers are fragrant and rich in nectar and are pollinated by insects. The embryos exhibit cryptovivipary, a process where they start to develop before the seed is shed but do not break through the outside of the fruit capsule.[4]

List of species

Avicennia propagule
Propagule of Avicennia sp.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Genus: Avicennia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  2. ^ Api-api Putih (Avicennia alba) The Tide Chaser. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  3. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 1 A-C. CRC Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
  4. ^ Api Api Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park. Retrieved 2012-02-08,
  5. ^ "Avicennia balanophora Stapf & Moldenke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  6. ^ "Avicennia bicolor Standl. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  7. ^ "Avicennia germinans (L.) L. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  8. ^ "Avicennia integra N.C.Duke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  9. ^ "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  10. ^ "Avicennia marina subsp. australasica (Walp.) J.Everett — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  11. ^ "Avicennia marina subsp. eucalyptifolia (Valeton) J.Everett — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  12. ^ "Avicennia marina var. rumphiana (Hallier f.) Bakh. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  13. ^ "Avicennia officinalis L. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  14. ^ "Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
  15. ^ "Avicennia tonduzii Moldenke — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.

Further reading

Media related to Avicennia at Wikimedia Commons

Data related to Avicennia at Wikispecies

External links

Avicennia alba

Avicennia alba is a species of tropical mangrove in the family Acanthaceae. In the Malay language it is known as api api putih, "api" meaning "fire", referring to the fact that this mangrove attracts fireflies, and "putih" meaning "white", referring to the pale-coloured underside of the leaves. It is found growing in coastal and estuarine locations in India, south east Asia, Australia and Oceania.

Avicennia germinans

Avicennia germinans, the black mangrove, is a shrub in the acanthus family, Acanthaceae. It grows in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and on the Atlantic coast of tropical Africa, where it thrives on the sandy and muddy shores that seawater reaches. It is common throughout coastal areas of Texas and Florida, and ranges as far north as southern Louisiana and coastal Georgia in the United States.

Like many other mangrove species, it reproduces by vivipary. Seeds are encased in a fruit, which reveals the germinated seedling when it falls into the water.

Unlike other mangrove species, it does not grow on prop roots, but possesses pneumatophores that allow its roots to breathe even when submerged. It is a hardy species and expels absorbed salt mainly from its leathery leaves.

The name "black mangrove" refers to the color of the trunk and heartwood. The leaves often appear whitish from the salt excreted at night and on cloudy days. It is often found in its native range with the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and the white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa). White mangroves grow inland from black mangroves which themselves grow inland from red mangroves. The three species work together to stabilize the shoreline, provide buffers from storm surges, trap debris and detritus brought in by tides, and provide feeding, breeding, and nursery grounds for a great variety of fish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife.

Avicennia lanata

Avicennia lanata is a species of plant in the Acanthaceae family. It is a tree endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Avicennia marina

Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas.

Avicennia officinalis

Avicennia officinalis is a species of mangrove also known as Indian mangrove. The young tree forms a low, dense bushy crown. When it matures, it forms a columnar tree up to 15 m and may grow up to 30 m. The shiny green leaves, 10 cm long by 5 cm wide, have rounded apexes and golden-brown under leaf and grow in opposites. The flower, the largest among the Avicennia species has a diameter of 6 to 10 mm when expanded. It is orange yellow to lemon yellow in color. The bark is smooth, dirty green to dark gray in color. It is slightly fissured and does not flake. The fruit is green or brown, heart-shaped abruptly narrowed to a short beak is 2.5 cm long or more.

Avicennia officinalis is found sporadically on the banks of rivers and rarely found near the sea. It prefers clay soil and usually found inland. The plant can be found in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia records "Mangrove" "Egaie" of the Cleveland Bay aboriginals; "Tagontagon" of the Rockhampton aboriginals; "Baa-lunn" and "Tchoonche" are other aboriginal names. " The fruit is heart-shaped, with two thick cotyledons. The aboriginals of Cleveland Bay dig a hole in the ground, where they light a good fire; when well ignited, they throw stones over it, which when sufficiently heated, they arrange horizontally at the bottom, and lay on the top the Egaie fruit, sprinkling a little water over it ; they cover it with bark, and over the whole earth is placed to prevent the steam from evaporating too freely. During the time required for baking (about two hours), they dig another hole in the sand ; the softened Egaie is put into it, they pour water twice over it, and the Midamio is now fit for eating. They resort to that sort of food during the wet season when precluded

from searching for any other." (Murrell's testimony,* quoted by Mens. Thozet.) In Salt-water estuaries all round the coast. * Murrell was a shipwrecked sailor, who lived for seventeen years with the aboriginals

of Cleveland Bay, Queensland.".

Avicennia rumphiana

Avicennia rumphiana is a species of tropical mangrove in the family Acanthaceae. In the Malay language it is known as api api bulu. It is considered vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Clinton Conservation Park

Clinton Conservation Park, formerly the Clinton National Park, is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the coastline at the north end of Gulf St Vincent.The conservation park consists of two parts with the first extending from Clinton on Yorke Peninsula on the west side of Gulf St Vincent to Port Wakefield on the east side of the gulf and the second extending south of Port Wakefield to Sandy Point. The conservation park was originally proclaimed in 1970 as the Clinton National Park under the National Parks Act 1966, was re-proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. The area contained within the conservation park including the ‘head of gulf wetland and Wakefield River estuary’ is considered to be ‘important as a fish nursery and a significant site for migratory wading birds’.In 1980, the conservation park was described as follows:

Clinton Conservation Park preserves one of the major mangrove and saltflat associations in the State. These associations are markedly depleted in South Australia. The park is an important bird and marine fauna habitat...

An area of tidal flats at the head of the Gulf of St Vincent containing mangroves (Avicennia marina), samphire (Arthrocnemum spp.) salt marsh and also including a low backing dune...

Essentially undisturbed, the complete coastal swamp complex, including backing dune, is protected.

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate.

Collier-Seminole State Park

Collier-Seminole State Park is a Florida State Park located on US 41, 17 miles (27 km) south of Naples, Florida. The park is the home of a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark, the Bay City Walking Dredge used to build the Tamiami Trail through the Everglades. The park includes of 6,430 acres (26 km2) of mangrove swamp, cypress swamps, salt marshes, mangrove river estuaries, and pine flatwoods. Among the wildlife of the park are American alligators, raccoons, ospreys, and American white ibis. brown pelicans, wood storks, bald eagles, red-cockaded woodpeckers, American crocodiles, Florida black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) and Big Cypress fox squirrels (Sciurus niger avicennia) also inhabit the park.

Activities include picnicking, hiking, bicycling, and canoeing, camping, wildlife viewing, fishing and boating. Amenities include an RV park, four pavilion picnic shelters, a boat ramp, and a full-facility campground with youth, group and primitive campsites. The park has a number of trails. A 13.6-mile (21.9 km) canoe trail that flows down the Blackwater River through a mangrove forest. A 6.5-mile (10.5 km) hiking trail runs through the park. A .9-mile nature trail features a boardwalk system and observation platform that overlooks the salt marsh. The park is open from 8:00 am until sundown year-round.

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary and estuary situated in Andhra Pradesh, India.

It is the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India with 24 mangrove tree species and more than 120 bird species. It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long billed vulture.

In a mangrove ecosystem the water bodies of the ocean/sea and the river meet together at a certain point.


Cystiscidae is a taxonomic family of minute sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks or micromollusks.


Cystiscinae are a taxonomic subfamily of minute sea snails. These are marine gastropod mollusks or micromollusks in the family Cystiscidae, and the clade Neogastropoda.

Hymenoptychis sordida

Hymenoptychis sordida, the pneumatophore moth, is a moth of the Crambidae family. The species was first described by Philipp Christoph Zeller in 1852. It is known from Australia, southern and South-East Asia, several Pacific islands, Seychelles, South Africa, Madagascar and the United Arab Emirates.The larvae of this species are brown and live in mangroves where they feed on vegetarian detritus. The wingspan is about 25 mm.Known food plants are Acanthaceae (Avicennia marina and Avicennia sp.).

Mangrove forests of Qeshm

The Mangrove forests of Qeshm or Hara forests of Qeshm are the mangrove forests on the southern coast of Iran, particularly on and near the island of Qeshm in the Persian Gulf. Dominated by the species Avicennia marina, known locally as the "hara" or "harra" tree, the forests represent an important ecological resource. The "Hara Protected Area" on Quesm and the nearby mainland is a biosphere reserve where commercial use is restricted to fishing (mainly shrimp), tourist boat trips, and limited mangrove cutting for animal feed.

Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary

For the other Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, see Thattekad Bird Sanctuary.Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is an estuarine mangrove habitat, which is declared as the bird sanctuary, and located on western tip of the Island of Chorão along the Mandovi River, Goa, in India. The sanctuary is named after Salim Ali, the eminent Indian ornithologist.

The sanctuary and island are accessed by a ferry service running between Ribander and Chorão. The sanctuary has a paved walk that runs between mangroves of Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia officinalis and other species.salim Ali loves not only a birds but also children very much.

Sipacate-Naranjo National Park

Sipacate-Naranjo National Park is located along the Pacific coast of Escuintla in Guatemala (13.919955°N 91.086473°W / 13.919955; -91.086473 (Sipacate-Naranjo National Park)). The park includes mangrove forests, lagoons and sandy beaches and covers an area of 20 km long and 1 km wide, stretching between the coastal towns of Sipacate and Naranjo.Mangrove species found in the park are white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), black mangrove (Avicennia nitida, Avicennia germinans) and several Rhizophora species, including the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Transitional tree species include the Mexican palmetto (Sabal mexicana) and the guiana chestnut (Pachira aquatica).The park's beaches are breeding areas where several endangered turtle species lay their eggs, including the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), and hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). Other reptiles found in the park are iguanas, and freshwater turtles.Over 90 bird species -both migratory and resident- have been reported, including a large nesting heron population (Ardeidae), cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae), pelicans (Pelecanidae), ibises (Threskiornithidae), plovers, dotterels, lapwings (Charadriidae) and gull species (Laridae).

Bird species of special concern found in the park but which may be under threat in Guatemala, are:

Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps),

brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis),

Great White Egret (Ardea alba),

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula),

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea

Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor),

Green Heron (Butorides virescens),

Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Nyctanassa violacea),

Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius cochlearius),

Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja),

Wood Stork (Mycteria americana),

Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus),

and Least Tern (Sterna antillarum).

Uppu Aru Lagoon

Uppu Aru lagoon is a lagoon in Jaffna District, northern Sri Lanka. The lagoon separates the Valikamam region from the Thenmarachchi region.

The lagoon is linked to Jaffna Lagoon by a short channel to the south. The lagoon's water is brackish.

The lagoon is surrounded by a densely populated region containing palmyra palms, coconut plantations, grassland, rice paddies and extensive vegetable gardens.

The lagoon has extensive mudflats and salt marshes. It is surrounded by mangroves, particularly Avicennia. The lagoon attracts a wide variety of water birds including American flamingoes, ducks, garganey, black-tailed godwit and other shorebirds.

Vadamarachchi Lagoon

Vadamarachchi lagoon (Tamil: வடமராட்சி கடல்நீரேரி) is a lagoon in Jaffna District, northern Sri Lanka. The lagoon is sometimes referred to as Thondamannar lagoon. The lagoon separates the Vadamarachchi region from the Valikamam and Thenmarachchi regions.

The lagoon is connected to the Indian Ocean by a narrow channel to the north, near the town of Thondamannar. The lagoon's water is brackish to saline. There is a sluice gate at Thondamannar to prevent sea water entering the lagoon.The lagoon is surrounded by a densely populated region containing palmyra palms, coconut palm, grassland, rice paddies, arid scrubland and open forest.

The lagoon has extensive mudflats, seagrass beds and mangrove swamps, particularly Avicennia. The lagoon attracts a wide variety of water birds including American flamingoes, ducks, gulls, terns and other shorebirds.


The Verbenaceae () are a family — the verbena family or vervain family — of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that numerous genera traditionally classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The new, narrowly circumscribed, Verbenaceae family includes some 35 genera and 1,200 species. The mangrove genus Avicennia, sometimes placed in the Verbenaceae or in its own family, Avicenniaceae, has been placed in the Acanthaceae.Economically important Verbenaceae include:

Lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla), grown for aroma or flavoring

Verbenas or vervains (Verbena), some used in herbalism, others grown in gardens

Winninowie Conservation Park

Winninowie Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the east coast of Upper Spencer Gulf about 20 kilometres (12 miles) south by east of Port Augusta and 25 kilometres (16 miles) northwest of Port Germein, in the locality of Miranda. The conservation park was proclaimed in 1990 for the purpose of conserving ‘excellent examples of several coastal and marine ecosystems with sub-tropical affiliations in a temperate environment’ including ‘significant stands of the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina var. resinifera, seagrass and samphire salt marsh communities’. The conservation park's boundaries overlap with those of the Yatala Harbour Upper Spencer Gulf Aquatic Reserve. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.

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