Avellino [avelˈliːno] listen (help·info) is a town and comune, capital of the province of Avellino in the Campania region of southern Italy. It is situated in a plain surrounded by mountains 47 kilometres (29 mi) east of Naples and is an important hub on the road from Salerno to Benevento.
|Comune di Avellino|
Corso Vittorio Emanuele
Coat of arms
Location of Avellino
Location of Avellino in Campania
|Frazioni||Bellizzi Irpino, Pianodardine, Picarelli, Valle-Ponticelli|
|• Mayor||Vincenzo Ciampi|
|• Total||30.55 km2 (11.80 sq mi)|
|Elevation||348 m (1,142 ft)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||St. Modestinus|
|Saint day||14 February|
Before the Roman conquest, the ancient Abellinum was a centre of the Samnite Hirpini, located on the Civita hill some 4 kilometres (2 mi) outside the current town, in what is now Atripalda. The city could correspond to the ancient Velecha, documented by coins found in the area. Abellinum was conquered by the Romans in 293 BC, changing name several times in the following centuries (Veneria, Livia, Augusta, Alexandriana, and Abellinatium). However, the construction of a true Roman town occurred only after the conquest by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 89 BC.
The town was Christianized around 500 AD, becoming an episcopal seat. There followed the invasions of the Goths and Vandals. After the Lombard conquest of southern Italy, the ancient city was abandoned (it is disputed if completely or partly), and a new settlement grew on the Terra hill, corresponding to the modern Avellino. Defended by a castle, it became part of the Duchy (later Principality) of Benevento and, after the latter's fall, of the Principality of Salerno.
In 1100, during the Norman rule of southern Italy, it was acquired by Riccardo dell'Aquila. Later, King Charles I of Anjou assigned it to the Montfort family, who were succeeded by the Del Balzo and the Filangieri.
The feudal rights to Avellino were purchased in 1581 by Don Marino I Caracciolo, duke of Atripalda, of a patrician family of Naples, who was made Prince of Avellino in 1589. Avellino became the main seat of the Caracciolo. Don Marino's son and grandson were consecutively Grand Chancellor of the Kingdom of Naples and chevaliers of the Order of the Golden Fleece. The grandson, Don Marino II (1587–1630), was the patron of Giambattista Basile, author of the Pentamerone.
In 1820 Avellino was seat of revolutionary riots. However, the Unification of Italy some fifty years later did not bring any benefit to the city, being cut off from the main railway line Naples-Benevento-Foggia, and far from the sea as well.
In 1943 the city was bombed by Allied planes in an attempt to cut off the retreat of German panzer units over the important Bridge of Ferriera.
Avellino has suffered from seismic activity throughout its history and was struck hard by the earthquakes of 23 November 1980 and 14 February 1981. Avellino has also received ashfall from numerous eruptions of Vesuvius which lies almost due west; the city sits on type locality of pumice deposited from a Plinian eruption of Vesuvius about 3800 years ago.
The 1980 Irpinia earthquake represented a turning point for the town and for the entire province of Avellino. Large amounts of money flowed in for infrastructure investment, and the extra money generated innovation and economic expansion more generally. By 2008 a per capita annual income level of €20,180 placed Avellino well above the regional average in terms of individual prosperity.
Agriculture was at the heart of Avellino's economy until the mid-1970s, since then many younger people have moved away from family farms, and sometimes also migrated away from the area, in pursuit of higher wages. Nevertheless, tobacco, viticulture and especially the production of hazelnuts remain important to the local economy and, with increased investment in recent years, employ a number of people.
The manufacturing sector plays an important role in Avellino, with two industrial zones on the eastern and western peripheries of the main urban area, at Pianodardine suburb, Prata di Principato Ultra and Pratola Serra. Many small and medium-sized businesses are located in the industrial zones, including notably FMA (Fabbrica Motori Automobilistici, Automobile Engine Factory) who produces Fiat Pratola Serra modular engines for Fiat, Opel, Jeep, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and creator of the "multi-jet" (fuel injected) car engine. Other significant Avellino factories belong to Novolegno (part of the Fantoni Group), Denso, Salvagnini, Magneti Marelli and Aurubis, each of them employing more than 2,000 people from Avellino and the wider surrounding area.
The station, located where the city limits of Avellino meet Atripalda, was once the terminus for passenger rail services to Benevento, Cancello, and Rocchetta Sant'Antonio. The station provided a reliable link with Benevento and Salerno. A few long distance trains to Naples and Rome were also added to try and reinvigorate the local economy, but these services came to an end in 2010, following cuts that saw the closure of the railway between Avellino and Rocchetta Sant'Antonio. A regional decree dated 9 August 2012 forced the closure of the remaining 19 local rail services. However, in response to protests from rail users a small number of services were reinstated on 28 October 2012.
Avellino is served by two access points (Avellino Est/East and Avellino Ovest/West) on the A16 Autostrada (originally numbered A17, and known also as "Autostrada of the two seas") which runs approximately west–east and links Naples to the west with Canosa and Bari on the farther side of the country. Near Naples the A16 connects with the A3 Autostrada, ensuring good road access with the principal population centres across Italy. Also important is the so-called "Ofantina" superstrada (dual carriageway) linking with several locally important towns to the east and south, en route to Salerno.
Some ruins (mostly foundings) of the ancient Abellinum can be seen near the modern village of Atripalda, 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) east of modern Avellino. They include the forum, faced by some temples, baths, parts of the Serino aqueduct and a patrician domus. There was also an amphitheatre and a brothel.
Avellino Cathedral, with its Romanesque crypt, stands on the site of a rich Roman villa which was built around 129 BC and abandoned after the eruption of Vesuvius, and an earthquake in 346 AD. The church and convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie were built in 1580.
There are some remains of the Lombard castle in Piazza Castello (Castle Square). Because the castle was built at the base of a small valley, its tactical purpose continues to puzzle modern-day historians throughout Europe.
The Fountain of Bellerophon was executed in the 17th century by Cosimo Fanzago.
In the HBO television series The Sopranos, mob boss Tony Soprano has his family roots in Avellino. Tony's grandfather, Corrado Soprano Sr, a stonemason, emigrated from Avellino to the United States in the early 20th century. In the episode "In Camelot", Junior Soprano claims "The whole village of Avellino settled in this area" in which the main characters live, in Essex County, New Jersey.
Atripalda (Irpino: Atriparda) is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, southern Italy.Baiano, Campania
Baiano is a commune, population 4,743, in the Province of Avellino in the Italian region Campania, located in the Agro Nolano.
It borders the communes of Avella, Mugnano del Cardinale, Sirignano, Sperone and Visciano.Calcio Avellino S.S.D.
Calcio Avellino Società Sportiva Dilettantistica is an Italian football club based in Avellino, Campania. The team plays in Serie D due to submitting unsatisfactory paperwork to Serie B.
It is the official continuity club of U.S. Avellino, who went bankrupt in 2009 and then was excluded from Serie B in 2018, admitted to Serie D by Article 52 of N.O.I.F. in the same year. The club was renamed as Associazione Sportiva Avellino 1912 in 2010 and restored to the original Unione Sportiva Avellino 1912 in 2015, before assuming the current denomination in 2018.European route E841
European route E 841 is a European B class road in Italy, connecting the cities Avellino – Salerno.Franco Colomba
Franco Colomba (born 6 February 1955 in Grosseto) is an Italian football coach and former player, most recently in charge of Serie B club Livorno.List of foreign Serie B players
This is a list of foreign players in Serie B of the Italian football league system. The following players:
have played at least one Serie B game for the respective club;
have not been capped for the Italian national team on any level, independently from the birthplace, except for players born in San Marino and active in the Italian national team before the first official match of the Sammarinese national team played on November 14, 1990 and players of Italian formation born abroad from Italian parents;
have been born in Italy and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Italy.These are all the teams that have had at least a foreign player while playing in a Serie A season and in bold are the ones currently playing for the 2018–19 season :
AlbinoLeffe, Alessandria, Alzano Virescit, Ancona, Arezzo, Ascoli, Atalanta, Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Bologna, Brescia, Cagliari, Carpi, Castel di Sangro, Catania, Catanzaro, Cesena, Chievo, Cittadella, Como, Cosenza, Crema, Cremonese, Crotone, Empoli, Entella, Fanfulla Lodi, Fermana, Fidelis Andria, Fiorentina, Foggia, Frosinone, Gallipoli, Genoa, Gubbio, Juve Stabia, Juventus, Lanciano, Latina, Lazio, Lecce, Lecco, Legnano, Licata, Livorno, Lucchese, Maceratese, Mantova, Messina, Milan, Modena, Napoli, Nocerina, Novara, Padova, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Portogruaro, Piacenza, Pisa, Pistoiese, Pro Patria, Pro Vercelli, Reggiana, Reggina, Rimini, Roma, Salernitana, Sampdoria, Sassuolo, Siena, SPAL, Spezia, Taranto, Ternana, Torino, Trapani, Treviso, Triestina, Udinese, Varese, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza, Voghera.
These are the only teams that have participated in Serie A but have not had a foreign player: Acireale, Alba Roma, Barletta, Biellese, Bolzano, Brindisi, Campobasso, Carrarese Calcio, Casale, Cavese, Centese, Derthona, Fiumana, Forlì, Magenta, Massese
In bold are the players that have played at least one game in the 2018–19 season.List of mayors of Avellino
The Mayor of Avellino is an elected politician who, along with the Avellino's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Avellino in Campania, Italy. The position has been held by a special commissioner since 27 November 2018, when the Mayor Vincenzo Ciampi resigned after a motion of no confidence.List of railway stations in Campania
This is the list of the railway stations in Campania owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.Luogosano
Luogosano is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, Italy.Monteverde, Campania
Monteverde is a comune in the province of Avellino in Southern Italy.Morra De Sanctis
Morra De Sanctis is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, southern Italy.Province of Avellino
The Province of Avellino (Italian: Provincia di Avellino) is a province in the Campania region of Southern Italy. The area is characterized by numerous small towns and villages scattered across the province; only two towns have a population over 20,000: its capital city Avellino and Ariano Irpino.S.S. Felice Scandone
S.S. Felice Scandone, also known for sponsorship reasons as Sidigas Avellino or Sidigas Scandone, is an Italian professional basketball club based in Avellino, Campania. Founded in 1948, the team has been a regular in the Lega Basket Serie A (LBA), the first tier of basketball in Italy. The club won one trophy in its existence, as it won the Italian Cup championship in 2008.Sant'Angelo all'Esca
Sant'Angelo all'Esca is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, southern Italy.Sirignano
Sirignano is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, Italy.Stadio Partenio-Adriano Lombardi
The Stadio Partenio-Lombardi is a multi-purpose stadium in Avellino, Italy. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home of U.S. Avellino 1912. The stadium was built in 1973 and holds 26,308.On 9 June 2011 the stadium was dedicated to former Avellino player Adriano Lombardi.Supercoppa di Serie C
The Supercoppa di Serie C, formerly named Supercoppa di Lega Pro, is an Italian football competition played by the three group winners of Serie C. It has been contested since the 1999–2000 season.Totonero 1980
Totonero 1980 or Totonero was a match-fixing scandal in Italy in 1980 in Italian Serie A and Serie B. It was uncovered on 23 March 1980 by the Guardia di Finanza, after the complaint of two Roman shopkeepers, Alvaro Trinca and Massimo Cruciani, who declared that some Italian football players sold football matches for money.
The protagonists in this scandal were Avellino, Bologna, Juventus, Lazio, Milan, Napoli, Perugia, Pescara (Serie A), Genoa, Lecce, Palermo, Pistoiese and Taranto (Serie B). Notably, Paolo Rossi was suspended for three years (reduced to two on appeal), and upon his return helped Italy in their successful 1982 FIFA World Cup campaign.Zungoli
Zungoli is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, southern Italy, about 58 kilometres (36 mi) from the town of Avellino.
Located in Irpinia historical district between the Ufita Valley and Daunian Mountains, Zungoli is awarded two quality marks: Bandiera arancione and I borghi più belli d'Italia.
Zungoli is believed to have been settled around 900 AD. Many of the Italians in Dobbs Ferry in the U.S. state of New York are descendants of immigrants from Zungoli, as are communities of Italians in Bristol UK.
The town is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia and its territory borders the municipalities of Anzano di Puglia, Ariano Irpino, Flumeri, Monteleone di Puglia, San Sossio Baronia, and Villanova del Battista.