Avatar

An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: avatāra), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.[1][2] The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to any guru or revered human being.[3][4]

The word avatar does not appear in the Vedic literature,[5] but appears in verb forms in post-Vedic literature, and as a noun particularly in the Puranic literature after the 6th century CE.[6] Despite that, the concept of an avatar is compatible with the content of the Vedic literature like the Upanishads as it is symbolic imagery of the Saguna Brahman concept in the philosophy of Hinduism. The Rigveda describes Indra as endowed with a mysterious power of assuming any form at will.[7][8] The Bhagavad Gita expounds the doctrine of Avatara but with terms other than avatar.[6][9]

Theologically, the term is most often associated with the Hindu god Vishnu, though the idea has been applied to other deities.[10] Varying lists of avatars of Vishnu appear in Hindu scriptures, including the ten Dashavatara of the Garuda Purana and the twenty-two avatars in the Bhagavata Purana, though the latter adds that the incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable.[11] The avatars of Vishnu are important in Vaishnavism theology. In the goddess-based Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, avatars of the Devi in different appearances such as Tripura Sundari, Durga and Kali are commonly found.[12][13][14] While avatars of other deities such as Ganesha and Shiva are also mentioned in medieval Hindu texts, this is minor and occasional.[15] The incarnation doctrine is one of the important differences between Vaishnavism and Shaivism traditions of Hinduism.[16][17]

Incarnation concepts similar to avatar are also found in Buddhism,[18] Christianity,[5] and other religions.[18] The scriptures of Sikhism include the names of numerous Hindu gods and goddesses, but it rejected the doctrine of savior incarnation and endorsed the view of Hindu Bhakti movement saints such as Namdev that formless eternal god is within the human heart and man is his own savior.[19][20]

Vishnu Surrounded by his Avatars
Hindu god Vishnu surrounded by his Avatars.

Etymology and meaning

The Sanskrit noun (avatāra /ˈævətɑːr, ˌævəˈtɑːr/;[21] Hindustani: [əʋˈtaːr]) is derived from the Sanskrit roots ava (down) and tṛ (to cross over).[22] These roots trace back, states Monier-Williams, to -taritum, -tarati, -rītum.[3]

Avatar literally means "descent, alight, to make one's appearance",[3] and refers to the embodiment of the essence of a superhuman being or a deity in another form.[22] The word also implies "to overcome, to remove, to bring down, to cross something".[3] In Hindu traditions, the "crossing or coming down" is symbolism, states Daniel Bassuk, of the divine descent from "eternity into the temporal realm, from unconditioned to the conditioned, from infinitude to finitude".[5] An avatar, states Justin Edwards Abbott, is a saguna (with form, attributes) embodiment of the nirguna Brahman or Atman (soul).[23]

Neither the Vedas nor the Principal Upanishads ever mention the word avatar as a noun.[5] The verb roots and form, such as avatarana, do appear in ancient post-Vedic Hindu texts, but as "action of descending", but not as an incarnated person (avatara).[24] The related verb avatarana is, states Paul Hacker, used with double meaning, one as action of the divine descending, another as "laying down the burden of man" suffering from the forces of evil.[24] Mahesh is an avatar of Lord Vishnu.

The term is most commonly found in the context of the Hindu god Vishnu.[1][3] The earliest mention of Vishnu manifested in a human form to empower the good and fight against evil, uses other terms such as the word sambhavāmi in verse 4.6 and the word tanu in verse 9.11 of the Bhagavad Gita,[4] as well as other words such as akriti and rupa elsewhere.[25] It is in medieval era texts, those composed after the sixth century CE, that the noun version of avatar appears, where it means embodiment of a deity.[26] The idea proliferates thereafter, in the Puranic stories for many deities, and with ideas such as ansha-avatar or partial embodiments.[4][1]

The term avatar, in colloquial use, is also an epithet or a word of reverence for any extraordinary human being who is revered for his or her ideas.[22] In some contexts, the term avatara just means a "landing place, site of sacred pilgrimage", or just "achieve one's goals after effort", or retranslation of a text in another language.[3] The term avatar is not unique to Hinduism. It is found in the Trikaya doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism, in descriptions for the Dalai Lama in Tibetan Buddhism, and many ancient cultures.[18]

Avatar versus incarnation

The manifest embodiment is sometimes referred to as an incarnation.[27] The translation of avatar as "incarnation" has been questioned by Christian theologians, who state that an incarnation is in flesh and imperfect, while avatar is mythical and perfect.[28][29] The theological concept of Christ as an incarnation, as found in Christology, presents the Christian concept of incarnation. According to Oduyoye and Vroom, this is different from the Hindu concept of avatar because avatars in Hinduism are unreal and is similar to Docetism.[30] Sheth disagrees and states that this claim is an incorrect understanding of the Hindu concept of avatar.[31][note 1] Avatars are true embodiments of spiritual perfection, one driven by noble goals, in Hindu traditions such as Vaishnavism.[31]

Avatars of Vishnu

The concept of avatar within Hinduism is most often associated with Vishnu, the preserver or sustainer aspect of God within the Hindu Trinity or Trimurti of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Vishnu's avatars descend to empower the good and fight evil, thereby restoring Dharma. Traditional Hindus see themselves not as "Hindu", but as Vaishnava (Worshippers of Vishnu), Shaiva (Worshippers of Shiva), or Shakta (Worshipper of the Shakti). Each of the deities has its own iconography and mythology, but common to all is the fact that the divine reality has an explicit form, a form that the worshipper can behold.[33] An oft-quoted passage from the Bhagavad Gita describes the typical role of an avatar of Vishnu:[10][29]

Whenever righteousness wanes and unrighteousness increases I send myself forth.
For the protection of the good and for the destruction of evil,
and for the establishment of righteousness,
I come into being age after age.

— Bhagavad Gita 4.7–8

The Vishnu avatars appear in Hindu mythology whenever the cosmos is in crisis, typically because the evil has grown stronger and has thrown the cosmos out of its balance.[34] The avatar then appears in a material form, to destroy evil and its sources, and restore the cosmic balance between the ever-present forces of good and evil.[34]

The most known and celebrated avatars of Vishnu, within the Vaishnavism traditions of Hinduism, are Krishna, Rama, Narayana and Vasudeva. These names have extensive literature associated with them, each has its own characteristics, legends and associated arts.[29] The Mahabharata, for example, includes Krishna, while the Ramayana includes Rama.[35]

Dashavatara

The Bhagavata Purana describes Vishnu's avatars as innumerable, though ten of his incarnations (Dashavatara), are celebrated therein as his major appearances.[11][29] The ten major Vishnu avatars are mentioned in the Agni Purana, the Garuda Purana and the Bhagavata Purana;[36][37]

The ten best known avatars of Vishnu are collectively known as the Dasavatara (a Sanskrit compound meaning "ten avatars"). Five different lists are included in the Bhagavata Purana, where the difference is in the sequence of the names. Freda Matchett states that this re-sequencing by the composers may be intentional, so as to avoid implying priority or placing something definitive and limited to the abstract.[38]

The Avatars of Vishnu
Name Description Image Reference
Matsya Half fish - half man avatar. He saves the world from a cosmic deluge, with the help of a boat made of the Vedas (knowledge), on which he also rescues Manu (progenitor of man) and all living beings. Demon, Hayagriva steals and tries to destroy the Vedas, but Matsya finds the demon, kills him, and returns the Vedas. NarayanaTirumala10 [39]
Kurma[note 2] Tortoise avatar. He supports the cosmos, while the gods and demons churn the cosmic ocean with the help of serpent Vasuki to produce the nectar of immortality (just like churning milk to produce butter). The churning produces both the good and the bad, including poison and immortality nectar. Nobody wants the poison, everyone wants the immortality nectar. The demons attempt to steal the nectar, wherein Vishnu appears as enchantress Mohini avatar, for whom they all fall, and give her the nectar. Kurma at Saptashrungi [40]
Varaha Boar avatar. He rescues goddess earth when the demon Hiranyaksha kidnaps her and hides her in the depths of cosmic ocean. The boar finds her and kills the demon, and the goddess holds onto the tusk of the boar as he lifts her back to the surface. Badami Cave 2 si05-1588 [41]
Narasimha Half lion-half man avatar. Demon king Hiranyakashipu becomes enormously powerful, gains special powers by which no man or animal could kill him, then bullies and persecutes people who disagree with him, including his own son. The Man-Lion avatar creatively defeats those special powers, kills Hiranyakashipu, and rescues demon's son Prahlada who opposes his own father. The legend is a part of the Hindu festival Holi folklore. Deshaavathaaram4 narasimham [42]
Vamana Dwarf avatar. Demon king Bali gains disproportionately enormous powers, ruling the entire universe and abusing it. The dwarf avatar approaches Bali in the form of a monk, when Bali is trying to show off by giving alms at a sacrifice. Bali offers the dwarf any riches he wants, the monk refuses and asks for three steps of land. Bali grants it to him. The dwarf grows, in his first step takes the earth, the second all of the heavens, and for the third the netherworld where Bali returns to. Deshaavathaaram5 vamanan [43]
Parashurama Sage with an axe avatar. The warrior class gets too powerful, and seizes other people's property for their own pleasure. The avatar appears as a sage with an axe, kills the king and all his warrior companions. Parashurama with axe [44]
Rama Subject of Ramayana Statue of Rama in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh [45]
Krishna Subject of the Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita Ananda Krishna and Nagaraja [46]
Buddha Subject of Buddhism.[47] Some Hindu texts replace Buddha or another avatar with Balarama, or with Lord Balaji, or with Rishabhanatha, the first Tīrthankara of Jainism.[48][49] Buddha's statue near Belum Caves Andhra Pradesh India [50][note 3]
Kalki[note 4] The last avatar appears as a man with a winged white horse, projected to end the Kali yuga, in order that the cosmos may renew and restart. Kalki1790s [43]

Longer alternatives

The Bhagavata Purana also goes on to give an alternate list, wherein it numerically lists out 22 Vishnu avatars in chapter 1.3.[52]

  1. Four Kumaras (Catursana) [BP 1.3.6] – the four Sons of god Brahma and exemplified the path of devotion
  2. Varaha [BP 1.3.7]- The divine warthog who lifts earth from cosmic waters
  3. Narada [BP 1.3.8] -the divine-sage who travels the worlds as a devotee of Vishnu
  4. Nara-Narayana [BP 1.3.9] – the twin-sages
  5. Kapila [BP 1.3.10] – a renowned sage spoken of in the Mahabharata, son of Kardama Muni and Devahuti and sometimes identified with the founder of the Samkhya school of philosophy
  6. Dattatreya [BP 1.3.11] – the combined avatar of the Hindu trinity Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. He was born to the sage Atri became a great seer himself
  7. Yajna [BP 1.3.12] – the lord of fire-sacrifice, who was also a previous Indra – the lord of heaven
  8. Rishabha [BP 1.3.13] – the father of Bharata Chakravartin and Bahubali
  9. Prithu [BP 1.3.14] – the sovereign-king who milked the earth as a cow to get the world's grain and vegetation and also invented agriculture
  10. Matsya [BP 1.3.15]- A narwhal who guided Manu's ark during the pralaya (deluge) and also killed demon Hayagriva
  11. Kurma [BP 1.3.16]- A giant tortoise who balances Mount Mandara atop his caprice during the churning of the cosmic ocean of milk
  12. Dhanvantari [BP 1.3.17] – the father of Ayurvedic medicine and a physician to the Devas
  13. Mohini [BP 1.3.17] – the enchantress
  14. Narasimha [BP 1.3.18]- The man-lion who kills demon Hiranyakashpu
  15. Vamana [BP 1.3.19]- The dwarf
  16. Parashurama [BP 1.3.20]- The Brahmin warrior with an axe who kills Kartyavira Arjuna and his Kshatriya allies
  17. Rama [BP 1.3.22]- 'Perfect King' from Suryavansha, Subject of Ramayana
  18. Vyasa [BP] 1.3.21] – the compiler of the scriptures – Vedas and writer of the scriptures Puranas and the epic Mahabharata
  19. Balarama [BP 1.3.23]- Lord of agriculture and elder brother to Krishna
  20. Krishna [BP 1.3.23]-Subject of the Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita
  21. Buddha [BP 1.3.24]- The enlightened teacher
  22. Kalki [BP 1.3.26]- The future lawgiver

Avatars like Hayagriva, Hamsa and Garuda are also mentioned in the Pañcaratra making the total of thirty-nine avatars.[53] However, despite these lists, the commonly accepted number of ten avatars for Vishnu was fixed well before the 10th century CE.[36]

Types

Mohini in Belur temple
Mohini, the female avatar of Vishnu (statue at Belur temple, Karnataka.)

The avatar concept was further developed and refined in later Hindu texts. One approach was to identify full avatar and partial avatars; Krishna, Rama and Narasimha were full avatars (purna avatars), while others were partial avatars (ansha avatars).[32] Some declared, states Noel Sheth, that every living creature is an avatar of Vishnu.[32] The Pancharatra text of Vaishnavism declares that Vishnu's avatar include those that are direct and complete (sakshad), indirect and endowed (avesha), cosmic and salvific (vyuha), inner and inspirational (antaryamin), consecrated and in the form of image (archa).[32]

Yet another classification, developed in Krishna schools, centers around Guna-avatars, Purusha-avatars and Lila-avatars, with their subtypes.[54][55] The Guna-avatar classification of avatars is based on the Guṇas concept of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, that is Rajas (Brahma), Sattva (Vishnu), and Tamas (Shiva).[54][55] These personalities of the Trimurti are referred to as Guna avatars.[54] The Purushavatara are three. The first evolves the matter (Prakriti), the second is the soul present in each individual creature, the third is the interconnected oneness or Brahman that connects all souls.[54][56] The Lilavataras are partial or full manifestations of Vishnu, where either some powers (Shakti) or material parts of him exist.[54][55]

Vishnu is Purushavatara.[57][58] The Matsya, Kurma and Vamana avatars of Vishnu are Lilavataras.[55][57] A Purnarupa in this classification, is when Vishnu manifests completely along with his qualities and powers. In Bengal Vaishnavism, Krishna is the Purnarupa.[54] In Shaivism, Bhairava is the purnarupa of Shiva.[59]

In Sikhism

24 avatars of Vishnu are mentioned in Bachitar Natak's composition in Dasam Granth, the second scripture of Sikhs written by Guru Gobind Singh:[60]

  1. Macha (Matsya)
  2. Kaccha (Kurma)
  3. Narayana (Narayana in Nara-Narayana)
  4. Maha Mohini (Mohini)
  5. Bairaha (Varaha)
  6. Nar Singha (Narasimha)
  7. Bavana (Vamana)
  8. Parashurama
  9. Brahma
  10. Bishan (Vishnu)
  11. Sheshayi (Shesh)
  12. Manu Raja
  13. Dhanvantari
  14. Suraja (the sun)
  15. Chandara (the moon)
  16. Arihant Dev
  17. Rama
  18. Balarama
  19. Krishna
  20. Nara (Nara in Nara-Narayana, ie, Arjuna)
  21. Buddha
  22. Kalki

The Guru Granth Sahib reverentially includes the names of numerous Hindu deities, including Vishnu avatars such as Krishna, Hari, and Rama, as well those of Devi as Durga.[61][62][63]

Dasam Granth has three major compositions, one each dedicated to avatars of Vishnu (Chaubis avatar) and Brahma.[60][64] However, Sikhism rejects the doctrine of savior incarnation, and only accepts the abstract nirguna formless god.[19][65] The Sikh Gurus endorsed the view of Hindu Bhakti movement saints such as Namdev (~1270 – 1350 CE) that formless eternal god is within human heart and man is his own savior.[19][66]

Avatars of Ganesha

The Linga Purana declares that Ganesha incarnates to destroy demons and to help the gods and pious people.[67] The two upapuranas – Ganesha Purana and Mudgala Purana – detail the avatars of Ganesha. Both these upapuranas are core scriptures of the Ganapatya sect – exclusively dedicated to Ganesha worship.

Four avatars of Ganesha are listed in the Ganesha Purana: Mohotkata, Mayūreśvara, Gajanana and Dhumraketu. Each avatar corresponds to a different yuga, has a different mount and different skin complexion, but all the avatars have a common purpose – to slay demons.[68]

The Mudgala Purana describes eight avatars of Ganesha:[69]

  1. Vakratunda (Vakratuṇḍa) ("twisting trunk"), his mount is a lion.
  2. Ekadanta ("single tusk"), his mount is a mouse.
  3. Mahodara ("big belly"), his mount is a mouse.
  4. Gajavaktra (or Gajānana) ("elephant face"), his mount is a mouse.
  5. Lambodara ("pendulous belly"), his mount is a mouse.
  6. Vikata (Vikaṭa) ("unusual form", "misshapen"), his mount is a peacock.
  7. Vighnaraja (Vighnarāja) ("king of obstacles"), his mount is the celestial serpent Śeṣa.
  8. Dhumravarna (Dhūmravarṇa) ("grey color") corresponds to Śiva, his mount is a horse.

Avatars of Shiva

Sarabha Narasinmha Kangra
Sharabha (right) with Narasimha (18th-century painting, Pahari/Kangra School)

Although Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to avatars of Shiva, the avatar doctrine is neither universally accepted nor commonly adopted in Shaivism.[70] The views on the doctrine of incarnation has been one of the significant doctrinal differences between Vaishnavism and Shaivism, in addition to their differences on the role of householder life versus monastic life for spiritual release.[16][17][71] Shaivism is a transcendental theology, where man, with the help of his Guru, is his own savior.[71]

The Linga Purana lists twenty-eight avatars of Shiva.[72] In the Shiva Purana there is a distinctly Saivite version of a traditional avatar myth: Shiva brings forth Virabhadra, one of his terrifying forms, in order to calm Narasimha, an avatar of Vishnu. When that fails, Shiva manifests as the human-lion-bird Sharabha which calms down lion-bird Narasimha avatar of Vishnu, and Shiva then gives Vishnu a chakra as gift. A similar story is told in the late medieval era Sharabha Upanishad.[73] However, Vaishnava Dvaita school refutes this Shaivite view of Narasimha.[74]

The monkey-god Hanuman who helped Rama – the Vishnu avatar is considered by some to be the eleventh avatar of Rudra (Shiva).[75][76] Some regional deities like Khandoba are also believed by some to be avatars of Shiva.[77][78]

Shesha and his avatars (Balarama and Lakshmana) are occasionally linked to Shiva.[79][80][81][82] Adi Shankara, the formulator of Advaita Vedanta, is also occasionally regarded as an avatar of Shiva.[83]

In Dasam Granth, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned two avatars of Rudra: Dattatreya Avatar and Parasnath Avatar.[84]

Avatars of Devi

Avatars of Devi. From up to down: Durga, Kali, Sita, Parvati.

Durga Mahisasuramardini
Kali by Raja Ravi Varma
Sitas Exile by Raja Ravi Varma (1848 - 1906)
A sculpture of the Hindu deity Parvati, 1050-1100 AD India

Avatars are also observed in Shaktism, the sect dedicated to the worship of the Goddess (Devi), but they do not have universal acceptance in the sect. The Devi Bhagavata Purana describes the descent of Devi avatars to punish the wicked and defend the righteous – much as the Bhagavata Purana does with the avatars of Vishnu.[85] Like Vishnu, his consort Lakshmi incarnates as Sita and Radha – the consorts of Rama and Krishna avatars.[86] Nilakantha, an 18th-century commentator on the Devi Bhagavata Purana – which includes the Devi Gita – says that various avatars of the Goddess includes Shakambhari and even the masculine Krishna and Rama – generally thought to be Vishnu's avatars.[87] Lakshmi and Saraswati are main goddesses worshipped as Devi avatars.[88]

Avatars of Lakshmi

Sridevi and Bhudevi are two different forms of Goddess Lakshmi. Dharini, the consort of Parashurama, Sita, the consort of Rama and Yashodhara, the consort of Siddhartha along with the consorts of the previous incarnations of Vishnu are all considered full incarnations of Lakshmi.On the other hand, Radha and the gopis, Rukmini, Satyabhama and the rest of Krishna's wives with the exception of Yamuna are all considered partial incarnations of Lakshmi.

Avatars of Brahma

In Dasam Granth, second scriptures of Sikhs written by Guru Gobind Singh, mentioned seven Brahma Avatars.[89]

  1. Valmiki Avatar
  2. Kashyapa Avatar
  3. Dattatreya Avatar
  4. Lakshman Avatar
  5. Vyasa Avatar
  6. Balarama Avatar
  7. Kalidasa Avatar

According to the Skanda Purana, Brahma incarnated himself as Yajnavalkya in response to a curse from Shiva.[90]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Buddha, a real person, is included as an avatar of Vishnu in many Hindu texts.[32]
  2. ^ Mohini, the female avatar of Vishnu, appears in stories about the Kurma avatar.[40]
  3. ^ Some versions include Balarama (the elder brother of Krishna) as the eighth avatar, with Krishna listed as the ninth instead of Buddha, while others replace Buddha with Balarama as the ninth avatar. Jayadeva in his Git Govinda instead adds both Balarama and Buddha, but omits Krishna as he is taken as the equivalent of Vishnu, the origin of all avatars.[51]
  4. ^ Some medieval Indian texts spell it as Kalkin.

References

  1. ^ a b c James Lochtefeld (2002), "Avatar" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 72-73
  2. ^ Geoffrey Parrinder (1997). Avatar and Incarnation: The Divine in Human Form in the World's Religions. Oneworld. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-85168-130-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Monier Monier-Williams (1923). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 90.
  4. ^ a b c Sheth 2002, pp. 98-99.
  5. ^ a b c d Daniel E Bassuk (1987). Incarnation in Hinduism and Christianity: The Myth of the God-Man. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-1-349-08642-9.
  6. ^ a b Paul Hacker 1978, pp. 424, also 405–409, 414–417.
  7. ^ Rig Veda 3.53.8 (Maghavan); 6.47.18 (Indra)
  8. ^ Swami Harshananda, A Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Ramakrishna Math, Bangalore (2008) Vol.1, page 221
  9. ^ Sheth 2002, pp. 98–99.
  10. ^ a b Kinsley, David (2005). Lindsay Jones, ed. Gale's Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (Second ed.). Thomson Gale. pp. 707–708. ISBN 978-0-02-865735-6.
  11. ^ a b Bryant, Edwin Francis (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press US. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-19-514891-6.
  12. ^ Sheth 2002, pp. 98–125.
  13. ^ Hawley, John Stratton; Vasudha Narayanan (2006). The life of Hinduism. University of California Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-520-24914-1.
  14. ^ David R. Kinsley (1998). Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: The Ten Mahāvidyās. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 115–119. ISBN 978-81-208-1522-3.
  15. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shiva" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 635
  16. ^ a b Lai Ah Eng (2008). Religious Diversity in Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. p. 221. ISBN 978-981-230-754-5.
  17. ^ a b Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.
  18. ^ a b c Sheth 2002, pp. 115-116 with note 2.
  19. ^ a b c Eleanor Nesbitt (2005). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 16, 24–25. ISBN 978-0-19-157806-9.
  20. ^ Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, pages xxxiv-xli
  21. ^ "avatar". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  22. ^ a b c Sheth 2002, p. 98.
  23. ^ Justin Edwards Abbott (1980). Life of Tukaram: Translation from Mahipati's Bhaktalilamrita. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 335–336. ISBN 978-81-208-0170-7.
  24. ^ a b Paul Hacker 1978, pp. 415-417.
  25. ^ Paul Hacker 1978, pp. 405-409.
  26. ^ Paul Hacker 1978, pp. 424, also 405-409, 414-417.
  27. ^ Sebastian C. H. Kim (2008). Christian Theology in Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 169–176. ISBN 978-1-139-47206-7.
  28. ^ Sheth 2002, pp. 107-109.
  29. ^ a b c d Matchett, Freda (2001). Krishna, Lord or Avatara?: the relationship between Krishna and Vishnu. 9780700712816. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7007-1281-6.
  30. ^ Mercy Amba Oduyoye, H. M. Vroom, One gospel – many cultures: case studies and reflections on cross-cultural theology, Rodopi, 2003, ISBN 978-90-420-0897-7, p. 111.
  31. ^ a b Sheth 2002, p. 108.
  32. ^ a b c d Sheth 2002, p. 99.
  33. ^ Woodhead, Partridge, Kawanami, Linda, Christopher, Hiroko (2016). Religions in the Modern World- Traditions and Transformations, 3rd Edition. Routeledge. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-415-85881-6.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ a b James Lochtefeld 2002, p. 228.
  35. ^ King, Anna S. (2005). The intimate other: love divine in Indic religions. Orient Blackswan. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-81-250-2801-7.
  36. ^ a b Mishra, Vibhuti Bhushan (1973). Religious beliefs and practices of North India during the early mediaeval period, Volume 1. BRILL. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-90-04-03610-9.
  37. ^ Rukmani, T. S. (1970). A critical study of the Bhagavata Purana, with special reference to bhakti. Chowkhamba Sanskrit studies. 77. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series. p. 4.
  38. ^ Matchett 2001, p. 160.
  39. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 228-229.
  40. ^ a b James Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 705-705.
  41. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, p. 119.
  42. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 421-422.
  43. ^ a b James Lochtefeld 2002, p. 737.
  44. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 500-501.
  45. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 550-552.
  46. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 370-372.
  47. ^ Daniel E Bassuk (1987). Incarnation in Hinduism and Christianity: The Myth of the God-Man. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-349-08642-9.
  48. ^ Sheth 2002, p. 117 with notes 12 and 13.
  49. ^ Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6., Quote: "A Dashavatara panel at Vijayanagara has Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama, Balarama, Jina, Kalkin. A Jina, a Jain Tirthankara was also depicted in Dashavatara panels elsewhere including in Gujarat."
  50. ^ James Lochtefeld 2002, p. 128.
  51. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 74.
  52. ^ Bhag-P 1.3 Archived 2013-05-21 at the Wayback Machine Canto 1, Chapter 3
  53. ^ Schrader, Friedrich Otto (1916). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya saṃhitā. Adyar Library. p. 42.
  54. ^ a b c d e f Sheth 2002, p. 100.
  55. ^ a b c d Barbara A. Holdrege (2015). Bhakti and Embodiment: Fashioning Divine Bodies and Devotional Bodies in Krsna Bhakti. Routledge. pp. 50–67. ISBN 978-1-317-66910-4.
  56. ^ Janmajit Roy (2002). Theory of Avatāra and Divinity of Chaitanya. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-81-269-0169-2.
  57. ^ a b Daniel E Bassuk (1987). Incarnation in Hinduism and Christianity: The Myth of the God-Man. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-1-349-08642-9.
  58. ^ Mittal, Sushil (2004). The Hindu World. New York: Routledge. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-203-67414-7.
  59. ^ David Smith (2003). The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India. Cambridge University Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8.
  60. ^ a b SS Kapoor and MK Kapoor (2009), Composition 8, 9 and 10, Dasam Granth, Hemkunt, ISBN 9788170103257, pages 16-17
  61. ^ Torkel Brekke (2014), Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Editors: Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521450386, pages 673, 675, 672-686;
    Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, pages xxxiv-xli
  62. ^ SS Kapoor and MK Kapoor (2009), Composition 8, 9 and 10, Dasam Granth, Hemkunt, ISBN 9788170103257, pages 15-16
  63. ^ Pashaura Singh; Norman Gerald Barrier; W. H. McLeod (2004). Sikhism and History. Oxford University Press. pp. 136–147. ISBN 978-0-19-566708-0.
  64. ^ J Deol (2000), Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity (Editors: AS Mandair, C Shackle, G Singh), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700713899, pages 31-33
  65. ^ William Owen Cole (2004). Understanding Sikhism. Dunedin Academic. pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-1-903765-15-9.
  66. ^ Pashaura Singh (2011). Mark Juergensmeyer and Wade Clark Roof, ed. Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4522-6656-5.
  67. ^ Grimes, John A. (1995). Gaṇapati: song of the self. SUNY Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7914-2439-1.
  68. ^ Grimes, pp. 100–105.
  69. ^ Phyllis Granoff, "Gaṇeśa as Metaphor," in Robert L. Brown (ed.) Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God, pp. 94–5, note 2. ISBN 0-7914-0657-1
  70. ^ Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey (1982). Avatar and incarnation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-0-19-520361-5.
  71. ^ a b Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002). Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives. Rodopi. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-420-1510-4.
  72. ^ Winternitz, Moriz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1981). A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 543–544. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3.
  73. ^ SG Desai (1996), A critical study of the later Upanishads, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pages 109-110
  74. ^ Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A history of the Dvaita school of Vedānta and its literature: from the earliest beginnings to our own times. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 412. ISBN 978-81-208-1575-9.
  75. ^ Lutgendorf, Philip (2007). Hanuman's tale: the messages of a divine monkey. Oxford University Press US. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8.
  76. ^ Catherine Ludvík (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5.
  77. ^ Sontheimer, Gunther-Dietz (1990). "God as King for All: The Sanskrit Malhari Mahatmya and its context". In Hans Bakker. The History of Sacred Places in India as Reflected in Traditional Literature. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09318-8. p.118
  78. ^ Sontheimer, Gunther-Dietz (1989). "Between Ghost and God: Folk Deity of the Deccan". In Hiltebeitel, Alf. Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. State University of New York Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-88706-981-9.
  79. ^ Matchett, Freda (2001). Krsna: Lord or Avatara?. Routledge. p. 63. There are strong links between Samkarsana/Sesa and Siva, so that it is not difficult to see in this pale companion of the dark Krsna a reminder of Siva’s parity with Visnu, even though Visnu still has the lead.
  80. ^ The Padma-Purana: Part IX. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1956. pp. 3164–3165. The Lord, Visnu, took his place in the egg. Then with his mind devoted to the supreme spirit, Brahma meditated upon Visnu. At the end of the meditation a drop of perspiration was produced from his forehead. That drop, of the shape of a bubble, in a moment fell on the earth. O you of an excellent face, I, having three eyes, a trident, and adorned with the crown of the matted hair, was born from that bubble. With modesty I asked the lord of gods: "What shall I do?" Then God Visnu, with delight, thus spoke to me: "O Rudra, you will bring about a fierce-looking destruction of the world, (after) actually being (my) portion, viz. Samkarsana, O you of an excellent face."
  81. ^ Mahalik, Er. Nirakar (2010). "Lord Balarama" (PDF). Orissa Review. So Balarama became (Bala+Deva) Baladeva. Krishna and Balarama are regarded as Hari and Hara. Here Balarama is regarded as Lord Siva. Siva is helping Vishnu in every incarnation like Rama-Laxman in Tretaya Yuga. In Dwapar Yuga as Krishna-Balarama and in Kali Yuga they are Jagannath and Balabhadra.
  82. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2010). "Elder Brother of God". Devdutt. Some say that Krishna is Vishnu, Balarama is Shiva and Subhadra is Devi, thus the three siblings represent the three main schools of Hindu theism: Vaishnava, Shaiva and Shakta.
  83. ^ Doniger, Wendy (2010). The Hindus: An Alternative History. Oxford University Press. p. 508. The gods complained to Shiva that Vishnu had entered the body of the Buddha on earth for their sake, but now the haters of religion, despising Brahmins and the dharma of class and stage of life, filled the earth. “Not a single man performs a ritual, for all have become heretics—Buddhists, Kapalikas, and so forth—and so we eat no offerings.” Shiva consented to become incarnate as Shankara, to reestablish Vedic dharma, which keeps the universe happy, and to destroy evil behavior.
  84. ^ SS Kapoor and MK Kapoor (2009), Composition 10, Rudra Avtar, Dasam Granth, Hemkunt, ISBN 9788170103257, page 17
  85. ^ Brown, Cheever Mackenzie (1990). The triumph of the goddess: the canonical models and theological visions of the Devī-Bhāgavata Purāṇa. SUNY Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7914-0363-1.
  86. ^ Hindu Avatāra and Christian Incarnation: A Comparison, Noel Sheth Philosophy East and West, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Jan., 2002), pp. 98, 117.
  87. ^ Brown, Cheever Mackenzie (1998). The Devī Gītā: the song of the Goddess. SUNY Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-7914-3940-1. verses 9.22cd-23ab
  88. ^ Brown, p. 270.
  89. ^ Kapoor, S.S. Dasam Granth. Hemkunt Press. p. 16. ISBN 9788170103257. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  90. ^ The Skanda-Purana: Part XVII. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 2002. p. 130. After seeing his (of Brahma) aberration on the altar at the time of marriage, Sambhu cursed him. He was then born as Yajnavalkya. Sakalya engaged Yajnavalkya in the royal palace for the performance of the Santi rites.

Bibliography

External links

Aang

Avatar Aang (Chinese: 安昂; pinyin: Ān Áng) is a fictional character and the protagonist of Nickelodeon's animated television series Avatar: The Last Airbender (created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko), voiced by Zach Tyler Eisen.

Aang is the last surviving Airbender, a monk of the Air Nomads' Southern Air Temple. He is an incarnation of the "Avatar", the spirit of light and peace manifested in human form. As the Avatar, Aang controls all four elements (fire, water, earth and air) and is tasked with keeping the Four Nations at peace. At 12 years old, Aang is the series' reluctant hero, spending a century in suspended animation before joining new friends Katara and Sokka on a quest to master the elements and save their world from the imperialist Fire Nation.

Aang's character has appeared in other media, such as trading cards, video games, T-shirts, and web comics. Aang has also been portrayed by Noah Ringer in the feature film The Last Airbender, and voiced by D.B. Sweeney in the sequel animated series The Legend of Korra.

Avatar (2009 film)

Avatar (marketed as James Cameron's Avatar) is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, written, produced, and co-edited by James Cameron, and stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, and Sigourney Weaver. The film is set in the mid-22nd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in order to mine the mineral unobtanium, a room-temperature superconductor. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora. The film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body operated from the brain of a remotely located human that is used to interact with the natives of Pandora.Development of Avatar began in 1994, when Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment for the film. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Cameron's 1997 film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, but, according to Cameron, the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film. Work on the language of the film's extraterrestrial beings began in 2005, and Cameron began developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar was officially budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 million and $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion. The film made extensive use of new motion capture filming techniques, and was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing (using the RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D, and IMAX 3D formats), and for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology.Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, and was internationally released on December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positive critical reviews, with critics highly praising its groundbreaking visual effects. During its theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada, surpassing Cameron's Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years. It also became the first film to gross more than $2 billion and the best-selling film of 2010 in the United States. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, and won three, for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects.

Following the film's success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox to produce four sequels: Avatar 2 and Avatar 3 are currently filming, and will be released on December 18, 2020, and December 17, 2021, respectively; subsequent sequels will start shooting as soon as they wrap filming, and will be released in 2024 and 2025. Several cast members are expected to return, including Worthington, Saldana, Lang, and Weaver.

Avatar (computing)

In computing, an avatar is the graphical representation of the user or the user's alter ego or character. An icon or figure representing a particular person in a video game, Internet forum, etc. It may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. Avatar images have also been referred to as "picons" (personal icons) in the past, though the usage of this term is uncommon now. It can also refer to a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. The term "avatar" can also refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user.

Avatar 2

Avatar 2 (marketed as James Cameron's Avatar 2) is an upcoming American epic science fiction film directed, produced, and co-written by James Cameron, and is the second film in the Avatar franchise, following the 2009 film Avatar. Cameron is producing the film with Jon Landau, with Josh Friedman originally announced as his co-writer; it was later announced that Cameron, Friedman, Rick Jaffa, Amanda Silver, and Shane Salerno took a part in the writing process of all sequels before being attributed separate scripts, making the eventual writing credits unclear. Cast members Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Giovanni Ribisi, Joel David Moore, Dileep Rao, CCH Pounder, and Matt Gerald are all reprising their roles from the original film, with Sigourney Weaver returning in a different role.Cameron, who had stated in 2006 that he would like to make sequels to Avatar if it was successful, announced the first two in 2010 following the widespread success of the first film, with Avatar 2 aiming for a 2014 release. However, the subsequent addition of two more sequels, and the necessity to develop new technology in order to film performance capture scenes underwater, a feat never accomplished before in motion capture history, led to significant delays to allow the crew more time to work on the writing, pre-production, and visual effects; it is currently planned for a release on December 18, 2020, exactly eleven years after the American release of the first film, with the following sequels to be released between 2021 and 2025.Preliminary shooting for the film started in Manhattan Beach, California on August 15, 2017, followed by principal photography simultaneously with Avatar 3 in New Zealand on September 25, 2017. The performance capture part of the film wrapped filming in November 2018; the live action part will start filming in the Spring of 2019.

Dashavatara

Dashavatara (; Sanskrit: दशावतार, daśāvatāra) refers to the ten primary avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation. Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order. The word Dashavatara derives from daśa, meaning 'ten', and avatar (avatāra), roughly equivalent to 'incarnation'.

The list of included avatars varies across sects and regions. Though no list can be uncontroversially presented as standard, the "most accepted list found in Puranas and other texts is [...] Krishna, Buddha." Most draw from the following set of figures, in this order: Matsya; Kurma; Varaha; Narasimha; Vamana; Parashurama; Rama; Krishna or Balarama; Buddha or Krishna; and Kalki. In traditions that omit Krishna, he often replaces Vishnu as the source of all avatars. Some traditions include a regional deity such as Vithoba or Jagannath in penultimate position, replacing Krishna or Buddha. All avatars have appeared except Kalki, who will appear at the end of the Kali Yuga.

James Cameron

James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is a Canadian filmmaker, philanthropist, and deep-sea explorer who lives in the United States. After working in special effects, he found major success after directing and writing the science fiction action film The Terminator (1984). He then became a popular Hollywood director and was hired to write and direct Aliens (1986); three years later he followed up with The Abyss (1989). He found further critical acclaim for his use of special effects in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991). After his film True Lies (1994), Cameron took on his biggest film at the time, Titanic (1997), which earned him Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Film Editing.

After Titanic, Cameron began a project that took almost 10 years to make: his science-fiction epic Avatar (2009), which was in particular a landmark for 3D technology, and for which he received nominations for the same three Academy Awards. Despite Avatar being his only movie made to date in 3D, Cameron is the most successful 3D film-maker in terms of box-office revenue. In the time between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films (specifically underwater documentaries) and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System. Described by a biographer as part scientist and part artist, Cameron has also contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible. He is the first person to do this in a solo descent, and is only the third person to do so ever. In 2010, Time magazine listed Cameron among the 100 most influential people in the world.In total, Cameron's directorial efforts have grossed approximately US$2 billion in North America and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation, Cameron's Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at $2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. Cameron also holds the distinction of having directed the first two of the four films in history to gross over $2 billion worldwide (the later two being Star Wars: The Force Awakens and Avengers: Infinity War). In March 2011, he was named Hollywood's top earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million. In October 2013, a new species of frog Pristimantis jamescameroni from Venezuela was named after him in recognition of his efforts in environmental awareness, in addition to his public promotion of veganism.

Kalki

Kalki, also called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga, one of the four periods in the endless cycle of existence (krita) in Vaishnavism cosmology. He is described in the Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword. The description and details of Kalki are inconsistent among the Puranic texts. He is, for example, only an invisible force destroying evil and chaos in some texts, while an actual person who kills those who persecute others, and portrayed as someone leading an army of Brahmin warriors in some. His mythology has been compared to the concepts of Messiah, Apocalypse, Frashokereti and Maitreya in other religions.Kalki is also found in Buddhist texts. In Tibetan Buddhism, the Kalachakra-Tantra describes 25 rulers, each named Kalki who rule from the heavenly Shambhala. The last Kalki of Shambhala destroys a barbarian Muslim army, after which Buddhism flourishes. This text is dated to about 10th-century CE.

Meher Baba

Meher Baba (born Merwan Sheriar Irani; 25 February 1894 – 31 January 1969) was an Indian spiritual master who said he was the Avatar, God in human form.Merwan Sheriar Irani was born in 1894 in Pune, India to Irani Zoroastrian parents. His spiritual transformation began when he was 19 years old and lasted for seven years. During this time he contacted five spiritual teachers before beginning his own mission and gathering his own disciples in early 1922, at the age of 27.From 10 July 1925 to the end of his life, Meher Baba maintained silence, communicating by means of an alphabet board or by unique hand gestures. With his mandali (circle of disciples), he spent long periods in seclusion, during which time he often fasted. He also traveled widely, held public gatherings and engaged in works of charity with lepers and the poor.In 1931, Meher Baba made the first of many visits to the West, where he attracted followers. Throughout most of the 1940s, Meher Baba worked with a category of spiritual aspirants called masts, whom he said are entranced or spellbound by internal spiritual experiences. Starting in 1949, along with selected mandali, he traveled incognito about India in an enigmatic and still largely unexplained period he called the "New Life".After being injured as a passenger in two serious automobile accidents, one in the United States in 1952 and one in India in 1956, his ability to walk became severely limited. In 1962, he invited his Western followers to India for a mass darshan called "The East–West Gathering". Concerned by an increasing use of LSD and other psychedelic drugs, in 1966 Baba stated that they did not convey real benefits. Despite deteriorating health, he continued what he called his "Universal Work", which included fasting and seclusion, until his death on 31 January 1969. His samadhi (shrine/tomb) in Meherabad, India, has become a place of international pilgrimage.Meher Baba gave numerous teachings on the cause and purpose of life, including teaching reincarnation and that the phenomenal world is an illusion. He taught that the Universe is imagination, that God is what really exists, and that each soul is really God passing through imagination to realize individually His own divinity. In addition he gave practical advice for the aspirant who wishes to attain God-realization and thereby escape the wheel of births and deaths. He also taught about the concept of Perfect Masters, the Avatar, and those on the various stages of the spiritual path that he called involution. His most important teachings are recorded in his principal books Discourses and God Speaks.

His legacy includes the Avatar Meher Baba Charitable Trust he established in India, a handful of centers for information and pilgrimage, as well as an influence on pop-culture artists and the introduction of common expressions such as "Don't Worry, Be Happy." Meher Baba's silence has remained a mysterious issue as much among his followers as with the rest of the world.

Power Station (recording studio)

Power Station at BerkleeNYC, formerly known as Avatar Studios is a recording studio at 441 West 53rd Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City.

Sam Worthington

Samuel Henry John Worthington (born 2 August 1976) is an English-born Australian actor and writer. He portrayed Jake Sully in the 2009 film Avatar, Marcus Wright in Terminator Salvation, and Perseus in Clash of the Titans as well as its sequel Wrath of the Titans. He then transitioned to more dramatic roles, appearing in Everest (2015), Hacksaw Ridge (2016), The Shack, and Manhunt: Unabomber (both in 2017). He also played the main protagonist, Captain Alex Mason, in Call of Duty: Black Ops.

In 2004, Worthington received Australia's highest film award for his lead role in Somersault.

The Last Airbender

The Last Airbender is a 2010 American action-adventure fantasy film written, co-produced and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. Based on the first season of the Nickelodeon animated television series

Avatar: The Last Airbender, the film stars Noah Ringer as Aang, with Dev Patel as Prince Zuko, Nicola Peltz as Katara and Jackson Rathbone as Sokka. Development for the film began in 2007. It was produced by Nickelodeon Movies and distributed by Paramount Pictures. Premiering in New York City on June 30, 2010, it opened the following day in the rest of the US grossing an estimated $16 million.The film was universally panned by critics, audiences and fans of the original animated series alike upon its release with many reviewers citing inconsistencies between the plot, screenplay and source material as well as deriding the acting, writing, casting and dialogue. The film's 3D conversion was also criticized. However, some praised James Newton Howard's soundtrack, the film's CGI and visual design and the performances of Dev Patel, Aasif Mandvi and Shaun Toub. The film swept the Golden Raspberry Awards in 2010, with five "wins" including Worst Picture; the film is sometimes considered one of the worst ever made. Despite the negative reviews, The Last Airbender opened in second place at the box office behind The Twilight Saga: Eclipse. Produced on a $150 million budget, the film grossed $131 million domestically and $319 million worldwide. It is currently the fourth highest grossing Nickelodeon film, behind The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water (2015), Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2014), and The Adventures of Tintin (2011). The film was originally envisioned as the first in a trilogy of Last Airbender films each based on the three seasons of the show, but ultimately due to the heavy unpopularity from critics and fans and the low profit intake of the first film, the planned trilogy was left in doubt for many years. In 2018, Michael Dante Dimartino and Bryan Konietzko announced a live-action remake of the animated series on Netflix, effectively severing any chance of future films.

The Legend of Korra

The Legend of Korra is an American animated television series created by Bryan Konietzko and Michael Dante DiMartino that aired on Nickelodeon from 2012 to 2014. A sequel to Konietzko and DiMartino's previous series Avatar: The Last Airbender, which aired from 2005 to 2008, the series is animated in a style strongly influenced by anime with most of the animation being done by Studio Mir of South Korea and some by Pierrot Co. of Japan.

The series is set in a fictional universe in which some people can manipulate, or "bend", the elements of water, earth, fire, or air. Only one person, the "Avatar", can bend all four elements, and is responsible for maintaining balance in the world. The series follows Avatar Korra, the reincarnation of Aang from the previous series, as she faces political and spiritual unrest in a modernizing world.

The main characters are voiced by Janet Varney, Seychelle Gabriel, David Faustino, P. J. Byrne, J. K. Simmons and Mindy Sterling, and supporting voice actors include Aubrey Plaza, John Michael Higgins, Lisa Edelstein, Steven Blum, Eva Marie Saint, Henry Rollins, Anne Heche and Zelda Williams. Several people involved in the creation of Avatar: The Last Airbender, including designer Joaquim Dos Santos, writer Tim Hedrick and composers Jeremy Zuckerman and Benjamin Wynn, returned to work on The Legend of Korra.

The Legend of Korra ran for fifty-two episodes, separated into four seasons ("books"). The series has been continued as a comics series.

Like its parent show, The Legend of Korra received critical acclaim, drawing favorable comparisons with the HBO series Game of Thrones and the work of Hayao Miyazaki. It has been praised for its production values, such as its animation quality, art style, and musical score. The series has been nominated for and won awards from the Annie Awards, a Daytime Emmy Award, and a Gracie Award. The series was also praised for addressing sociopolitical issues such as social unrest and terrorism, as well as for going beyond the established boundaries of youth entertainment with respect to issues of race, gender, and sexual orientation.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.