It was one of the least-densely-populated administrative divisions in the world, with 843 people living in 106,700 km² of ice-free land for a density of 0.0079 people per square kilometre. The total land area including the land covered by the ice cap is over 500,000 km². North Greenland has a higher portion of ice-free land than most other areas of the country because much of the extreme north, such as Peary Land, is largely ice-free due to its low precipitation.
The county was also sometimes known as Avannaarsua or Avanersuaq.
Seal hunting is the most important source of income for a large part of the population, and this is why the settlements here are different from those in the rest of Greenland. There are many settlements in the region, and the way of life is different from the one in busier Greenlandic towns. During the winter, when the fjords freeze over, the dog sled is a commonly used means of transport for the fishermen and hunters.
Land animals are limited to small mammals such as foxes or hares, but air and sea life are plentiful. There are many species of gull, and large numbers of fulmars are often seen close to towns where they make use of waste products from the fish factories. Prawns, which are among Greenland's top exports, are the reason for many large trawlers and smaller fishing vessels which ply the waters of North Greenland. Also commonly seen is the gigantic fin whale.
Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Avannaata, Kujalleq, Qeqertalik, Qeqqata, and Sermersooq – as well as the large Northeast Greenland National Park which is unincorporated. The Thule Air Base is administered by the United States Air Force and operates as an unincorporated enclave surrounded by territory of Avannaata.Danmark Fjord
Danmark Fjord (Danish: Danmarksfjorden), also known as Denmark Sound, is a fjord in northeast Greenland within Northeast Greenland National Park.
The fjord was explored and named after the expedition ship Danmark at the time of the ill-fated Denmark expedition 1906-1908 led by Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen which mapped Greenland's northeastern coast between Cape Bridgman and Cape Bismarck.Henrik Krøyer Holme
Henrik Krøyer Holme is a small group of uninhabited islands of Greenland within Northeast Greenland National Park. The area was formerly part of Avannaa, originally Nordgrønland ("North Greenland"), a former county of Greenland until 31 December 2008.
The Henrik Krøyer Holme group is an Important Bird Area where the ivory gull breeds.Ittoqqortoormiit Municipality
Ittoqqortoormiit Municipality (Greenlandic pronunciation: [itːɔqːɔʁtɔːʁmiːt]) was one of the two municipalities of East Greenland. Since 1 January 2009 it has been incorporated into the Sermersooq municipality. It encompassed an area of 235,000 km² (91,000 sq mi) along the Denmark Strait and the Greenland Sea. Before the creation of the Northeast Greenland National Park in 1974, the former municipality had been much bigger (935,000 km²), formally encompassing the largely uninhabited area to the north up to the border with Avannaa (North Greenland).
Population is 537 (as of 2005). Besides the main town of Ittoqqortoormiit, only one more populated village was located within the former municipality, Itterajivit, 14 km to the west across Rosenvinge Bugt, with a population of only 9 (as of 2005).List of airports in Greenland
This is a list of airports in Greenland, grouped by type and sorted by location.
Greenland (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat, Danish: Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark).
Since January 2018, Greenland has been divided into five municipalities: Kujalleq, Avannaata, Qeqertalik, Qeqqata, and Sermersooq. The large Northeast Greenland National Park is not part of any municipality (unincorporated). The Thule Air Base (Pituffik), located as an enclave within the Avannaata municipality, is also an unincorporated area and does not belong to any municipality.
Previously, Greenland consisted of three counties (amt): Kitaa/Vestgrønland (West Greenland), Tunu/Østgrønland (East Greenland) and Avannaa/Nordgrønland (North Greenland). Kitaa had 15 municipalities; Tunu had two municipalities and Avannaa had one municipality.
Air travel is extremely important in Greenland, since there are generally no roads between settlements. Arctic Umiaq Line provides passenger and freight services by sea but is limited to the southwest coast and travel time is long and departures sparse.List of cities and towns in Greenland before 2008
This is a list of cities, towns and settlements in Greenland.
The English term 'city' hardly applies to any populated area in Greenland (although several places in Greenland are considered "cities"), as the most populated place is Nuuk with 14,501 inhabitants. In Greenland they distinguish two kinds of settled areas: by (Danish for 'town') and bygd (Danish for 'settlement'). The seat of each municipality is a by, whereas every other settlement in a municipality is a bygd. A bygd can have anything from one to about five hundred inhabitants. Many places have Danish names in addition to the Greenlandic names. The Danish name, when applicable, is shown in parentheses.
The first list shows a ranked list of all towns with more than 1000 population. The second list
is ordered by region and municipality and includes all with more than 50 population plus some of the even smaller settlements.Maricite
Maricite or marićite is a sodium iron phosphate mineral (NaFe2+PO4), that has two metal cations connected to a phosphate tetrahedron. It is structurally similar to the much more common mineral olivine. Maricite is brittle, usually colorless to gray, and has been found in nodules within shale beds often containing other minerals.
Maricite is most commonly known to be found in the Big Fish River area of the Yukon Territory, Canada, but it has also been found in Eastern Germany, as well as inside of various meteorites around the world. Maricite is named after Luka Maric (1899–1979) of Croatia, the longtime head of the mineralogy and petrography departments at the University of Zagreb.
Maricite is a sodium iron phosphate from the extremely diverse phosphate mineral group. In 1977 maricite was discovered in the Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory, Canada (Fleischer, Chao, and Mandarino, 1979). This is an important geologic location that has provided the discovery of several new phosphate minerals. Maricite is recognized for its possible use in sodium ion battery research as well as its role as a reaction product inside of fossil-fired electrical power generating station boilers which experience corrosion (Bridson, et al., 1997; Ong, et al., 2011).Nares Land
Nares Land or Naresland is an island in far northern Greenland. The island is named after Polar explorer Sir George Nares.North Greenland
North Greenland was a Danish colony on Greenland consisting of the trading centers and missionary stations along the northwest coast of the island.Northeast Greenland National Park
Northeast Greenland National Park (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaanni nuna eqqissisimatitaq, Danish: Grønlands Nationalpark) is the world's largest national park and the 9th largest protected land area. Established in 1974 and expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,000 km2 (375,000 sq mi) of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. It was the first national park to be created in the Kingdom of Denmark and remains Greenland's only national park. It is the northernmost national park in the world.Princess Dagmar Island
Princess Dagmar Island (Danish: Prinsesse Dagmar Ø) is an uninhabited coastal island of the Wandel Sea in King Frederick VIII Land, Greenland.
The island was named after Princess Dagmar of Denmark.
The Danish military base/weather station Nord is located in the mainland east of the island, on the western side of Crown Prince Christian Land Peninsula.
In Vol. 14 of the Encyclopedia Arctica (unpublished, completed in 1951), Princess Dagmar Island is still not recognized as an island, but mentioned as a peninsula.Princess Thyra Island
Princess Thyra Island (Danish: Prinsesse Thyra Ø) is an uninhabited island of the Wandel Sea, Greenland. The island is within King Frederick VIII Land in the Northeast Greenland National Park. The island was named after Princess Thyra of Denmark.Qaanaaq
Qaanaaq (Greenlandic pronunciation: [qaːnɑːq̚]), formerly and still popularly known as Thule or New Thule, is the main town in the northern part of the Avannaata municipality in northwestern Greenland. It is one of the northernmost towns in the world. The inhabitants of Qaanaaq speak Kalaallisut and Danish, and many also speak the Inuktun language. The town has a population of 656 as of 2013.Qaanaaq Municipality
Qaanaaq Municipality was the only municipality in the county of North Greenland (Avannaa). It is now part of the municipality of Avannaata.
The Thule Air Base (Pituffik), which is not part of any municipality (it is, like the Greenland National Park, unincorporated territory), is a part of the U.S. network of early warning radars, and is an important facility in the recent discussion of the National Missile Defense (NMD). The proposed update of the facility (X-band Radar) to meet the demands of the NMD is controversial within Greenland and Denmark (Greenland is a part of the Kingdom of Denmark).
On January 22, 1968, a B-52 crashed 11 km (7 mi) south of the Thule Air Force Base. Nuclear bombs were lost and debris scattered over the area in the accident.The municipality has a population of 850 (as of 1 January 2005). The town of Qaanaaq has a population of 640. In addition to the town, there are five inhabited villages:
Savissivik: pop. 78, in the northern part of Melville Bay, in the south of the municipality
Moriusaq: 21 (about 30 km (19 mi) off Thule Air Base)
Qeqertat: 22 (on the main island of the Harward Øer)
Siorapaluk: 87 (one of the northernmost settlements in the world at 77°47'N)All villages are losing population, since people are moving to the town. Historically, the number of villages has been higher, but some have been abandoned. This process of population concentration in the towns is observed through all of Greenland.
Etah, an abandoned village which once was the northernmost village of the world (at 78°19'N), lies 78 km (48 mi) northwest of Siorapaluk. Annoatok, once a small hunting station, was slightly further north (at 78°33'N) and about 24 km (15 mi) from Etah.
The municipality has an area of 225,500 km² (87,066 mi²), a large portion of which is ice cap area. It is the largest municipality in Greenland and one of the largest in the world (the surface area is larger than the United Kingdom). It borders on Upernavik Municipality on the south, on the unincorporated area of the Northeast Greenland National Park on the east, on the Arctic Ocean on the north, and on the Nares Strait, which separates North Greenland from Ellesmere Island of Nunavut, Canada on the west.Stephenson Island (Greenland)
Stephenson Island (Danish: Stephenson Ø) is a small, uninhabited island in the Victoria Fjord of the Lincoln Sea, which is part of the Arctic Ocean. It is located off of the northern shore of Avannaa county, Greenland, between the island Nares Land 13 km to the east and the peninsula Wulff Land 6 km to the west.Syssel
Syssel is a historical type of country subdivision in Scandinavia.
The name still can be found in the Danish district Vendsyssel and in Norway in the title: sysselmann (the highest government representative at Svalbard – also with police authority).Tunu
Tunu, originally Østgrønland ("East Greenland"), was one of the three counties (amter) of Greenland until 31 December 2008. The county seat was at the main settlement, Tasiilaq. Population in 2005 was around 3,800.
The county was made up of two former municipalities, Ammassalik Municipality and Ittoqqortoormiit Municipality. In 1974, the Northeast Greenland National Park was created from the vast and virtually uninhabited northern part of Illoqqortoormiut Municipality. It then covered the northern half of the county.
Tunu was bordered in the east by the Greenland Sea, Denmark Strait and the North Atlantic Ocean. To the west lies Kitaa, and to the north, Avannaa.
In 1988, the National Park was enlarged into Avannaa (North Greenland).
Former administrative divisions of Greenland (until 31 December 2008)