Avalon Peninsula

The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. It is 9,220 square kilometres (3,560 sq mi) in size.[1]

The peninsula is home to 262,410 people, about 51% of Newfoundland's population, according to the 2011 Canadian Census. The peninsula is the location of St. John's, the provincial capital and largest city.[2] It is connected to the main section of the island by the 5 km (3 mi) wide Isthmus of Avalon. The peninsula protrudes into the rich fishing zones near the Grand Banks. Its four major bays (Trinity Bay, Conception Bay, St. Mary's Bay and Placentia Bay) have long been the centre of Newfoundland's fishing industry.

Avalon Peninsula is located in Newfoundland
Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula
Location of Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland

Geography and geology

Shoal Bay
The coast of the Avalon Peninsula, in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Avalon Peninsula is itself pinched into peninsulas by St. Mary's Bay and Conception Bay. St. John's is located in the northeast of the peninsula.

The Avalon Peninsula is a noted region for Precambrian fossils, and many Lagerstätten of the diverse Ediacaran biota are found on the peninsula. Mistaken Point is the original location of the first documented Ediacaran, Aspidella terranovica (which gets its specific name from Newfoundland). The peninsula gives its name to the ancient micro-continent Avalonia of which it was part.

History

In 1497, explorer John Cabot led an expedition from England in an attempt to reach the Spice Islands in the East Indies, that supposedly ended up off what is now Bonavista. The first permanent English settlement was established at Cuper's Cove in 1610. Sir George Calvert was later given a large land holding on the peninsula. The initial colony of Ferryland grew to a population of 100, becoming the first successful permanent settlement on Newfoundland island. In 1623 Calvert was given a Royal Charter extending the Royal lands and granting them the name Province of Avalon "in imitation of Old Avalon in Somersetshire wherein Glassenbury stands, the first fruits of Christianity in Britain as the other was in that party of America". Calvert wished to make the colony a refuge for Roman Catholics facing persecution in England. In 1625 Calvert was made the first Lord Baltimore.

A series of crises and calamities led Calvert to quit the colony in 1629 for "some other warmer climate of this new world", which turned out to be Maryland, though his family maintained agents to govern Avalon until 1637, when the entire island of Newfoundland was granted by charter to Sir David Kirke and James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton.

Carlb-quidividi-nfld-2002
Quidi Vidi, a district of St. John's

In 1696, during King William's War, the French destroyed many English villages in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign.

During Queen Anne's War, Commodore John Leake of the Royal Navy led an expedition aimed at capturing French ships around the Peninsula and burning French settlements. The expedition was largely successful. During this same conflict, the French attacked the fortified English port of St. John's, but were defeated. They later returned and captured the town, burning it to the ground.

On June 8th, 1755, three British- and three French warships met off Cape Race on the Peninsula and engaged each other in battle (although both countries were at peace). This battle was one of a series that ignited the French and Indian War in North America. The war also ironically ended on the Peninsula, at the decisive Battle of Signal Hill, in which British soldiers and artillery under the command of William Amherst drove the French occupants of St. John's from Signal Hill and into the town's fort, where they soon surrendered.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Avalon Peninsula". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived March 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Census Profile - Avalon Peninsula". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 6 January 2013.

External links

Coordinates: 47°17′N 53°21′W / 47.29°N 53.35°W

Admirals Beach

Admirals Beach is a rural community located in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

Previously spelled Admiral's Beach, it is a fishing port located on the island of Newfoundland; specifically it is along a point of land in the southern Avalon Peninsula near Great Colinet Island fronting St. Mary's Bay.

The community was incorporated in January 1968.

Aquaforte

Aquaforte is a town on the south shore of Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

The town's economy has always rested primarily on fishing. The harbour has been used as a seasonal fishing station since the 1670s. British and French hostilities played out in harbors all along the Avalon Peninsula in the 18th century, and Aquaforte was no exception. However, the first permanent residents did not settle in Aquaforte until the early 1800s. It is located 4 miles from Ferryland and 40 miles from St. John's by water. It has one of the safest harbors in the island and cod was its main industry. In 1902 a resident from Norway, Anders Ellefsen, constructed a factory to process whales in the community. The plant operated for a few years but had to shut down around 1908 because of a decline in the whale population. It was incorporated as a community in 1972.The Aquaforte post office's postal code, A0A 1A0, is the lowest (alphabetically and numerically first) of any central office in Canada.

Avalon Peninsula Campaign

The Avalon Peninsula Campaign occurred during King William's War when forces of New France, led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Governor Jacques-François de Monbeton de Brouillan, destroyed 23 English settlements along the coast of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland in the span of three months. The campaign began with raiding Ferryland on November 10, 1696 and continued along the coast until they raided the village of Heart's Content (See Map of the Campaign's raids and battles.)

After the Siege of Pemaquid (1696), d'Iberville along with Father Jean Baudoin led a force of Canadians, Acadians, Mi'kmaq and Abenakis in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign. They destroyed almost every English settlement in Newfoundland, over 100 English were killed, many times that number captured, and almost 500 deported to England or France.

Bay de Verde Peninsula

The Bay de Verde Peninsula is the largest peninsula that makes up part of the Avalon Peninsula, of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The peninsula separates both Trinity and Conception Bay.

Cape Broyle

The Town of Cape Broyle (population: 489) is an incorporated community located on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. During King William's War, the village was destroyed in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign.

Conception Harbour

Conception Harbour is a town on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is in Division 1 on Conception Bay.

According to the 2001 Statistics Canada Census:

Population: 801

% Change (1996-2001): -9.8

Dwellings: 353

Area (km².): 21.62

Density (persons per km².): 37

Division No. 1, Newfoundland and Labrador

Division 1, Newfoundland and Labrador is a census division covering the entire Avalon Peninsula including the Isthmus of Avalon of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Like all census divisions in Newfoundland and Labrador, but unlike the census divisions of some other provinces, the division exists only as a statistical division for census data, and is not a political entity.

The area has the largest population of the province, totaling 262,410 – 51% of the provincial total – in 2011. The total land area is 9,218.54 square kilometres. The coast of the Avalon Peninsula is inundated by four main bays and a number of smaller bays. The four main bays are; Trinity Bay, Conception Bay, St. Mary's Bay and Placentia Bay. The largest bay would be Placentia Bay.

The capital St. John's, of the province is located in this division along with the second largest of the three cities of the province, Mount Pearl. The majority of the towns and villages are located along the coast in much of the four main bays as mentioned.

Division No. 1, Subdivision H, Newfoundland and Labrador

Division No. 1, Subdivision H is an unorganized subdivision on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is in Division 1 and contains the unincorporated communities of Clowns Cove, Flatrock, Freshwater, Halfway House, Perry's Cove and Spout Cove.

Ferryland

Ferryland is a town in Newfoundland and Labrador on the Avalon Peninsula. According to the 2016 Statistics Canada census, its population is 414.

Ferryland Head Light

Ferryland Head Light is an active lighthouse on Avalon Peninsula, southeast of the village of Ferryland, Newfoundland and Labrador. It is situated at the end of a long peninsula that juts into the sea.

Harbour Main-Chapel's Cove-Lakeview

Harbour Main-Chapel's Cove-Lakeview is a town on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is in Division 1, on Conception Bay. During King William's War, the village was destroyed in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign.

Holyrood, Newfoundland and Labrador

Holyrood is a town on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is in Division 1, on Conception Bay. It is approximately a 30 minute drive from the capital city of St. John's. During King William's War, the village was destroyed in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign.

The town is famous for being at the bottom of the bay and having a large cross on the top of the predominant mountain "George Cove."Holyrood is also renowned for its squid fishery and caplin "rolling" which happens in late spring, early summer. "Rolling" refers to the mating of the caplin when they beach themselves and can be picked up by hand. It also hosts the popular "Squid Fest," several days of squid themed activities culminating in an outdoor festival of drinking and traditional music. Popular with both young and old Newfoundlanders, it attracts thousands of locals and tourists each year.According to the 2016 Statistics Canada Census:

Population: 2,463

List of museums in Newfoundland and Labrador

This list of museums in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing. Also included are non-profit art galleries and university art galleries. Museums that exist only in cyberspace (i.e., virtual museums) are not included.

To use the sortable table, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order; click again for reverse alphabetical order.

Newfoundland and Labrador Route 91

Route 91 is a highway located on the Avalon Peninsula in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The highway starts at a junction at Route 90, traveling through the town of Colinet on a paved road, then transitions to a dirt road just west of the Route 92 junction, only to transition back to a paved road prior to approaching its western terminus, Southeast Placentia, where it intersects with Route 100. Along the stretch of dirt road is Cataracts Provincial Park, one of only a small number of active provincial parks remaining since 1997.

Old Perlican

Old Perlican is a fishing village on the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada. Incorporated in 1971, it is one of the oldest fishing communities in Newfoundland, serving as the major fishing station in Trinity Bay for migratory fisherman from England in the 17th century.

Port Kirwan

Port Kirwan is a small incorporated fishing community located on the southern shore of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. The community so named after a Reverend Mother Mary Bernard Kirwan, foundress of Presentation Sisters of Newfoundland and Labrador in 1853. The community is located on the area known as The Irish Loop. The Irish Loop comprises many unique and culturally rich communities that show vast dialect, culture, and the way of life of their ancestors from Ireland showed them.

St. Joseph's, Newfoundland and Labrador

St. Joseph's is a town in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is located on the Avalon Peninsula, approximately 70 kilometres southwest of St. John's, and near St. Mary's Bay.

The town had a population of 144 in the Canada 2006 Census.

Trinity Bay (Newfoundland and Labrador)

Trinity Bay is a large bay on the northeastern coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Bay along with Placentia Bay to the southwest define the isthmus of Avalon from which the Avalon Peninsula lies to the east of the main landmass of Newfoundland Island.

Major fishing communities include Trinity and Heart's Content. The smaller communities in Newfoundland may often be referenced by the Bay in which they are located, e.g.: 'Brownsdale, TB'.

Whitbourne, Newfoundland and Labrador

Whitbourne is a town on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada in Division 1.

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