Autoschizis

"Autoschizis" is a term derived from the Greek αὐτο- auto-, meaning "self", and σχίζειν skhizein, "to split". It was introduced in 1998[1] to describe a novel form of cancer cell death characterized by a reduction in cell size that occurs due to the loss of cytoplasm through self-excision (the cell splits open) without the loss of cell organelles, morphologic degradation of the cells nucleus and nucleolus without the formation of apoptotic bodies and destruction of the cell membrane. The cell death results from karyorrhexis and karyolysis.[2] Autoschizis can be initiated via in vivo treatment with vitamin C (VC), synthetic vitamin K (VK3) or, better, a combination of both. The treatment has been tested on various types of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo with positive results.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ Gilloteaux, J; Jamison, JM; Arnold, D; Ervin, E; Eckroat, L; Docherty, JJ; Neal, D; Summers, JL (1998). "Cancer cell necrosis by autoschizis: Synergism of antitumor activity of vitamin C: Vitamin K3 on human bladder carcinoma T24 cells". Scanning. 20 (8): 564–75. doi:10.1002/sca.4950200805. PMID 9891940.
  2. ^ Jamison, James M.; Gilloteaux, Jacques; Taper, Henryk S.; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Summers, Jack L. (2002). "Autoschizis: a novel cell death". Biochem. Pharmacol. 63 (10): 1773–83. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(02)00904-8. PMID 12034362.
  3. ^ Gilloteaux, J; Jamison, JM; Arnold, D; Jarjoura, D; Von Greuningen, V; Summers, JL (2003). "Autoschizis of human ovarian carcinoma cells: Scanning electron and light microscopy of a new cell death induced by sodium ascorbate: Menadione treatment". Scanning. 25 (3): 137–49. doi:10.1002/sca.4950250306. PMID 12866647.

References

  • H.S. Taper, J.M. Jamison, J. Gilloteaux, C. A. Gwin, T. Gordon, J.L Summers: 2001 In vivo reactivation of DNases in implanted human prostate tumors after administration of vitamin C/K3 combination. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 49: 109-119.
  • J. Gilloteaux, J.M. Jamison, D. Arnold, H.S. Taper, J.L. Summers. 2001: Ultrastructural aspects of autoschizis: A new cancer cell death induced by the synergistic action of ascorbate / menadione on human bladder carcinoma cells. Ultrastructural Pathology: 25: 183-192.
  • J. Gilloteaux, J.M.Jamison, D. Arnold, H.S. Taper, J. L.Summers: 2003. Microscopic aspects of autoschizic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma (2774) cells following vitamin C, vitamin K3 or vitamin C;K3 treatment. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 9(4): 311 -329.
  • J. Gilloteaux, J.M. Jamison, D. Arnold, J.L. Summers: 2003. LM and SEM aspects of autoschizic cell death of ovarian carcinoma cells. Scanning 25: 137-149.
  • J.M. Jamison, J. Gilloteaux, M.R. Nassiri, M. Venugopal, D. Neal, J.L. Summers: 2004 Cycle cycle arrest and autoschizis in a human bladder carcinoma cell line following vitamin C and vitamin K3 treatment. Biochemical Pharmacology, 67: 337-351.
  • J. Gilloteaux, J.M. Jamison, D. Jarjoura, H.E. Lorimer, D.R. Neal, H.S. Taper, J.L.Summers. 2004 Autoschizis: a new form of cell death for human ovarian carcinoma cells following ascorbate: menadione treatment. Nuclear and DNA degradation. Tissue and Cell, 36: 197-209.
  • H.S. Taper, J.M. Jamison, J. Gilloteaux, J.L. Summers, P.B. Calderon. 2004. Inhibition of the development of metastases by dietary vitamin C: K3 combination. Life Sciences 75: 955-967; doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2004.02.011
  • J. Gilloteaux, JM Jamison, DA Neal, JL Summers. 2005. Cell death by autoschizis in TRAMP prostate carcinoma cells as a result of treatment by ascorbate: menadione combination. Ultrastructural Pathology, 28 (3): 221-236.
  • J. Gilloteaux, J.M. Jamison, D. Arnold, D.R. Neal, and J.L. Summers. 2006. Morphology and DNA degeneration during autoschizic cell death in bladder carcinoma T24 cells induced by ascorbate and menadione treatment. Anatomical Record A Discovery Molecular, Cell and Evolutionary Biology. 288 : 58-83.
  • JM Jamison, J Gilloteaux, L Perlaky, M Thiry, K Smetana, D Neal, K McGuire, JL Summers:. 2010. Nucleolar changes and fibrillarin, redistribution following Apatone © treatment of human bladder carcinoma cells. J Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 58 (7): 635-651.
  • J. Gilloteaux, JM Jamison, DR. Neal B.S., M.Loukas, Th. Doberzstyn, JL.Summers. 2010 Cell damage and death by autoschizis in human bladder (RT4) carcinoma cells resulting from treatment by ascorbate and menadione. Ultrastructural Pathology. 34(3): 140-160.
Algor mortis

Algor mortis (Latin: algor—coldness; mortis—of death), the second stage of death, is the change in body temperature post mortem, until the ambient temperature is matched. This is generally a steady decline, although if the ambient temperature is above the body temperature (such as in a hot desert), the change in temperature will be positive, as the (relatively) cooler body acclimates to the warmer environment. External factors can have a significant influence.

The term was first used by Dowler in 1849. The first published measurements of the intervals of temperature after death were done by Dr John Davey in 1839.

Dead on arrival

Dead on arrival (DOA), also dead in the field and brought in dead (BID), indicates that a patient was found to be already clinically dead upon the arrival of professional medical assistance, often in the form of first responders such as emergency medical technicians, paramedics, or police.

In some jurisdictions, first responders must consult verbally with a physician before officially pronouncing a patient deceased, but once cardiopulmonary resuscitation is initiated, it must be continued until a physician can pronounce the patient dead.

Death hoax

A death hoax is a deliberate or confused report of someone's death that turns out to be incorrect and murder rumors. In some cases it might be because the person has intentionally faked death.

Death messenger

Death messengers, in former times, were those who were dispatched to spread the news that an inhabitant of their city or village had died. They were to wear unadorned black and go door to door with the message, "You are asked to attend the funeral of the departed __________ at (time, date, and place)." This was all they were allowed to say, and were to move on to the next house immediately after uttering the announcement. This tradition persisted in some areas to as late as the mid-19th century.

Death pose

Dinosaur and bird fossils are frequently found in a characteristic posture consisting of head thrown back, tail extended, and mouth wide open. The cause of this posture—sometimes called a "death pose"—has been a matter of scientific debate. Traditional explanations ranged from strong ligaments in the animal's neck desiccating and contracting to draw the body into the pose, to water currents randomly arranging the remains in the position.Faux and Padian suggested in 2007 that the live animal was suffering opisthotonus during its death throes, and that the pose is not the result of any post-mortem process at all. They also reject the idea of water as responsible for randomly arranging the bodies in a "death pose", as different parts of the body and the limbs can be in different directions, which they found unlikely to be the result of moving water. They also found that the claim that drying out of ligaments would make the position does not seem believable either.

Alicia Cutler and colleagues from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, think it is related to water. In 2012, paleontologists Achim G. Reisdorf and Michael Wuttke published a study regarding death poses. According to the conclusions of this study, the so-called "opisthotonic posture" is not the result of a cerebral illness creating muscle spasms, and also not of a rapid burial. Rather, peri-mortem submersion resulted in buoyancy that enabled the Ligamentum elasticum to pull the head and tail back.

Death rattle

Terminal respiratory secretions (or simply terminal secretions), known colloquially as a death rattle, are sounds often produced by someone who is near death as a result of fluids such as saliva and bronchial secretions accumulating in the throat and upper chest. Those who are dying may lose their ability to swallow and may have increased production of bronchial secretions, resulting in such an accumulation. Usually, two or three days earlier, the symptoms of approaching death can be observed as saliva accumulates in the throat, making it very difficult to take even a spoonful of water. Related symptoms can include shortness of breath and rapid chest movement. While death rattle is a strong indication that someone is near death, it can also be produced by other problems that cause interference with the swallowing reflex, such as brain injuries.It is sometimes misinterpreted as the sound of the person choking to death, or alternatively, that they are gargling.

Dignified death

Dignified death is a somewhat elusive concept often related to suicide. One factor that has been cited as a core component of dignified death is maintaining a sense of control. Another view is that a truly dignified death is an extension of a dignified life. There is some concern that assisted suicide does not guarantee a dignified death, since some patients may experience complications such as nausea and vomiting. There is some concern that age discrimination denies the elderly a dignified death.

Dysthanasia

In medicine, dysthanasia means "bad death" and is considered a common fault of modern medicine.Dysthanasia occurs when a person who is dying has their biological life extended through technological means without regard to the person's quality of life. Technologies such as an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, artificial ventilation, ventricular assist devices, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can extend the dying process.

Dysthanasia is a term generally used when a person is seen to be kept alive artificially in a condition where, otherwise, they cannot survive; sometimes for some sort of ulterior motive. The term was used frequently in the investigation into the death of Formula One driver Ayrton Senna in 1994.

Fan death

Fan death is a well-known superstition in Korean culture, where it is thought that running an electric fan in a closed room with unopened or no windows will prove fatal. Despite no concrete evidence to support the concept, belief in fan death persists to this day in Korea, and also to a lesser extent in Japan.

Funeral director

A funeral director, also known as an undertaker (British English) or mortician (American English), is a professional involved in the business of funeral rites. These tasks often entail the embalming and burial or cremation of the dead, as well as the arrangements for the funeral ceremony (although not the directing and conducting of the funeral itself unless clergy are not present). Funeral directors may at times be asked to perform tasks such as dressing (in garments usually suitable for daily wear), casketing (placing the human body in the coffin), and cossetting (applying any sort of cosmetic or substance to the best viewable areas of the corpse for the purpose of enhancing its appearance). A funeral director may work at a funeral home or be an independent employee.

Lazarus sign

The Lazarus sign or Lazarus reflex is a reflex movement in brain-dead or brainstem failure patients, which causes them to briefly raise their arms and drop them crossed on their chests (in a position similar to some Egyptian mummies). The phenomenon is named after the Biblical figure Lazarus of Bethany, whom Jesus raised from the dead in the Gospel of John.

Megadeath

Megadeath (or megacorpse) is one million human deaths, usually caused by a nuclear explosion. The term was used by scientists and thinkers who strategized likely outcomes of all-out nuclear warfare.

Necronym

A necronym (from the Greek words νεκρός, nekros, "dead" and ὄνομα ónoma, "name") is a reference to, or name of, a person who has died. Many cultures have taboos and traditions associated with referring to such a person. These vary from the extreme of never again speaking the person's real name, often using some circumlocution instead, to the opposite extreme of commemorating it incessantly by naming other things or people after the deceased.

For instance, in some cultures it is common for a newborn child to receive the name (a necronym) of a relative who has recently died, while in others to reuse such a name would be considered extremely inappropriate or even forbidden. While this varies from culture to culture, the use of necronyms is quite common.

Necrophobia

Necrophobia is a specific phobia which is the irrational fear of dead things (e.g., corpses) as well as things associated with death (e.g., coffins, tombstones, funerals, cemeteries). With all types of emotions, obsession with death becomes evident in both fascination and objectification. In a cultural sense, necrophobia may also be used to mean a fear of the dead by a cultural group, e.g., a belief that the spirits of the dead will return to haunt the living.Symptoms include: shortness of breath, rapid breathing, irregular heartbeat, sweating, dry mouth and shaking, feeling sick and uneasy, psychological instability, and an altogether feeling of dread and trepidation. The sufferer may feel this phobia all the time. The sufferer may also experience this sensation when something triggers the fear, like a close encounter with a dead animal or the funeral of a loved one or friend. The fear may have developed when a person witnessed a death, or was forced to attend a funeral as a child. Some people experience this after viewing frightening media.The fear can manifest itself as a serious condition. Treatment options include medication and therapy.The word necrophobia is derived from the Greek nekros (νεκρός) for "corpse" and the Greek phobos (φόβος) for "fear".

Obituary

An obituary (obit for short) is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the person's life and information about the upcoming funeral. In large cities and larger newspapers, obituaries are written only for people considered significant. In local newspapers, an obituary may be published for any local resident upon death. A necrology is a register or list of records of the deaths of people related to a particular organization, group or field, which may only contain the sparsest details, or small obituaries. Historical necrologies can be important sources of information.

Two types of paid advertisements are related to obituaries. One, known as a death notice, omits most biographical details and may be a legally required public notice under some circumstances. The other type, a paid memorial advertisement, is usually written by family members or friends, perhaps with assistance from a funeral home. Both types of paid advertisements are usually run as classified advertisements.

Pallor mortis

Pallor mortis (Latin: pallor "paleness", mortis "of death"), the first stage of death, is an after-death paleness that occurs in those with light/white skin.

Post-mortem interval

Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the time that has elapsed since a person has died. If the time in question is not known, a number of medical/scientific techniques are used to determine it. This also can refer to the stage of decomposition of the body.

Rigor mortis

Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor "stiffness", mortis "of death"), or postmortem rigidity, is the third stage of death. It is one of the recognizable signs of death, characterized by stiffening of the limbs of the corpse caused by chemical changes in the muscles postmortem. In humans, rigor mortis can occur as soon as four hours after death.

Skeletonization

Skeletonization refers to the final stage of decomposition, during which the last vestiges of the soft tissues of a corpse or carcass have decayed or dried to the point that the skeleton is exposed. By the end of the skeletonization process, all soft tissue will have been eliminated, leaving only disarticulated bones. In a temperate climate, it usually requires three weeks to several years for a body to completely decompose into a skeleton, depending on factors such as temperature, humidity, presence of insects, and submergence in a substrate such as water. In tropical climates, skeletonization can occur in weeks, while in tundra areas, skeletonization may take years or may never occur, if subzero temperatures persist. Natural embalming processes in peat bogs or salt deserts can delay the process indefinitely, sometimes resulting in natural mummification.The rate of skeletonization and the present condition of a corpse or carcass can be used to determine the time of death.After skeletonization, if scavenging animals do not destroy or remove the bones, acids in many fertile soils take about 20 years to completely dissolve the skeleton of mid- to large-size mammals, such as humans, leaving no trace of the organism. In neutral-pH soil or sand, the skeleton can persist for hundreds of years before it finally disintegrates. Alternately, especially in very fine, dry, salty, anoxic, or mildly alkaline soils, bones may undergo fossilization, converting into minerals that may persist indefinitely.

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