Autonomous administrative division

An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority. Typically, it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies.

Autonomous areas
Countries with at least one area labelled "autonomous" or defined as such by law

List of autonomous subdivisions by designation

Designation Division State Notes
Autonomous territory  Azad Kashmir  Pakistan Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan are self-governing autonomous territories under Pakistan, but under Pakistan's constitution the territories are not formally a part of the country as the Kashmir conflict has not yet been resolved.
 Gilgit-Baltistan
Banner Oroqen  People's Republic of China In effect, these are autonomous counties.
Evenk
Morin Dawa Daur
City Buenos Aires  Argentina Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina
 Ceuta  Spain The autonomous cities of Spain are two exclaves located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco, separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar.
 Melilla
Tashkent  Uzbekistan Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan
Commune Bangui  Central African Republic Bangui is the capital and the largest city of the Central African Republic
Community
There are 17 autonomous communities of Spain
Country  United Kingdom Three of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, namely Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, each have an elected devolved legislature which has the ability to legislate in devolved matters. The Parliament of the United Kingdom retains sovereignty (the United Kingdom is a unitary state) and legislates in matters that are not devolved, as well as having the capacity to legislate in areas that are devolved (this does not normally occur, by constitutional convention, without the agreement of the devolved legislature).
 Denmark The two countries of the Danish realm, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, each have an elected devolved legislature which has the ability to legislate in devolved matters. The Parliament of Denmark retains sovereignty (Denmark is an unitary state) and legislates in matters that are not devolved, as well as having the capacity to legislate in areas that are devolved (this does not normally occur without the agreement of the devolved legislature).
County
There are 117 autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China
District council
There are 25 autonomous district councils of India
Island  Tobago  Trinidad and Tobago The Tobago House of Assembly is an autonomous legislature that is responsible for the island of Tobago.[1]
Okrug
There are 6 autonomous okrugs of Russia
Oblast Jewish Autonomous Oblast  Russia
Prefecture
There are 30 autonomous prefectures of the People's Republic of China
Province  Aceh  Indonesia
Jeju  South Korea
Kosovo and Metohija Claimed by:
 Serbia
In 2008, the Republic of Kosovo declared independence. While Serbia has not formally recognized Kosovo's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognized by 112 UN member states.
Controlled by:
 Kosovo
Papua  Indonesia
 South Tyrol  Italy
 Trentino
Vojvodina  Serbia
West Papua  Indonesia
Yogyakarta
 Vanuatu The provinces of Vanuatu are autonomous units with their own popularly elected local parliaments.
Region  Åland Islands  Finland
Aosta Valley  Italy
 Azores  Portugal
 Bougainville  Papua New Guinea
 Friuli-Venezia Giulia  Italy
Guangxi  People's Republic of China
 Hong Kong
 Macau
 People's Republic of China
Hopi Reservation  United States
Cherokee Nation  United States
Choctaw Nation  United States
Oglala Lakota of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation  United States
Inner Mongolia  People's Republic of China
 Iraqi Kurdistan  Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan is the only region that has gained official recognition internationally as an autonomous regional entity.
 Puntland  Somalia Puntland Territory is the only autonomous region within Somalia.
 Madeira  Portugal
Bangsamoro  Philippines
Mount Athos  Greece
Navajo Nation  United States
Ningxia  People's Republic of China
Nisga'a Nation  Canada
Nunatsiavut
RAAN  Nicaragua
RAAS
 Rodrigues  Mauritius
Rojava  Syria
 Sardinia  Italy
 Sicily
Tibet  People's Republic of China
Tłı̨chǫ  Canada
Xinjiang  People's Republic of China
Zanzibar  Tanzania
There are 26 autonomous regions of India, one of which is a de facto autonomous area
Republic Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Nakhchivan  Azerbaijan
Adjara  Georgia
Abkhazia Claimed by:
 Georgia
In 1999, the Republic of Abkhazia declared its independence from Georgia after the 1992–1993 war. Georgia and most of the U.N. member states have not recognized Abkhazia's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Republic; its independence is recognized by Russia and three other U.N. member states.
Controlled by:
 Abkhazia
Gorno-Badakhshan  Tajikistan
Crimea Claimed by:
 Ukraine
Controlled by:
 Russia
Karakalpakstan  Uzbekistan
Sector Bissau  Guinea-Bissau
Territorial unit Gagauzia  Moldova
Transnistria Claimed by:
 Moldova
In 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declared its independence from the Soviet Union. While Moldova has not formally recognized Transnistria's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognized by 3 other non-UN member states.
Controlled by:
 Transnistria
Entity  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Other Autonomous regions include, Somaliland, Puntland, Jubaland, Ethiopian Controlled Somalia, The Netherlands (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands), Aruba (The Kingdom of the Netherlands), Curacao (Kingdom of the Netherlands), and Saint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands).

List of other entities considered autonomous

Overseas territories

British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies

Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man are self-governing Crown dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom; however, the UK is responsible for their defence and international affairs. Gibraltar is a self-governing overseas territory of the UK. Most of the other 13 British Overseas Territories also have autonomy in internal affairs through local legislatures.

New Zealand dependent territories

New Zealand maintains nominal sovereignty over three Pacific Island nations. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing countries in free association with New Zealand that maintain some international relationships in their own name. Tokelau remains an autonomous dependency of New Zealand. The Chatham Islands—despite having the designation of Territory—is an integral part of the country, situated within the New Zealand archipelago. The territory's council is not autonomous and has broadly the same powers as other local councils, although notably it can also charge levies on goods entering or leaving the islands.[2]

Dutch constituent countries

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, each with their own parliament. In addition they enjoy autonomy in taxation matters as well as having their own currencies.

French overseas collectivities, New Caledonia, and Corsica

The French constitution recognises three autonomous jurisdictions. Corsica, a region of France, enjoys a greater degree of autonomy on matters such as tax and education compared to mainland regions. New Caledonia, a sui generis collectivity, and French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity, are highly autonomous territories with their own government, legislature, currency and constitution. They do not, however, have legislative powers for policy areas relating to law and order, defense, border control or university education. Other smaller overseas collectivities have a lesser degree of autonomy through local legislatures. The five overseas regions, French Guiana, Guadaloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, are generally governed the same as mainland regions; however, they enjoy some additional powers, including certain legislative powers for devolved areas.

Ethiopian special woredas

In Ethiopia, "special woredas" are a subgroup of woredas (districts) that are organized around the traditional homelands of an ethnic minority, and are outside the usual hierarchy of a kilil, or region. These woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries.

Areas designated for indigenous peoples

Other areas that are autonomous in nature but not in name are areas designated for indigenous peoples, such as those of the Americas:

List of historical autonomous administrative divisions

See also

References

  1. ^ Tobago Division Of Tourism - About Tobago, Governance Archived 2007-07-10 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Chatham Islands Council Act 1995 No 41 (as at 01 July 2013), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz.

Works cited

Aichi Prefecture

Aichi Prefecture (愛知県, Aichi-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region. The region of Aichi is also known as the Tōkai region. The capital is Nagoya. It is the focus of the Chūkyō metropolitan area.

Autonomous administrative divisions of Spain

Spain uses the designation "autonomous" for two types of its administrative subdivisions:

"autonomous communities" (agreed name for the "nationalities and regions of Spain")

"autonomous cities" (Spanish exclaves in North Africa, these special municipalities have more limited competences than autonomous communities, but more than other municipalities)Autonomy is asymmetrical in Spain. Both the autonomous communities and the autonomous cities (collectively known as "the Autonomies") constitute the first order (highest) level of territorial organization of Spain. In addition, single-province autonomous communities also correspond to the second-level of territorial division of Spain (provinces), and the autonomous cities also correspond to the lowest level of territorial division of Spain (municipalities).

Autonomous city

Autonomous city is a type of autonomous administrative division.

Autonomous communities of Spain

In Spain, an autonomous community (Spanish: comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes. Each community has its own set of devolved powers; typically those communities with a stronger local nationalism have more powers; this type of devolution has been called asymmetrical. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism".

There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies". The two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it. This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies".The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure.

Autonomous regions of China

An autonomous region (AR; simplified Chinese: 自治区; traditional Chinese: 自治區; pinyin: zìzhìqū) is a first-level administrative division of China. Like Chinese provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government, but an autonomous region has more legislative rights. Although the exact meaning in English for "autonomous" is 100% independent, this is never the case in mainland China. An autonomous region is the highest level of minority autonomous entity in China, which has a comparably higher population of a particular minority ethnic group.

The Inner Mongolia autonomous region was established in 1947; Xinjiang was made autonomous in 1955; Guangxi and Ningxia in 1958, and Tibet in 1965. The designation of Guangxi and Ningxia as Zhuang and Hui autonomous areas, respectively, was bitterly protested by the local Han Chinese, who made up two-thirds of the population of each region. Although Mongols made an even smaller percentage of Inner Mongolia than either of these, the ensuing Chinese Civil War gave little opportunity for protest.

Autonomous subdivisions of Russia

Two types of subdivisions of Russia uses the designation "autonomous":

autonomous okrug (administrative division)

autonomous oblast (federal subject)The republics of Russia, have a degree of autonomy, but are not labeled so.

Casamance

Casamance (Wolof and Fula: Kasamansa; French: Casamance [kɑ.za.mɑ̃s]; Portuguese: Casamansa [kɐzɐˈmɐ̃sɐ]) is the area of Senegal south of the Gambia including the Casamance River. It consists of the Lower Casamance (Basse Casamance, Baixa Casamança—i.e. Ziguinchor Region) and the Upper Casamance (Haute Casamance, Alta Casamança—i.e. Kolda Region and Sédhiou Regions). The largest city of Casamance is Ziguinchor.

Franco-Provençal language

Franco-Provençal (also Francoprovençal or Arpitan) is a dialect group within Gallo-Romance spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland, northwestern Italy, and in enclaves in the Province of Foggia in Apulia, Italy.

Franco-Provençal has several distinct dialects and is separate from but closely related to neighboring Romance dialects (the langues d'oïl and Occitan, Rhaeto-Romance, Lombard, Piedmontese).The designation Franco-Provençal (Franco-Provençal: francoprovençâl; French: francoprovençal; Italian: francoprovenzale) dates to the 19th century. Traditionally, the dialect group is also referred to as patois

(patouès), and since the late 20th century as Arpitan (Franco-Provençal: arpetan; Italian: arpitano), and its areal as Arpitania.Formerly spoken throughout the territory of Savoy, Franco-Provençal speakers are now found in the Aosta Valley, an autonomous administrative division of Italy.

The language is also spoken in alpine valleys in the Metropolitan City of Turin, two isolated towns (Faeto and Celle di San Vito) in the Province of Foggia, and rural areas of the Swiss Romandie.

It is one of the three Gallo-Romance language families of France and is officially recognized as a regional language of France, but its use is marginal. Organizations are attempting to preserve it through cultural events, education, scholarly research, and publishing.

Aside from regional French dialects (the Langues d'oïl), it is the most closely related language to French. The number of speakers of Franco-Provençal has been declining significantly. According to UNESCO (1995), Franco-Provençal is a "potentially endangered language" in Italy and an "endangered language" in Switzerland and France.

Lagos State

Lagos, sometimes referred to as Lagos State to distinguish it from Lagos Metropolitan Area, is a state in the southwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The smallest in area of Nigeria's 36 states, Lagos State is arguably the most economically important state of the country, containing Lagos, the nation's largest urban area. It is a major financial centre and would be the fifth largest economy in Africa, if it were a country.The actual population total is disputed between the official Nigerian Census of 2006 and a much higher figure claimed by the Lagos State Government.

Lagos State is bounded on the north and east by Ogun State. In the west it shares boundaries with the Republic of Benin. Behind its southern borders lies the Atlantic Ocean. 22% of its 3,577 km2 are lagoons and creeks.

List of autonomous areas by country

This list of autonomous areas arranged by country gives an overview of autonomous areas of the world. An autonomous area is defined as an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or has freedom from an external authority. It is typical for it to be geographically distant from the country, or to be populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas are often federacies. The autonomous areas differ from federal units and independent states in the sense that they, in relation to the majority of other sub-national territories in the same country, enjoy a special status including some legislative powers, within the state (for a detailed list of federated units, see Federated state).This list includes areas that are internationally recognized, as well as some that are generally unrecognized.AB The definition of an autonomous area varies from country to country, so the native term as defined by the respective country's government is listed, and the English translation of the term is included.

List of first women lawyers and judges in Africa

This is a list of the first women lawyer(s) and judge(s) in Africa. It includes the year in which the women were admitted to practice law (in parentheses). Also included are the first women in their country to achieve a certain distinction such as obtaining a law degree.

List of first women lawyers and judges in Asia

This is a list of the first women lawyer(s) and judge(s) in Asia. It includes the year in which the women were admitted to practice law (in parentheses). Also included are the first women in their country to achieve a certain distinction such as obtaining a law degree.

List of first women lawyers and judges in Europe

This is a list of the first women lawyer(s) and judge(s) in Europe. It includes the year in which the women were admitted to practice law (in parentheses). Also included are the first women in their country to achieve a certain distinction such as obtaining a law degree.

North Sentinel Island

North Sentinel Island is one of the Andaman Islands, an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal which also includes South Sentinel Island. It is home to the Sentinelese, a people who have rejected, often violently, any contact with the outside world. They are among the last uncontacted people to remain virtually untouched by modern civilization.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Protection of Aboriginal Tribes Act of 1956 prohibits travel to the island and any approach closer than five nautical miles (9.26 km) in order to prevent the resident tribespeople from contracting diseases to which they have no immunity. The area is patrolled by the Indian navy.Nominally, the island belongs to the South Andaman administrative district, part of the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In practice, Indian authorities recognise the islanders' desire to be left alone and restrict their role to remote monitoring; they do not prosecute them for killing non-Sentinelese people. The island is in effect a sovereign area under Indian protection. In 2018, the Government of India excluded 29 islands – including North Sentinel – from the Restricted Area Permit (RAP) regime, until 31 December 2022, in a major effort to boost tourism. In November 2018, however, the government's home ministry stated that the relaxation of the prohibition was intended only to allow researchers and anthropologists, with pre-approved clearance, to visit the Sentinel islands.The Sentinelese have repeatedly attacked approaching vessels. This resulted in the deaths of two fishermen in 2006 and an American missionary, John Allen Chau, in 2018.

One country, two systems

"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s. He suggested that there would be only one China, but distinct Chinese regions such as Hong Kong and Macau could retain their own economic and administrative systems, while the rest of the PRC (or simply "China") uses the socialism with Chinese characteristics system. Under the principle, each of the two regions could continue to have its own governmental system, legal, economic and financial affairs, including trade relations with foreign countries.

Pact of Olivos

The Olivos Pact (Spanish: Pacto de Olivos) refers to a series of documents signed on November 17, 1993, between the governing President of Argentina, Carlos Menem, and former President and leader of the opposition UCR, Raúl Alfonsín, that formed the basis of the constitutional reform of 1994. These memorandum of understanding were signed in the official presidential residence, the Quinta de Olivos.

The World's Most Dangerous Places

The World's Most Dangerous Places is handbook of survival tactics for high-risk regions first published in 1994, written by National Geographic Adventure columnist Robert Young Pelton and his contributors. The fifth edition was published in 2003.

Autonomous types of first-tier subdivision administration
Federalism
Unitary state
See also
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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