Autonomous Republic of Crimea

Coordinates: 45°18′N 34°24′E / 45.3°N 34.4°E

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

  • Автономна Республіка Крим
  • Автономная Республика Крым
  • Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti
  • Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети
Coat of arms of Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Coat of arms
Motto: 
"Процветание в единстве" (Russian)
Protsvetaniye v yedinstve  (transliteration)
Prosperity in Unity
Anthem: 
"Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина" (Russian)
Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina  (transliteration)
Your fields and mountains are magical, Motherland
Location of the .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}Autonomous Republic of Crimea (red) in Ukraine (light yellow)
Location of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (red)

in Ukraine (light yellow)

Location of the .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}Autonomous Republic of Crimea (light yellow) in the Crimean Peninsula
Location of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (light yellow)

in the Crimean Peninsula

StatusAutonomous republic
Capital
and largest city
Simferopol
Official languagesUkrainian
Recognized regional languagesRussian, Crimean Tatar
Ethnic groups
(2001)
Country Ukraine
Establishment
• Autonomy
12 February 1991
20 February 2014[nb 1]
18 March 2014[2]
Area
• Total
26,100 km2 (10,100 sq mi)
Population
• 2001 census
2,033,700
• Density
77.9/km2 (201.8/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeUA-43
Collage of Crimean culture

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, romanizedAvtonomna Respublika Krym; Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, romanizedAvtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети or Ҡырым Мухтар Җумхуриети) was an autonomous republic of Ukraine, encompassing most of Crimea, from 1991 until the territory became the Republic of Crimea, within Russia, in 2014. Ukraine continues to regard the republic as “temporarily occupied”.

Crimea was previously under Russian control from 1783 until 1954 (punctuated by short periods during political upheavals and wars), when it was transferred, within the USSR, to the Ukrainian SSR. Later, following a referendum on 20 January 1991, the results of the pro-independence referendum were discarded and it became an autonomous republic within the Ukrainian SSR. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and Ukraine became an independent country, Crimea remained part of the newly independent Ukraine.

In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory.[3] A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions,[4][5][6] was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans.[7][8] Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014[9], although the annexation is not recognized internationally.

Background

The transfer of Crimea
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet "On the transfer of the Crimean Oblast"

Crimea first came under Russian control in 1783 when the Crimean Khanate was annexed by the Russian Empire[10] and this was formally recognised in 1792 when the peninsula was ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Jassy. Thereafter, Russian rule in Crimea spanned a period of 171 years, punctuated by short periods during political upheavals and wars, which ended on 19 February 1954 when the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet issued a decree transferring the Crimean Oblast from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, within the Soviet Union[11][12] on the basis of "the integral character of the economy, the territorial proximity and the close economic and cultural ties between the Crimea Province and the Ukrainian SSR.":[13]

Following a referendum on 20 January 1991 in which over 94% backed the proposal, the Crimean Oblast was upgraded to the status of an autonomous republic on 12 February 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR. When the Soviet Union collapsed and Ukraine became an independent country, Crimea remained a republic within the newly independent Ukraine leading to tensions between Russia and Ukraine as the Black Sea Fleet was based on the peninsula.

History

On 26 February 1992, the Crimean parliament renamed the ASSR the Republic of Crimea. It then proclaimed self-government on 5 May 1992[14][15] with a referendum, for approval, planned for the August[16] (which, in the event, was never conducted) and also passed the first Crimean constitution.[16] The following day, the same parliament inserted a new sentence into this constitution that declared that Crimea was part of Ukraine[16] and then, on 19 May, it annulled its proclamation of self-government after the Ukrainian government expanded on the republic's already extensive autonomous status.[17]:587 The following year, on 14 October 1993, the Crimean parliament established the post of President of Crimea.

On 17 March 1995, the parliament of Ukraine abolished the Crimean Constitution of 1992, all the laws and decrees contradicting those of Kiev, and also removed Yuriy Meshkov, the then President of Crimea, along with the office itself.[18][19] After an interim constitution, the 1998 Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea was put into effect, changing the territory's name to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Following the ratification of the May 1997 Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty, in which Russia recognized Ukraine's borders and sovereignty over Crimea, international tensions slowly eased. However, in 2006, anti-NATO protests broke out on the peninsula.[20] In September 2008, the Ukrainian Foreign Minister Volodymyr Ohryzko accused Russia of giving out Russian passports to the population in Crimea and described it as a "real problem" given Russia's declared policy of military intervention abroad to protect Russian citizens.[21]

On 24 August 2009, anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held in Crimea by ethnic Russian residents. Sergei Tsekov (of the Russian Bloc[22] and then deputy speaker of the Crimean parliament)[23] said then that he hoped that Russia would treat Crimea the same way as it had treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[24] The 2010 Ukrainian–Russian Naval Base for Natural Gas treaty extended Russia's lease on naval facilities in Crimea until 2042, with optional five-year renewals.[25]

Geopolitics South Russia2
Geopolitics of Crimea, March 2014.

Crimea voted strongly for the pro-Russian Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and his Party of Regions in presidential and parliamentary elections,[26] and his ousting on 22 February 2014 during the 2014 Ukrainian revolution was followed by a push by pro-Russian protesters for Crimea to secede from Ukraine and seek assistance from Russia.[27] Four days later, thousands of pro-Russian and pro-Ukraine protesters clashed in front of the parliament building in Simferopol.

On 28 February 2014, Russian forces occupied airports and other strategic locations in Crimea[28] though the Russian foreign ministry stated that "movement of the Black Sea Fleet armored vehicles in Crimea (...) happens in full accordance with basic Russian-Ukrainian agreements on the Black Sea Fleet".[29] Gunmen, either armed militants or Russian special forces, occupied the Crimean parliament and, under armed guard with doors locked, members of parliament elected Sergey Aksyonov as the new Crimean Prime Minister.[30] Aksyonov then said that he asserted sole control over Crimea's security forces and appealed to Russia "for assistance in guaranteeing peace and calmness" on the peninsula. The interim Government of Ukraine described events as an invasion and occupation[31][32] and did not recognize the Aksyonov administration as legal.[33][34] Ousted Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovich sent a letter to Putin asking him to use military force in Ukraine to restore law and order[35] and, on 1 March, the Russian parliament granted President Vladimir Putin the authority to use such force.[36] Three days later, several Ukrainian bases and navy ships in Crimea reported being intimidated by Russian forces and Ukrainian warships were also effectively blockaded in Sevastopol.[37][38]

On 6 March, the Crimean Parliament asked the Russian government for the region to become a subject of the Russian Federation with a Crimea-wide referendum on the issue set for 16 March. The Ukrainian government, the European Union, and the US all challenged the legitimacy of the request and of the proposed referendum as Article 73 of the Constitution of Ukraine states: "Alterations to the territory of Ukraine shall be resolved exclusively by an All-Ukrainian referendum."[39] International monitors arrived in Ukraine to assess the situation but were halted by armed militants at the Crimean border.[40][41]

2014-03-09 - Perevalne military base - 0203
Ukrainian military base at Perevalne surrounded by Russian troops without military rank insignia or cockade on 9 March 2014.

On 6 and 7 March, Russian forces scuttled the Russian cruiser Ochakov and a diving support vessel across the entrance channel to Donuzlav Lake to blockade Ukrainian navy ships in their port.[42][43]

The day before the referendum, Ukraine's national parliament voted to dissolve the Supreme Council of Crimea as its pro-Moscow leaders were finalising preparations for the vote.[44]

The 16 March referendum required voters to choice between "Do you support rejoining Crimea with Russia as a subject of the Russian Federation?" and "Do you support restoration of the 1992 Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine?" There was no option on the ballot to maintain the status quo.[45][46] However, support for the second question would have restored the Republic's autonomous status within Ukraine.[18][47] The official turnout for the referendum was 83%, and the overwhelming majority of those who voted (95.5%)[48] supported the option of rejoining Russia. However, a BBC reporter claimed that a huge number of Tatars and Ukrainians had abstained from the vote.[49]

Following the referendum, the members of the Supreme Council voted to rename themselves the State Council of the Republic of Crimea and also formally appealed to Russia to accept Crimea as part of the Russian Federation.[50] This was granted and on 18 March 2014 the self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession to the Russian Federation[51] though the accession was granted separately for each of the former regions that composed it: one accession for the Republic of Crimea, and another for Sevastopol as a federal city.[52] On 24 March 2014 the Ukrainian government ordered the full withdrawal of all of its armed forces from Crimea and two days later the last Ukrainian military bases and Ukrainian navy ships were captured by Russian troops.[53][54][nb 2]

Ukraine, meanwhile, continues to claim Crimea as its territory and in 2015 the Ukrainian parliament designated 20 February 2014 as the (official) date of the start of "the temporary occupation of Crimea."[1] On 27 March 2014 100 United Nations member states voted for United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 affirming the General Assembly's commitment to the territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders while 11 member states voted against, 58 abstained and 24 member states absented.[57] Since then 6 countries (Cuba, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Syria, Afghanistan, and North Korea) have publicly recognized Russia's annexation of Crimea while others have stated support for the 16 March 2014 Crimean referendum.[58]

Government and administration

Executive power in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea was exercised by the Council of Ministers of Crimea, headed by a Chairman, appointed and dismissed by the Supreme Council of Crimea, with the consent of the President of Ukraine.[59] The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People was not an official body but could address grievances to the Ukrainian central government, the Crimean government, and international bodies.[60]

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea had 25 administrative areas: 14 raions (districts) and 11 mis'kradas and mistos (city municipalities), officially known as territories governed by city councils.[61]

Raions
1. Bakhchysarai Raion
2. Bilohirsk Raion
3. Dzhankoy Raion
4. Kirovske Raion
5. Krasnohvardiiske Raion
6. Krasnoperekopsk Raion
7. Lenine Raion
8. Nizhnyohirskyi Raion
9. Pervomayske Raion
10. Rozdolne Raion
11. Saky Raion
12. Simferopol Raion
13. Sovetskyi Raion
14. Chornomorske Raion
City municipalities
15. Alushta Municipality
16. Armyansk Municipality
17. Dzhankoy Municipality
18. Yevpatoria Municipality
19. Kerch Municipality
20. Krasnoperekopsk Municipality
21. Saki municipality
22. Simferopol Municipality
23. Sudak Municipality
24. Feodosia Municipality
25. Yalta Municipality
Subdivisions of Crimea


Major centres of urban development:

Map of the Crimea
Map of Crimea with major cities

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In 2015 the Ukrainian parliament officially set 20 February 2014 as the date of "the beginning of the temporary occupation of Crimea and Sevastopol by Russia."[1]
  2. ^ (Also) on 24 March 2014, the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense stated that approximately 50% of the Ukrainian soldiers in Crimea had defected to the Russian military.[55][56]

References

  1. ^ a b Twitter verifies account of Russia's MFA in Crimea, Ukraine files complaint, UNIAN (11 January 2019)
    (in Ukrainian) "Nasha" Poklonsky promises to the "Berkut" fighters to punish the participants of the Maidan, Segodnya (20 March 2016)
  2. ^ "Treaty to accept Crimea, Sevastopol to Russian Federation signed". Russia Today. 18 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club". Kremlin.ru. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. I will be frank; we used our Armed Forces to block Ukrainian units stationed in Crimea
  4. ^ КС признал неконституционным постановление крымского парламента о вхождении АРК в состав РФ и проведении референдума о статусе автономии [Constitutional Court of Ukraine deemed Crimean parliament resolution on accession of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation and holding of the Crimean status referendum unconstitutional] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 14 March 2014.
    "Judgement of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine on all-Crimean referendum". Embassy of Ukraine in the United States of America. 15 March 2014.
  5. ^ Tokarev, Alexey (2014). Электоральная история постсоветского Крыма: от УССР до России [The electoral history of the post-Soviet Crimea: from Ukrainian SSR to Russia] (PDF). MGIMO Review of International Relations (in Russian). 5 (44): 32–41. Спустя 22 года и 364 дня после первого в СССР референдума в автономной республике Украины Крым состоялся последний референдум. Проводился он вопреки украинскому законодательству, не предусматривающему понятия региональный референдум и предписывающему решать территориальные вопросы только на всеукраинском референдуме
  6. ^ Marxen, Christian (2014). "The Crimea Crisis – An International Law Perspective" (PDF). Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg Journal of International Law). 74. Organizing and holding the referendum on Crimea's accession to Russia was illegal under the Ukrainian constitution. Article 2 of the constitution establishes that "Ukraine shall be a unitary state" and that the "territory of Ukraine within its present border is indivisible and inviolable". This is confirmed in regard to Crimea by Chapter X of the constitution, which provides for the autonomous status of Crimea. Article 134 sets forth that Crimea is an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine". The autonomous status provides Crimea with a certain set of authorities and allows, inter alia, to hold referendums. These rights are, however, limited to local matters. The constitution makes clear that alterations to the territory of Ukraine require an all-Ukrainian referendum.
  7. ^ "Crimea 'votes to rejoin Russia' after controversial poll". ITV. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  8. ^ "Crimea applies to be part of Russian Federation after vote to leave Ukraine". The Guardian. 17 March 2014.
  9. ^ Распоряжение Президента Российской Федерации от 17.03.2014 № 63-рп 'О подписании Договора между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов'. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  10. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Crimea" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 449–450.
  11. ^ "'The Gift of Crimea'". www.macalester.edu. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  12. ^ 'Подарунок Хрущова'. Як Україна відбудувала Крим (in Ukrainian). Istpravda.com.ua. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  13. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (27 February 2014). "Crimea: A Gift To Ukraine Becomes A Political Flash Point". NPR. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  14. ^ Wolczuk, Kataryna (31 August 2004). "Catching up with 'Europe'? Constitutional Debates on the Territorial-Administrative Model in Independent Ukraine". Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved 16 December 2006.
    Wydra, Doris (11 November 2004). "The Crimea Conundrum: The Tug of War Between Russia and Ukraine on the Questions of Autonomy and Self-Determination". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. 10 (2): 111. doi:10.1163/157181104322784826.
  15. ^ Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2004, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1857431871 (page 540)
  16. ^ a b c Russians in the Former Soviet Republics by Pål Kolstø, Indiana University Press, 1995, ISBN 0253329175 (page 194)
  17. ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
  18. ^ a b Belitser, Natalya (20 February 2000). "The Constitutional Process in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in the Context of Interethnic Relations and Conflict Settlement". International Committee for Crimea. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  19. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada law No. 93/95-вр: On the termination of the Constitution and some laws of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Adopted on 17 March 1995. (Ukrainian)
  20. ^ Russia tells Ukraine to stay out of Nato, The Guardian (8 June 2006)
  21. ^ Cheney urges divided Ukraine to unite against Russia 'threat Archived 21 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press. 6 September 2008.
  22. ^ Kuzio, Taras (8 February 2007). "Ukraine: Kiev fails to end Crimea's ethnic tentions" (PDF). Oxford Analytica. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  23. ^ Kuzio, Taras. "Separatists and Russian nationalist-extremist allies of the Party of Regions call for union with Russia" (PDF). KyivPost. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  24. ^ Levy, Clifford J. (28 August 2009). "Russia and Ukraine in Intensifying Standoff". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  25. ^ Update: Ukraine, Russia ratify Black Sea naval lease, Kyiv Post (27 April 2010)
  26. ^ Local government elections in Ukraine: last stage in the Party of Regions’ takeover of power, Centre for Eastern Studies (4 October 2010)
  27. ^ "Putin orders military exercise as protesters clash in Crimea". Russia Herald. 27 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  28. ^ "This is what it looked like when Russian military rolled through Crimea today (VIDEO)". UK Telegraph. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  29. ^ "Movement of Russian armored vehicles in Crimea fully complies with agreements – Foreign Ministry". Russia Today. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  30. ^ Shuster, Simon (10 March 2014). "Putin's Man in Crimea Is Ukraine's Worst Nightmare". Time. Retrieved 8 March 2015. Before dawn on Feb. 27, at least two dozen heavily armed men stormed the Crimean parliament building and the nearby headquarters of the regional government, bringing with them a cache of assault rifles and rocket propelled grenades. A few hours later, Aksyonov walked into the parliament and, after a brief round of talks with the gunmen, began to gather a quorum of the chamber's lawmakers.
  31. ^ Charbonneau, Louis (28 February 2014). "UPDATE 2-U.N. Security Council to hold emergency meeting on Ukraine crisis". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  32. ^ Higgons, Andrew, Grab for Power in Crimea Raises Secession Threat, New York Times, 28 February 2014, page A1; reporting was contributed by David M. Herszenhorn and Andrew E. Kramer from Kiev, Ukraine; Andrew Roth from Moscow; Alan Cowell from London; and Michael R. Gordon from Washington; with a graphic presentation of linguistic divisions of Ukraine and Crimea
  33. ^ Radyuhin, Vladimir (1 March 2014). "Crimean PM claims control of forces, asks Putin for help". Chennai, India. The Hindu. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  34. ^ "Ukraine army on full alert as Russia backs sending troops". BBC.com. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  35. ^ "Yanukovich sent letter to Putin asking for Russian military presence in Ukraine". RT.com. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  36. ^ Smale, Alison; Erlanger, Steven (1 March 2014). "Kremlin Clears Way for Force in Ukraine; Separatist Split Feared". New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  37. ^ "'So why aren't they shooting?' is Putin's question, Ukrainians say". Kyiv Post. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  38. ^ "Ukraine resistance proves problem for Russia". BBC Online. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  39. ^ "'another view of the Ochakov – scuttled by Russian forces Wed night to block mouth of Donuzlav inlet". Twitter@elizapalmer. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  40. ^ "'Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia". BBC.com. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  41. ^ "'Ukraine crisis: 'Illegal' Crimean referendum condemned". BBC.com. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  42. ^ "'Constitution of Ukraine – Title III". Government of Ukraine. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  43. ^ "Russians Scuttle Another Ship to Block Ukrainian Fleet". Ukrainian Pravda. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014 – via iwpr.net.
  44. ^ Ukraine Votes to Dissolve Crimean Parliament. NBC News. 15 March 2014
  45. ^ "'Приложение 1 к Постановлению Верховной Рады Автономной Республики Крым от 6 марта 2014 года No 1702-6/14" (PDF). www.rada.crimea.ua. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  46. ^ Gorchinskaya, Katya (7 March 2014). "Two choices in Crimean referendum: yes and yes". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  47. ^ Sasse, Gwendolyn (3 March 2014). "Crimean autonomy: A viable alternative to war?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  48. ^ "Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russian union'". BBC.co.uk. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  49. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Do Crimea referendum figures add up?". BBCco.uk. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  50. ^ Lawmakers in Crimea Move Swiftly to Split From Ukraine New York Times, accessed 26 December 2014
  51. ^ "Kremlin: Crimea and Sevastopol are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  52. ^ "Ukraine: Putin signs Crimea annexation". BBC.co.uk. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  53. ^ "Ukraine orders Crimea troop withdrawal as Russia seizes naval base". CNN. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  54. ^ (in Ukrainian) Russian troops captured all Ukrainian parts in the Crimea, BBC Ukrainian (26 March 2014)
  55. ^ "Defense Ministry: 50% Of Ukrainian Troops In Crimea Defect To Russia". Ukrainian News Agency. 24 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  56. ^ Jonathan Marcus (24 March 2014). "Ukrainian forces withdraw from Crimea". BBC. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  57. ^ "Kremlin: Crimea and Sevastopol are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014.
  58. ^ These are the 6 countries on board with Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea, Business Insider (31 May 2016)
  59. ^ Crimean parliament to decide on appointment of autonomous republic's premier on Tuesday, Interfax Ukraine (7 November 2011)
  60. ^ Ziad, Waleed; Laryssa Chomiak (20 February 2007). "A lesson in stifling violent extremism". CS Monitor. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  61. ^ Автономна Республіка Крим [Autonomous Republic of Crimea]. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2007.

Further reading

External links

Official

  • www.ppu.gov.ua, website of the Presidential Representative in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (in Ukrainian)
  • ark.gp.gov.ua, website of the Prosecutor's Office of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (in Ukrainian)

Historical

Administrative divisions of Crimea

The Crimean Peninsula is a disputed area which as a result of the 2014 Crimean crisis is controlled and recognized by Russia as the Republic of Crimea, a federal subject of Russia. At the same time, Ukraine and nearly all countries around the world recognize the territory as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a part of Ukraine.

The Republic of Crimea continues to use the administrative divisions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and is subdivided into 25 territorial entities: 14 districts (raions) and 11 city municipalities, officially known as territories governed by city councils.Under both the Russian (post-April 2014) and the Ukrainian (pre-April 2014) administrative systems, the territory of Crimea excludes the City of Sevastopol.

Autonomous republics of Ukraine

Ukraine is administratively divided into 27 regions, one of which is an autonomous republic, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Its administrative status is recognized in the Ukrainian Constitution in Chapter X: Autonomous Republic of Crimea and is governed in accordance with laws passed by Ukraine's parliament, the Verkhovna Rada.

Capture of the Crimean Parliament

The capture of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in 2014 is an episode of the Crimean crisis. The Crimean Prosecutor's Office qualified the incident as a terrorist attack.

Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea

The constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Конституція Автономної Республіки Крим Konstytutsiya Avtonomnoyi Respubliky Krym; Russian: Конституция Автономной Республики Крым Konstitutsiya Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym) is the basic law of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a republic on the Crimean peninsula as part of Ukraine. The constitution establishes the republic's status and authority within Ukraine. It granted Crimea the right to draft a budget and manage its own property. The constitution was repealed by a disputed referendum during the 2014 Crimean crisis, after which the Republic of Crimea was established as a federal subject of Russia after the annexation of the peninsula. The Ukrainian government has refused to recognize the annexation of Crimea by Russia and still recognizes the constitution as active.

Constitution of the Republic of Crimea

The Constitution of the Republic of Crimea is the basic law of the Republic of Crimea as a federal subject of Russia formed in the aftermath of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. It was ratified on 11 April 2014. Its purpose is to replace the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea based on the premise that it was repealed by referendum during the 2014 Crimean crisis. The Ukrainian government and the majority of the international community do not recognize the annexation of Crimea by Russia and regard the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as active.

Council of Ministers of Crimea

The Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Рада міністрів Автономної Республіки Крим; Russian: Совет министров Автономной Республики Крым), briefly SovMin, was until February 27, 2014 the executive branch of government of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a republic within southern Ukraine. The Council of Ministers derived its authority from the Constitution and laws of Ukraine and normative acts of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea which bring them into its competency.

The Chairman, who was appointed by the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) with approval of the President of Ukraine, headed the cabinet.

On 27 February 2014, during the 2014 Crimean crisis, masked gunmen seized the building of the Council of Ministers and members of the Council. Under siege, the Supreme Council of Crimea, chaired by Vladimir Konstantinov, passed a motion of no confidence in the Council of Ministers of Crimea and adopted a resolution to terminate its powers. The parliament dismissed the chairman of the Crimean Council of Ministers Anatolii Mohyliov, and replaced him with a pro-Russian deputy Sergey Aksyonov, who was proclaimed the de facto leader by the ousted president Victor Yanukovych. The ensuing interim Crimean Parliament promptly scheduled a referendum on the independence of Crimea to be held on March 16, 2014.

Crimea

Crimea (; Russian: Крым; Ukrainian: Крим, romanized: Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, romanized: Kirim/Qırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, romanized: Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey.

Crimea (or Tauric Peninsula, as it was called from antiquity until the early modern period) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths, Alans, Bulgars, Huns, Khazars, Kipchaks, Mongols and the Golden Horde. Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century.

In 1783, Crimea became a part of the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR.With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was formed as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine. The 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol. Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas.

In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea

The Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea was a joint resolution adopted on March 11, 2014 by the Supreme Council of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council where they expressed their intention to join Russia, in the event of a Yes vote in a referendum that was to be held on March 16. The participants were at the time subnational divisions of Ukraine.

Demographics of Crimea

As of 2014, the total population of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol was at 2,248,400 people (Republic of Crimea: 1,889,485, Sevastopol: 395,000). This is down from the 2001 Ukrainian Census figure, which was 2,376,000 (Autonomous Republic of Crimea: 2,033,700, Sevastopol: 342,451).

Flag of Crimea

The flag of Crimea (Russian: Флаг Крыма, romanized: Flag Kryma; Ukrainian: Прапор Криму, romanized: Prapor Krymu; Crimean Tatar: Qırım bayrağı) is the flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea claimed by Ukraine and the Republic of Crimea claimed by Russia. The flag was officially adopted on September 24, 1992 as the flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, readopted on April 21, 1999, then readopted on June 5, 2014 as the flag of the Republic of Crimea, a Russian federal subject.The flag is a triband, striped horizontally in blue–white–red (the pan-Slavic colors). The blue stripe is located at the top edge and is 1/6 of the flag's width. The white stripe is the largest of the three and is 2/3 of the flag's width, and the red stripe is located at the bottom edge and is 1/6 of the flag's width.

When flown vertically, the flag's blue stripe should be at the left, the white field in the center, and the red stripe on the right. The flag's length is twice its width.

List of lighthouses in Ukraine

This is a list of lighthouses in Ukraine. All lighthouses are controlled by the Ukrainian state institution Derzhhidrohrafiya. There are over 100 lighthouses in Ukraine, five of them (all in Crimea) were taken over by Russia during the 2014 Russian intervention in Ukraine.

The Derzhhidrohrafiya (State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine) divides its area of responsibilities over the lighthouses into several districts (raions). There are four existing raions, operations two of which is temporarily suspended. In 2017 there was an additional raion created along Dnieper, Dnieper Raion.

Politics of Crimea

The politics of Crimea today is that of the Republic of Crimea on one hand, and that of the federal city of Sevastopol on the other, within the context of the largely unrecognised annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in March 2014.

The ousting of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych during the 2014 Ukrainian revolution initiated a chain of events that culminated in a referendum in Crimea on whether it should rejoin Russia. Days after the official results revealed overwhelming support for the proposal, Russia signed a Treaty of Accession with the self-declared independent Republic of Crimea that annexed Crimea to the Russian Federation. While the Russian Federation both claims and administers the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as two of its federal subjects, Ukraine continues to assert that Crimea is an integral part of its territory.

President of Crimea

The President of the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Президент Республіки Крим; Russian: Президент Республики Крым) was the head of the state of the Republic of Crimea, Ukraine from February 16, 1994 to the time of its liquidation on March 17, 1995. The post was liquidated as it disagrees with the Constitution of Ukraine.The first round of voting in the Crimean presidential elections was held on January 16, 1994, and on January 30, the second round was held. With 72.9% of the vote, the pro-Russian politician Yuriy Meshkov was declared the winner. He was the only person to hold the post of President of the Republic of Crimea.

Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea

The Permanent Representative of the President of Ukraine in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Постійний Представник Президента України в АР Крим) represents the President of Ukraine in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Originally created in 1992 as the Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea was not appointed until March 1994. The first representative was appointed Valeriy Horbatov who worked as a head of the Krupskaya collective farm in Nyzhnohirskyi Raion, Crimean Oblast.

Prime Minister of Crimea

The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Голова Ради міністрів Республіки Крим; Russian: Председатель Совета министров Республики Крым; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Cumhuriyetiniñ Baş Naziri) is the head of government of the Republic of Crimea, (previously the Autonomous Republic of Crimea located in the southern region of Ukraine).

Until 2014 Prime Minister, whose nomination was proposed by the Speaker of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Crimean parliament) with the approval of the President of Ukraine and then approved by the Crimean parliament, presided over the Council of Ministers of Crimea.Since 2014, Prime Minister is appointed by the Head of the Republic of Crimea, once a candidate for Prime Minister will approve the State Council of Crimea (Crimean parliament). Head of the Republic of Crimea could lead the Council of Ministers of Crimea, but he must also pass the approval of the State Council.

Prosecutor's office of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea

The Prosecutor's office of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea - is a State Government Body. According to the Constitution and the Ukrainian Law its functions at the Autonomous Republic of Crimea are: prosecution, representation, supervision and control. According to the Acting Prosecutor General's decree No33 dated June 12, 2014 the Prosecutor's office of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea was temporary relocated to Kiev.

State Council of Crimea

The State Council of Crimea (Russian: Госуда́рственный Сове́т Респу́блики Крым, Ukrainian: Державна Рада Республіки Крим, Crimean Tatar: Къырым Джумхуриетининъ Девлет Шурасы) is the parliament of the Republic of Crimea. It had previously been called the 'Supreme Council of Crimea but changed its name in March 2014 following a vote by the Ukrainian parliament to dissolve the Supreme Council of Crimea. The Parliament is housed in the Parliament building in the centre of Simferopol.

Following the events of 2014, Crimea is a territory currently under dispute between Russia and Ukraine with Russia administering the territory but most countries continuing to recognise the territory as Ukrainian.

During the period of time in which Crimea was controlled by Ukraine, the Parliament was unable to appoint the Prime Minister of Crimea on its own, being able to appoint him only with the advice and consent of the President of Ukraine. This restriction did not sit well with the Parliament and its constituents, creating a long-standing rift between them and the national government of Ukraine.

As the Crimean crisis unfolded, the Parliament building was seized by unidentified pro-Russian gunmen. Under their control, the Parliament removed the incumbent Ukrainian-consented Prime Minister of Crimea and unilaterally appointed Sergey Aksyonov in his stead. The disbandment was also caused by the belief that the Crimean Parliament collaborated with Russian troops in the region against Ukrainian authorities. Days later, the Crimean Parliament reunified its territorial jurisdiction with the city of Sevastopol into a single united nation and unilaterally declared their independence from Ukraine following a referendum that reflected such desire. This newly formed nation then acceded to Russia which ultimately transferred the Crimean Parliament under a newly formed federal subject of Russia.

Verkhovna Rada of Crimea

Verkhovna Rada of Crimea or the Supreme Council of Crimea, officially the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Верховна Рада Автономної Республіки Крим, romanized: Verkhovna Rada Avtonomnoï Respubliky Krym; Russian: Верховный Совет Автономной Республики Крым, romanized: Verkhovny Sovet Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyetiniñ Yuqarı Radası) was a Ukrainian legislative body of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea before the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014.

The last election of parliament took place on 31 October 2010 (see Crimean parliamentary election, 2010) and were won by the Party of Regions and the Communist Party of Ukraine.

On 27 February 2014 unidentified armed militants took over the parliament and hoisted a Russian flag over it. On 15 March 2014 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine officially dissolved the parliament. On 17 March 2014, one day before the Russian annexation of Crimea, the State Council of Crimea was established in place of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea.

Zavodskoe Airport

Zavodskoe Airport (Russian: Аэропорт "Заводское"; Ukrainian: Аеропорт "Заводське") (ICAO: URFW) is situated at a distance of 5 kilometres (2.7 NM) southwest of Simferopol, the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. It was built in 1914 as part of an aircraft factory "Anatra". It is class D unpaved airdrome. It operates during the daylight hours.

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