Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija (КиМ / KiM), Albanian: Kosova dhe Dukagjini), officially the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохиja / Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo i Metohija, Albanian: Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë), known as short Kosovo (Serbian Cyrillic: Косово, Albanian: Kosova) or simply Kosmet (from Kosovo and Metohija; Serbian Cyrillic: Космет),[4] refers to the region of Kosovo[5] as defined in the Constitution of Serbia. The territory of the province is disputed between Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo,[a] the latter of which has de facto control. The region had functioned as part of Serbia (mainly while Serbia had been part of a Yugoslav state) for most of the period between 1912 and 1999.

The territory of the province, as recognized by Serbian laws, lies in the southern part of Serbia and covers the regions of Kosovo and Metohija. The capital of the province is Pristina. The territory was previously an autonomous province of Serbia during Socialist Yugoslavia (1946–1990), and acquired its current status in 1990. The province was governed as part of Serbia until the Kosovo War (1998–99), when it became a United Nations (UN) protectorate in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, but still internationally recognized as part of Serbia. The control was then transferred to the UN administration of UNMIK. In 2008, Kosovo authorities unilaterally declared independence, which is recognized by 110 UN members, but not by Serbia which still regards it as its province.

Autonomous Province of
Kosovo and Metohija

Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохиja
Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo i Metohija
Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë
Map of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia
Map of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia
StatusAutonomous province
(UNSC 1244)
Capital
and largest city
Pristina
42°40′N 21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Autonomy
• Formation of Serbia and Montenegro
1992
1999
2008
Area
• Total
10,908 km2 (4,212 sq mi)
• Water (%)
n/a
Population
• 2007 estimate
1,804,838[Note 1]
• 2011 census
1,780,021
• Density
220/km2 (569.8/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2009 estimate
• Total
$5.352 billion[3]
• Per capita
$2,965
CurrencyEuro (EUR)
Serbian dinar (RSD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+383
Internet TLD.rs
Kosovo ap en
Map of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

Overview

In 1990, the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia within Yugoslavia, had undergone the Anti-bureaucratic revolution by Slobodan Milošević's government which resulted in the reduction of its powers, effectively returning it to its constitutional status of 1971–74. The same year, its Albanian majority – as well as the Republic of Albania – supported the proclamation of an independent Republic of Kosova. Following the end of the Kosovo War 1999, and as a result of NATO intervention,[6][7] Serbia and the federal government no longer exercised de facto control over the territory.

In February 2008, the Republic of Kosovo declared independence.[8][9] While Serbia has not recognised Kosovo's independence, in the Brussels agreement of 2013, it abolished all its institutions in the Autonomous Province. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 113 UN member states (with two withdrawals to date).[6][10] In 2013, the Serbian government announced it was dissolving the Serb minority assemblies it had created in northern Kosovo, in order to allow the integration of the Kosovo Serb minority into the general population of Kosovo.[11]

History

Constitutional changes were made in Yugoslavia in 1990. The parliaments of all Yugoslavian republics and provinces, which until then had MPs only from the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, were dissolved and multi-party elections were held within them. Kosovar Albanians refused to participate in the elections so they held their own unsanctioned elections instead. As election laws required (and still require) turnout higher than 50%, a parliament in Kosovo could not be established.

The new constitution abolished the individual provinces' official media, integrating them within the official media of Serbia while still retaining some programs in the Albanian language. The Albanian-language media in Kosovo were suppressed. Funding was withdrawn from state-owned media, including those in the Albanian language in Kosovo. The constitution made the creation of privately owned media possible, however their operation was very difficult because of high rents and restrictive laws. State-owned Albanian language television or radio was also banned from broadcasting from Kosovo.[12] However, privately owned Albanian media outlets appeared; of these, probably the most famous is "Koha Ditore", which was allowed to operate until late 1998 when it was closed after publishing a calendar glorifying ethnic Albanian separatists.

The constitution also transferred control over state-owned companies to the Yugoslav central government. In September 1990, up to 123,000 Albanian workers were dismissed from their positions in government and media, as were teachers, doctors, and civil servants,[13] provoking a general strike and mass unrest. Some of those who were not sacked quit in sympathy, refusing to work for the Serbian government. Although the sackings were widely seen as a purge of ethnic Albanians, the government maintained that it was removing former communist directors.

Albanian educational curriculum textbooks were withdrawn and replaced by new ones. The curriculum was (and still is, as this is the curriculum used for Albanians in Serbia outside Kosovo) identical to its Serbian counterpart and that of all other nationalities in Serbia except that it had education on and in the Albanian language. Education in Albanian was withdrawn in 1992 and re-established in 1994.[14] At the Priština University, which was seen as a centre of Kosovo Albanian cultural identity, education in the Albanian language was abolished and Albanian teachers were also dismissed in large numbers. Albanians responded by boycotting state schools and setting up an unofficial parallel system of Albanian-language education.[15]

Kosovo Albanians were outraged by what they saw as an attack on their rights. Following mass rioting and unrest from Albanians as well as outbreaks of inter-communal violence, in February 1990, a state of emergency was declared and the presence of the Yugoslav Army and police was significantly increased to quell the unrest.

Unsanctioned elections were held in 1992, which overwhelmingly elected Ibrahim Rugova as "president" of a self-declared Republic of Kosova; Serb authorities rejected the election results, and tried to capture and prosecute those who had voted.[16] In 1995, thousands of Serb refugees from Croatia were settled in Kosovo, which further worsened relations between the two communities.

Albanian opposition to the sovereignty of Yugoslavia and especially Serbia had previously surfaced in rioting (1968 and March 1981) in the capital Pristina. Rugova initially advocated non-violent resistance, but later opposition took the form of separatist agitation by opposition political groups and armed action from 1996 by the "Kosovo Liberation Army" (Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës, or UÇK) whose activities led to the Kosovo War ending with the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the eventual creation of the UN Kosovo protectorate (UNMIK).

In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro left the federation in 2006 and recognised Kosovo's independence in 2008).[17]

Violent 2004 unrest in Kosovo broke out on 17 March 2004. Kosovo Albanians, numbering over 50,000, took part in wide-ranging attacks on the Kosovo Serb minority. It was the largest violent incident in Kosovo since the Kosovo War of 1998–1999. According to reports by news sources in Serbia, during the unrest, civilians were killed, thousands of Serbs were forced to leave their homes. In Serbia the events were also called the March Pogrom.

Politics and government

Kosovo och Metohija
The regions of Metohija (yellow), and Kosovo in the narrow sense.

Since 1999, the Serb-inhabited areas of Kosovo have been governed as a de facto independent region from the Albanian-dominated government in Pristina. They continue to use Serbian national symbols and participate in Serbian national elections, which are boycotted in the rest of Kosovo; in turn, they boycott Kosovo's elections. The municipalities of Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok are run by local Serbs, while the Kosovska Mitrovica municipality had rival Serbian and Albanian governments until a compromise was agreed in November 2002.[18]

The Serb areas have united into a community, the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija established in February 2003 by Serbian delegates meeting in Kosovska Mitrovica, which has since served as the de facto "capital." The Union's president is Dragan Velić. There is also a central governing body, the Serbian National Council for Kosovo and Metohija (SNV). The President of SNV in North Kosovo is Dr Milan Ivanović, while the head of its Executive Council is Rada Trajković.[19]

Local politics are dominated by the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija. The Serbian List was led by Oliver Ivanović, an engineer from Kosovska Mitrovica.[20]

In February 2007 the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija has transformed into the Serbian Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija presided by Marko Jakšić. The Assembly strongly criticised the secessionist movements of the Albanian-dominated PISG Assembly of Kosovo and demanded unity of the Serb people in Kosovo, boycott of EULEX and announced massive protests in support of Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo. On 18 February 2008, day after Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, the Assembly declared it "null and void".[21][22]

Also, there was a Ministry for Kosovo and Metohija within the Serbian government, with Goran Bogdanović as Minister for Kosovo and Metohija. In 2012, that ministry was downgraded to the Office for Kosovo, with Aleksandar Vulin as the head of the new office.[23] However, in 2013, Aleksandar Vulin post was raised into being a Minister without portfolio in charge of Kosovo and Metohija.

Administrative divisions

M kosovo02
Districts in Kosovo and Metohija.

Five Serbian Districts are in the territory of Kosovo, comprising 28 municipalities and 1 city. In 2000, UNMIK created 7 new districts and 30 municipalities. Serbia does not exercise sovereignty over this polity. For the UNMIK districts and the districts of Kosovo, see Districts of Kosovo.

District Seat Population
in 2016 (rank)
Municipalities and cities
Kosovo District
(Kosovski okrug)
Kosovski okrug
Pristina 672,292
Kosovo-Pomoravlje District
(Kosovsko-Pomoravski okrug)
Kosovsko-Pomoravski okrug
Gnjilane 166,212
Kosovska Mitrovica District
(Kosovskomitrovički okrug)
Kosovskomitrovički okrug
Kosovska Mitrovica 225,212
Peć District
(Pećki okrug)
Pećki okrug
Peć 178,326
Prizren District
(Prizrenski okrug)
Prizrenski okrug
Prizren 376,085

See also

Annotations

  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by 103 out of 193 United Nations member states.

Notes

  1. ^ Kosovo’s population estimates range from 1.9 to 2.4 million. The last two population censuses conducted in 1981 and 1991 estimated Kosovo’s population at 1.6 and 1.9 million respectively, but the 1991 census probably under-counted Albanians. The latest estimate in 2001 by OSCE puts the number at 2.4 million.[1] The World Factbook gives an estimate of 1,847,708 for July 2013.[2]

References

  1. ^ Kosovo Population
  2. ^ "Kosovo". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  3. ^ "Kosovo". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  4. ^ Heike Krieger (12 July 2001). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-0-521-80071-6.
  5. ^ "Šta donosi predlog novog ustava Srbije" (in Serbian). 30 September 2006.
  6. ^ a b "NATO – Topic: NATO's role in Kosovo". Nato.int. 31 August 2012.
  7. ^ Steven Beardsley. "Kosovo aims to form military force and join NATO – News". Stripes.
  8. ^ "Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate international law – UN court". UN News Centre. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  9. ^ "ICJ,International Court of Justice:Declaration of independence of Kosovo from Serbia is not a violation of international law". Bbc newsamerica.com. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  10. ^ Steven Beardsley. "Kosovo aims to form military force and join NATO – News". Stripes. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  11. ^ Serbia Pulls Plug on North Kosovo Assemblies
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ ON THE RECORD: //Civil Society in Kosovo// - Volume 9, Issue 1 - August 30, 1999 - THE BIRTH AND REBIRTH OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN KOSOVO - PART ONE: REPRESSION AND RESISTANCE
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 April 2005. Retrieved 2006-06-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Clark, Howard. Civil Resistance in Kosovo. London: Pluto Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7453-1569-0
  16. ^ Noel Malcolm, A Short History of Kosovo, p.347
  17. ^ Lonely Planet Montenegro. Lonely Planet. 2009. p. 15. ISBN 9781741794403.
  18. ^ Day, Matthew (11 November 2010). "Serbia calls for boycott of Kosovo elections". The Daily Telegraph.
  19. ^ Declaration of Establishing the Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (in English)
  20. ^ "Ivanović: Frustracija Kosovom uzrok nestabilnosti". Blic.rs. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  21. ^ Vesna Peric Zimonjic (29 June 2008). "Kosovo Serbs set up rival assembly". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  22. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Kosovo". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
  23. ^ "Closure of Serbian ministry sparks debate". Southeast European Times. 14 August 2012.

External links

1991 Kosovan independence referendum

An independence referendum was held in Kosovo, then known as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija between 26 and 30 September 1991. The dissolved Provincial Assembly had declared the Republic of Kosova a sovereign and independent state on 22 September 1991. Over 99% of voters voted in favour of independence, with a turnout of 87%. The referendum was boycotted by Serbs living in the region, who comprised around 10% of the population.

2012 Serbian local elections

Local elections in Serbia were held on 6 May 2012.

Pursuant to the Constitution of Serbia, the parliamentary Speaker (at the time Slavica Đukić Dejanović from SPS) signed on 13 March 2012 the Decision on calling the elections for councilors of municipal assemblies, town assemblies and the Belgrade City Assembly for 6 May 2012, with the exception of: the councilors of the municipal assemblies of Aranđelovac, Bor, Vrbas, Vrnjačka Banja, Knjaževac, Kovin, Kosjerić, Kosovska Mitrovica, Leposavić, Negotin, Novo Brdo, Odžaci, Peć, Prijepolje and Ruma and councilors of the Priština Town Assembly, which have already had extraordinary elections in the period from 2008 to 2012, while for councilors of the municipal assembly of Kula, the elections were already called earlier on 29 February 2012.In line with United Nations SC Resolution 1244, the Government of the Republic of Serbia will, in cooperation with UNMIK, implement all actions necessary for the elections on the territory of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.Some EU member states officials expressed their disagreement over the decisions to call local elections for municipalities in Kosovo and Metohija. Local elections will be observed by a delegation of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe.

Administrative divisions of Kosovo

Kosovo is administratively subdivided into districts (Albanian: rajone, Serbian: окрузи / okruzi). They are further subdivided into municipalities (Albanian: komuna, Serbian: општина / opština).

The entities were created by UNMIK and based on the entities in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

Assembly of the Community of Municipalities, Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

The Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian: Скупштина Заједнице општина Аутономне Покрајине Косово и Метохија, translit. Skupština Zajednice opština Autonomne Pokrajine Kosovo i Metohija), is the assembly of the association of local governments created by the municipal authorities in Kosovo elected in the May 11, 2008 municipal elections called by the Government of Serbia. It was created in Kosovska Mitrovica (North Kosovo) to represent the municipalities that defy the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence. The Assembly is composed of 45 representatives delegated by 26 municipalities. The majority of delegates are ethnic Serbs, while some represent Gorani, Bosniak and Romani communities.

The assembly is not part of the government of the Republic of Kosovo.

Autonomous province

Autonomous province is term for a type of administrative territorial entity.

Dragan Velić

Dragan Velić (born November 18, 1958) is a Kosovo Serb politician, currently serving as president of the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija, which currently is in dispute with unilaterally declared the Republic of Kosovo over the status of Kosovo. Velić was the Prefect of the Kosovo District, of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, from December 6, 2001 to September 28, 2004.

Flag of Kosovo

The flag of the Republic of Kosovo was adopted by the Assembly of Kosovo immediately following the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo from Serbia on 17 February 2008. The flag is the result of an international design competition, organised by the United Nations-backed Kosovo Unity Team, which attracted almost one thousand entries. The now-used design was proposed by Muhamer Ibrahimi. It shows six white stars in an arc above a golden map of Kosovo on a blue field. The stars symbolise Kosovo's six major ethnic groups.Before the declaration of independence, Kosovo was under the administration of the United Nations and used the UN flag for official purposes. The Serbian and Albanian populations had used their own national flags since the Socialist Yugoslavia period. The Serbs use a red, blue and white tricolor, which forms the basis of the current flag of Serbia. The Albanian population have used the flag of Albania since the 1960s as their ethnic flag. Both flags can still be seen and used within Kosovo.

Serbia has not recognized the independence of Kosovo and claims the area as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Unlike the autonomous province of Vojvodina, no flag has been adopted by the Serbian authorities to represent this claimed province and the Flag of Serbia is used instead.

Flag of Serbia

The flag of Serbia is a tricolor consisting of three equal horizontal bands, red on the top, blue in the middle, and white on the bottom. The same tricolour, in altering variations, has been used since the 19th century as the flag of the state of Serbia and the Serbian nation. The current form of the flag was officially adopted on 11 November 2010.

Football First League of North Kosovo

The League of North Kosovo (Serbian: Liga Severnog Kosova/Лига Северног Косова) is the top football regional league in North Kosovo, ranked fifth in the Serbian league system. The league is formed primarily of Serbian football clubs that come from four of North Kosovo's municipalities such as Leposavić, Zvečan, Zubin Potok and Northern Kosovska Mitrovica. The league was formed in protest to the establishment of the Kosovo Super League by the Republic of Kosovo; the Serbian clubs from North Kosovo refuse to enter the Republic of Kosovo's institutions as per the Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

FK Ibar Leposavić

FK Rudar Kosovska Mitrovica

FK Kopaonik Lešak

FK Sočanica

FK Zvečan

FK Radnik Prilužje

FK Moša BanjeThere are two other clubs from North Kosovo, FK Trepča and FK Mokra Gora, however these clubs compete in the Morava Zone League.

Governance of Kosovo

The Governance of Kosovo operates in the context of the disputed territory of Kosovo.

The de jure Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) is defined under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) regulations, the de facto Republic of Kosovo (RoK) government is defined under the 2008 Constitution of Kosovo and operates in most of Kosovo, and the de facto Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija is the assembly of the association of municipal governments of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija that operates in North Kosovo. All the governments operate in the context of a multi-party parliamentary representative democracy. One author put it thus:

International civil and security presences are currently operating under auspices of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. Previously this included only the UNMIK but has since expanded to include the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX). In December 2008, EULEX was deployed throughout the territory of Kosovo, assuming responsibilities in the areas of police, customs and the judiciary.

Ilija Vakić

Ilija Vakić (Serbian Cyrillic: Илија Вакић; born 30 July 1932) is a former Yugoslav politician who served as Chairman of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within the former Yugoslavia from May 1967 to May 1974. He was a member of the League of Communists of Kosovo. He was succeeded in office by Bogoljub Nedeljković.

Kosovo (disambiguation)

Kosovo is a partially recognised state.

Kosovo may also refer to:

Kosovo (historical region), a disputed territory in Southeast Europe

List of administrative division name changes

This is a list of administrative divisions whose names were officially changed at one or more points in history. It does not include gradual changes in spelling.

Metohija (disambiguation)

Metohija is a region in the southwestern part of Kosovo.

Metohija may also refer to:

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, autonomous province that Serbia claims to still have under its sovereignty

Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija (1945–1963), autonomous region in the People's Republic of Serbia

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (1963–1968), autonomous province in the Socialist Republic of Serbia

Metohija (Ston), village near Ston, Croatia

Metohija (Podujevo), village near Podujevo, Kosovo

Ministry for Kosovo and Metohija

The Ministry for Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian: Министарство за Косово и Метохију, translit. Ministarstvo za Kosovo i Metohiju) was the ministry in the Government of Serbia responsible for the issues relating to Kosovo and Metohija.

Radovan Ničić

Radovan Ničić (Serbian Cyrillic: Радован Ничић; born 1971) was the first President of the Assembly of the Community and Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija since 28 June 2008. He was also the de jure Mayor of Pristina (seat in Gračanica), elected during the Serbia-sponsored local elections of 11 May 2008.

Republic of Kosova

The Republic of Kosova (Albanian: Republika e Kosovës) was a self-declared proto-state in 1992. During its peak, it tried to establish its own parallel political institutions in opposition to the institutions of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija held by the Republic of Serbia.

Roads in Serbia

Roads in Serbia are the backbone of its transportation system and an important part of the European road network. The total length of roads in the country is 45,419 km, and they are categorized as "state roads" (total length of 16,179 km) or "municipal roads" (total length of 23,780 km). All state roads in Serbia are maintained by the public, nation-wide, road construction company JP Putevi Srbije.

Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo

The Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово / Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës), comprising the Kosovo region, was one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within Yugoslavia (the other being Vojvodina), between 1945 and 1990, when it was renamed Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

Between 1945 and 1963 it was officially named the Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija, and enjoyed a level of self-government lower than the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. In 1963, it was granted the same level of autonomy as Vojvodina, and accordingly to that official name was changed to Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In 1968, the term "Metohija" was dropped, and the prefix "Socialist" was added, changing the official name of the province to Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. In 1974, both autonomous provinces (Vojvodina and Kosovo) were granted significantly increased level of autonomy. In 1989, that level of autonomy was reduced. In 1990, the term "Metohija" was reinserted into provincial name, and the term "Socialist" was dropped. From that point, official name of the province was again: Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, as previously between 1963 and 1968.

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