The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.
The word automotive comes from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle. This term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry (1860-1930), first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898.
The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.
Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.
Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.
In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.
Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.
Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicted that, by 2014, one-third of world demand would be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.
The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 14 countries (boldfaced in the list below) currently possess the capability to design original production automobiles from the ground up.
|Country||Motor vehicle production (units)|
This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production volume in 2017, according to OICA.
|4||General Motors||United States||6,856,880|
|8||Fiat Chrysler Automobiles||Italy / United States||4,600,847|
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2016 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.
|Marque||Country of origin||Ownership||Markets|
|1. Toyota (Japan)|
|Daihatsu||Japan||Subsidiary||Europe, Asia (except South Korea, South Asia (excluding Sri Lanka)), Africa, South America|
|Hino||Japan||Subsidiary||South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean|
|Lexus||Japan||Business Unit||South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India|
|Toyota||Japan||Division||Global, except Iran|
|2. Volkswagen AG (Germany)|
|Audi||Germany||Subsidiary||Global, except Iran|
|Bugatti||France||Subsidiary||Global, except Australia|
|MAN||Germany||Subsidiary||Global, except North America|
|Porsche||Germany||Subsidiary||Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba|
|Scania||Sweden||Subsidiary||Global, except North America|
|SEAT||Spain||Subsidiary||Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America (Excluding Chile), Middle East, Northern Africa|
|Škoda||Czech Republic||Subsidiary||Europe, Asia (except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand|
|Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles||Germany||Subsidiary||Global|
|VTB||Brazil||Business Unit||Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa|
|3. Hyundai (South Korea)|
|Genesis||South Korea||Business Unit||South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates|
|Kia||South Korea||Subsidiary||Global (except Japan)|
|4. General Motors (United States)|
|Buick||United States||Business Unit||North America, China, Israel|
|Cadillac||United States||Business Unit||North America, Middle East, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea|
|Chevrolet||United States||Business Unit||Global, (except Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India)|
|GMC||United States||Business Unit||North America, Middle East (except Israel)|
|Holden||Australia||Subsidiary||Australia, New Zealand|
|GM Uzbekistan||Uzbekistan||Business Unit||Central Asia, Russia|
|5. Ford (United States)|
|Mercury||United States||Division||North America|
|Lincoln||United States||Business Unit||North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China|
|Troller Veículos Especiais||Brazil||Subsidiary||South America, Africa, Australia, Europe|
|6. Nissan (Japan)|
|Datsun||Japan||Division||Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa, Bolivia|
|Infiniti||Japan||Subsidiary||Global, except South America (excluding Chile), Indonesia, Africa (excluding South Africa)|
|7. Honda (Japan)|
|Acura||Japan||Division||China, Kuwait, North America, Russia|
|8. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Italy)/(USA)|
|Abarth||Italy||Subsidiary||Global, except Iran|
|Alfa Romeo||Italy||Subsidiary||Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines and Brazil|
|Chrysler||United States||Division||Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)|
|Dodge||United States||Division||Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines)|
|Fiat||Italy||Subsidiary||Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia|
|Fiat Professional||Italy /United States||Business Unit||Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada|
|Jeep||United States||Division||Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia (excluding India, Sri Lanka), South East Asia (excluding Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)|
|Lancia||Italy||Division||Europe, except United Kingdom, Ireland|
|RAM||United States||Division||North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru, Australia|
|9. Renault (France)|
|Alpine||France||Subsidiary||Europe, Japan and Australia|
|Dacia||Romania||Subsidiary||Europe, North Africa|
|Lada||Russia||Business Unit||Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Egypt|
|Renault||France||Division||Global ( except USA and Canada)|
|Renault Samsung Motors||South Korea||Subsidiary||South Korea|
|10. Groupe PSA (France)|
|Citroën||France||Division||Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)|
|DS||France||Division||Europe, China and Brazil|
|Peugeot||France||Division||Global, (except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)|
|Opel||Germany||Subsidiary||Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Chile|
|Vauxhall||United Kingdom||Subsidiary||United Kingdom|
The automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 was a part of a global financial downturn. The crisis affected European and Asian automobile manufacturers, but it was primarily felt in the American automobile manufacturing industry. The downturn also affected Canada by virtue of the Automotive Products Trade Agreement.The automotive industry was weakened by a substantial increase in the prices of automotive fuels linked to the 2003-2008 energy crisis which discouraged purchases of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and pickup trucks which have low fuel economy. The popularity and relatively high profit margins of these vehicles had encouraged the American "Big Three" automakers, General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler to make them their primary focus. With fewer fuel-efficient models to offer to consumers, sales began to slide. By 2008, the situation had turned critical as the credit crunch placed pressure on the prices of raw materials.
Car companies from Asia, Europe, North America, and elsewhere have implemented creative marketing strategies to entice reluctant consumers as most experienced double-digit percentage declines in sales. Major manufacturers, including the Big Three and Toyota offered substantial discounts across their product lineups. The Big Three faced criticism for their mix of available vehicle types offered, which faced criticism for being ill-suited to a climate of rising fuel prices. North American consumers turned to smaller, cheaper, more fuel-efficient imports from Japan and Europe.Automotive industry in Australia
A substantial car industry was created in Australia in the 20th century through the opening of Australian plants by international manufacturers. The first major carmaker was Ford Australia and the first Australian-designed mass production car was manufactured by Holden in 1948. Australian manufacture of cars rose to a maximum of almost half a million in the 1970s (10th place in the World) and still exceeded 400,000 in 2004. Australia was best known for the design and production of 'large' sized passenger vehicles. By 2009 total production had fallen to around 175,000 and the Australian market was dominated by cars imported from Asia and Europe.
As of 2015, Australian-designed cars were manufactured by General Motors subsidiary Holden, and Ford Australia, while Toyota Australia manufactured local variants of its international models, particularly the Camry. However, the Ford Australia engine and vehicle plants closed in October 2016 and the Holden and Toyota Australia factories closed in late 2017. Both Ford and Holden's design and development facilities remain in operation and are expanding, leaving Australia as one of 13 countries with the capabilities to design and develop mass market cars from scratch.Automotive industry in Bangladesh
The automotive industry in Bangladesh is the third largest in South Asia.
Bangladesh has a few large car plants which assemble passenger cars from Mitsubishi and Proton, as well as commercial vehicles from Hino and Tata.
Motorcycles, auto rickshaws and the locally designed Mishuk three-wheeler are manufactured in Bangladesh.Automotive industry in Brazil
The Brazilian automotive industry competed with other Latin American ones (Mexico and Argentina) comparably till 1960, but had two jumps then, making Brazil as a regional leader at first and one of the World's leaders moreover. Near the end of the 1970s new capacities were built by US and Germany. In addition to available and annual production, which exceeded one million and provided world's 10th place for country. After some decrease near 1990, the new and more strong growth by help of same foreign players plus Japan and France allows Brazil to beat such old auto makers as Belgium, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Russia, Spain, France and annual production exceeded 3,7 million vehicles in 2013 seventh largest in the World, although they have fallen substantially more recently.
The Brazilian industry is regulated by the Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (Anfavea), created in 1956, which includes automakers (automobiles, light vehicles, trucks and buses) and agriculture machines with factories in Brazil. Anfavea is part of the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA), based in Paris.
Most of large global companies are present in Brazil; such as BYD, Fiat, Volkswagen Group, Ford, General Motors, Nissan Motors, Toyota, MAN SE, Mitsubishi, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Volvo, BMW, Subaru, Chery, Geely, Lifan, JAC Motors, Lifan, Peugeot, Porsche, Audi, Citroën, Jeep, Land Rover, Mini, Lexus, etc., and also the emerging national companies such as Troller, Marcopolo S.A., Agrale, Randon S.A., Excalibur etc., some of them traditionally produces the modern equipped replicas of oldtimers.Automotive industry in Canada
Please note that this page is on Wikipedia so it might be subject to change and that it might be false.
The automotive industry in Canada consists primarily of assembly plants of foreign automakers, most with headquarters in the United States or Japan, along with hundreds of manufacturers of automotive parts and systems.
Canada is currently the ninth-largest auto producer in the world, and fourth largest auto exporter by value, producing 2.4 million vehicles and exporting $48.8 billion worth of vehicles in 2016. Canada's highest rankings ever were the second largest producer in the world between 1918 and 1923 and third after World War II.
Automotive manufacturing is one of Canada’s largest industrial sectors, accounting for 10% of manufacturing GDP and 23% of manufacturing trade. Canada produces passenger vehicles, trucks and buses, auto parts and systems, truck bodies and trailers, as well as tires and machines-tools-diesmoulds (MTDM). The auto industry directly employs more than 125,000 people in vehicle assembly and auto parts manufacturing, and another 380,000 in distribution and aftermarket sales and service.
The first large-scale production of automobiles in Canada took place in Walkerville, Ontario, near Windsor, in 1904. In the first year of operations, Gordon McGregor and Wallace Campbell, along with a handful of workmen produced 117 Ford Model Cs at the Walkerville Wagon Works factory.
Through marques such as Brooks, Redpath, Tudhope, McKay, Galt Gas-Electric, Gray-Dort, Brockville Atlas, Chatham, Anhunt, Russell (CCM), Hyslop and Ronald, and McLaughlin, Canada had many domestic auto brands. In 1918, McLaughlin was bought by an American firm, General Motors, and was re-branded General Motors of Canada. In the 1930s, Studebaker built its Rockne in Canada.
Driven by the demands of World War I, Canada's automotive industry had grown, by 1923, into the second-largest in the world, although it was still made up of relatively inefficient plants producing many models behind a high tariff wall. High consumer prices and production inefficiencies characterized the Canadian auto industry prior to the signing of the Canada–United States Automotive Products Agreement.
The 1964 Automotive Products Trade Agreement or "Auto Pact" represents the single most important factor in making the Canadian automotive industry what it is today. Key features of the Auto Pact were the 1:1 production-to-sales ratio and Canadian Value Added requirements. As of 2015 major car companies that operate are Fiat-Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Toyota.Automotive industry in Chennai
Chennai is nicknamed the "Detroit of India" (or the "Detroit of Asia") due to the presence of major automobile manufacturing units and allied industries around the city. The 4-wheeler vehicles in Chennai is the base of 30% of India's automobile industry and 35% of its automobile component industry. Besides the commercial industry, the Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) has been established in Avadi to produce military related vehicles. Avadi also boasts of the Combat Vehicle Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE), a new engine testing facility.Automotive industry in China
The automotive industry in China has been the largest in the world measured by automobile unit production since 2008. Since 2009, annual production of automobiles in China exceeds that of the European Union or that of the United States and Japan combined.
The traditional "Big Four" domestic car manufacturers are SAIC Motor, Dongfeng, FAW and Chang’an. Other Chinese car manufacturers are Geely, Beijing Automotive Group, Brilliance Automotive, Guangzhou Automobile Group, Great Wall, BYD, Chery and Jianghuai (JAC). In addition, several multinational manufacturers have partnerships with domestic manufacturers.
While most of the cars manufactured in China are sold within China, exports reached 814,300 units in 2011. China's home market provides its automakers a solid base and Chinese economic planners hope to build globally competitive auto companies that will become more and more attractive and reliable over the years.China's automobile industry had mainly Soviet origins (plants and licensed auto design were founded in the 1950s, with the help of the USSR) and had small volumes for the first 30 years of the republic, not exceeding 100–200 thousands per year. Since the early 1990s, it has developed rapidly. China's annual automobile production capacity first exceeded one million in 1992. By 2000, China was producing over two million vehicles. After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the development of the automobile market accelerated further. Between 2002 and 2007, China's national automobile market grew by an average 21 percent, or one million vehicles year-on-year. In 2009, China produced 13.79 million automobiles, of which 8 million were passenger cars and 3.41 million were commercial vehicles and surpassed the United States as the world's largest automobile producer by volume. In 2010, both sales and production topped 18 million units, with 13.76 million passenger cars delivered, in each case the largest by any nation in history. In 2014, total vehicle production in China reached 23.720 million, accounting for 26% of global automotive production.The number of registered cars, buses, vans, and trucks on the road in China reached 62 million in 2009, and is expected to exceed 200 million by 2020. The consultancy McKinsey & Company estimates that China's car market will grow tenfold between 2005 and 2030.The main industry group for the Chinese automotive industry is the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (中国汽车工业协会).Automotive industry in India
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world..Automotive industry in Italy
The automotive industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country, it had over 2,131 firms and employed almost 250,000 people in 2006. Italy's automotive industry is best known for its automobile designs and small city cars, sports and supercars. The automotive industry makes a contribution of 8.5% to Italian GDP.Italy is one of the significant automobile producers both in Europe and across the world.
Today the Italian automotive industry is almost totally dominated by Fiat Group; in 2001 over 90% of vehicles were produced by it. As well as its own, predominantly mass market model range, Fiat owns the upmarket Alfa Romeo and Lancia brands and the exotic Maserati.
Italian cars won in the European Car of the Year annual award one of the most times among other countries (including Fiat most that any other manufacturer) and in World Car of the Year award also.Automotive industry in Japan
The automotive industry in Japan is one of the most prominent and largest industries in the world. Japan has been in the top three of the countries with most cars manufactured since the 1960s, surpassing Germany. The automotive industry in Japan rapidly increased from the 1970s to the 1990s (when it was oriented both for domestic use and worldwide export) and in the 1980s and 1990s, overtook the U.S. as the production leader with up to 13 million cars per year manufactured and significant exports. After massive ramp-up by China in the 2000s and fluctuating U.S. output, Japan is now currently the third largest automotive producer in the world with an annual production of 9.9 million automobiles in 2012. Japanese investments helped grow the auto industry in many countries throughout the last few decades.Japanese zaibatsu (business conglomerates) began building their first automobiles in the middle to late 1910s. The companies went about this by either designing their own trucks (the market for passenger vehicles in Japan at the time was small), or partnering with a European brand to produce and sell their cars in Japan under license. Such examples of this are Isuzu partnering with Wolseley Motors (UK), Nissan partnering with British automaker Austin, and the Mitsubishi Model A, which was based upon the Fiat Tipo 3. The demand for domestic trucks was greatly increased by the Japanese military buildup before World War II, causing many Japanese manufacturers to break out of their shells and design their own vehicles. In the 1970s Japan was the pioneer in robotics manufacturing of vehicles.
The country is home to a number of companies that produce cars, construction vehicles, motorcycles, ATVs, and engines. Japanese automotive manufacturers include Toyota, Honda, Daihatsu, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Subaru, Isuzu, Kawasaki, Yamaha, and Mitsuoka.
Cars designed in Japan have won the European Car of the Year, International Car of the Year, and World Car of the Year awards many times. Japanese vehicles have had worldwide influence, and no longer have the stigma they had in the 1950s and 1960s when they first emerged internationally.Automotive industry in North Korea
The automotive industry in North Korea is a branch of the national economy, with much-lower production than that in South Korea. North Korean motor vehicle production is geared towards the Korean People's Army, industrial and construction goals; there is little car ownership by private citizens. In addition to cars and trucks, North Korea produces buses, trolleybuses and trams.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is not involved with the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) or any other United Nations industrial committee, so information about its motor vehicle industry is limited. The OICA does not publicize figures for automobile production in the DPRK. As reported by a limited number of observers with first-hand knowledge, North Korea has the capability to produce 40,000 to 50,000 vehicles a year; however, within the past few years only a few thousand vehicles have been produced due to its ongoing economic crisis and recent sanctions.Automotive industry in Pakistan
The automotive industry in Pakistan is the one of the fastest-growing industries of the country, accounting for 4% of Pakistan's GDP and employing a workforce of over 1.8 million people. Currently, there are 3,200 automotive manufacturing plants in the country, with an investment of ₨92 billion (US$650 million) producing 1.8 million motorcycles and 200,000 vehicles annually. Its contribution to the national exchequer is nearly ₨50 billion (US$350 million). The sector, as a whole, provides employment to 3.5 million people and plays a pivotal role in promoting the growth of the vendor industry. Pakistan's auto market is considered among the smallest, but fastest-growing in Asia. Over 180,000 cars were sold in the fiscal year 2014–15, rising to 206,777 units fiscal year 2015–16. At present, the auto market is dominated by Honda, Toyota and Suzuki. However, on 19 March 2016, Pakistan passed the "Auto Policy 2016-21", which offers tax incentives to new automakers to establish manufacturing plants in the country. In response, Renault, Nissan, Kia, SsangYong, Volkswagen, Faw and Hyundai have expressed interest in entering the Pakistani market. NLC signed an agreement with Mercedes Benz for the manufacturing of Mercedes Actros trucks in Pakistan. Pakistan has not enforced any automotive safety standards or model upgrade policies. Obsolete vehicles including the Bolan, Swift and Ravi continue to be sold by Pak Suzuki.Automotive industry in Romania
Much of the Romanian manufacturing industry consists of branch plants of foreign firms, though there are some important domestic manufacturers, such as Automobile Dacia, Ford Romania, Roman Braşov and Igero. In 2018, est. 500,000 automobiles were produced in Romania.Automotive industry in Russia
Automotive production is a significant industry in Russia, directly employing around 600,000 people or 1% of the country's total workforce. Russia produced 1,303,989 vehicles in 2016, ranking 16th among car-producing nations in 2016, and accounting for 1.4% of the worldwide production. The main local brands are light vehicle producers AvtoVAZ and GAZ, while KamAZ is the leading heavy vehicle producer. Eleven foreign carmakers have production operations or are constructing their plants in Russia.Automotive industry in South Korea
The automotive industry in South Korea is the sixth-largest in the world measured by automobile unit production and the fifth-largest by automobile export volume.
While its initial operations were merely the assembling of parts imported from foreign companies, South Korea is today among the most advanced automobile-producing countries in the world. Annual domestic output first exceeded one million units in 1988. In the 1990s, the industry manufactured numerous in-house models, demonstrating not only its capabilities in terms of design, performance, and technology, but also signalling its coming of age.Automotive industry in the United States
The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world. However, the United States was overtaken as the largest automobile producer by Japan in the 1980s, and subsequently by China in 2008. The U.S. is currently second among the largest manufacturer in the world by volume, with approximately 8-10 million manufactured annually. Notable exceptions were 5.7 million automobiles manufactured in 2009 (due to crisis), and peak production levels of 13-15 million units during the 1970s and early 2000s.The motor vehicle industry began with hundreds of manufacturers, but by the end of the 1920s it was dominated by three large companies: General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, all based in Metro Detroit. After the Great Depression and World War II, these companies continued to prosper, and the U.S. produced nearly three quarters of all automobiles in the world by 1950 (8,005,859 of 10,577,426).
Beginning in the 1970s, a combination of high oil prices and increased competition from foreign auto manufacturers severely affected the companies. In the ensuing years, the companies periodically bounced back, but by 2008 the industry was in turmoil due to the aforementioned crisis. As a result, General Motors and Chrysler filed for bankruptcy reorganization and were bailed out with loans and investments from the federal government. But according to Autodata Corp, June 2014 seasonally adjusted annualized sales is the biggest in history with 16.98 million vehicles and toppled previous record in July 2006.Prior to the 1980s, most manufacturing facilities were owned by the Big Three (GM, Ford, Chrysler) and AMC. Their U.S. market share has dropped steadily as numerous foreign-owned car companies have built factories in the U.S. Toyota had 31,000 direct employees in the U.S. in 2012, meaning a total payroll of about $2.1 billion, compared to Ford's 80,000 U.S. employees supplying their 3,300 dealerships and Chrysler's 71,100 U.S. employees supplying their 2,328 dealerships.BAIC Group
BAIC Group (officially Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co., Ltd.) is a Chinese state-owned enterprise and holding company of several automobile and machine manufacturers located in Beijing, China.
Its principal subsidiaries include the passenger car maker BAIC Motor; a military vehicle and SUV maker, BAW; and a truck, bus, and agricultural equipment maker, Foton Motor. BAIC also makes Hyundai and Mercedes-branded cars for sale on the Chinese market through the Beijing Hyundai and Beijing Benz joint ventures (of BAIC Motor).
It is often ranked as the fifth or fourth-largest Chinese automaker by volume and boasts several successful passenger-car joint ventures with foreign firms. However, a significant proportion of its output is agricultural, commercial, and military vehicles.
In 2014, manufacture of 2.25 million whole vehicles made BAIC the fourth largest among domestic rivals although it placed second in terms of commercial vehicle output.ISO/TS 16949
ISO/TS 16949 is an ISO technical specification aimed at the development of a quality management system that provides for continual improvement, emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the automotive industry supply chain. It is based on the ISO 9001 standard and the first edition was published in June 1999 as ISO/TS 16949:1999.It was prepared by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) and the "Technical Committee" of ISO. It harmonizes the country-specific regulations of quality Management systems.About 30 percent of the more than 100 existing automobile manufacturers affiliate the requirements of the norm but especially the large Asian manufacturers have differentiated, own requirements for the quality management systems of their corporate group and their suppliers.ISO/TS 16949 applies to the design/development, production and, when relevant, installation and servicing of automotive-related products.
The requirements are intended to be applied throughout the supply chain. For the first time vehicle assembly plants will be encouraged to seek ISO/TS 16949 certification.SAIC Motor
SAIC Motor Corporation Limited (SAIC, formerly Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation) is a Chinese state-owned automotive design and manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai, with multinational operations. A Fortune Global 100 company and one of the "Big Four" state-owned Chinese automakers (along with Changan Automobile, FAW Group, and Dongfeng Motor Corporation), the company had the largest production volume of any Chinese automaker in 2014 making more than 4.5 million vehicles. Its manufacturing mix is not wholly consumer offerings, however, with as many as one million SAIC passenger vehicles being commercial vans.
SAIC traces its origins to the early years of the Chinese automobile industry in the 1940s, and SAIC was one of the few carmakers in Mao's China, making the Shanghai SH760. Currently, it participates in the oldest surviving sino-foreign car making joint venture, with Volkswagen, and in addition has had a joint venture and 40% shares of General Motors since 1998. SAIC products sell under a variety of brand names, including those of its joint venture partners. Two notable brands owned by SAIC itself are MG, a historic British car marque, and Roewe, one of the few domestic Chinese luxury car brands.