Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages /ˌɔːstroʊˈniːʒən/ are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.[2] Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%), making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.[3]

Similarities between the languages spoken in the Malay Archipelago and the Pacific Ocean were first observed in 1706 by the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland.[4] In the 19th century, researchers (e.g. Wilhelm von Humboldt, Herman van der Tuuk) started to apply the comparative method to the Austronesian languages, but the first comprehensive and extensive study on the phonological history of the Austronesian language family including a reconstruction of Proto-Austronesian lexicon was made by the German linguist Otto Dempwolff.[5] The term Austronesian itself was coined by Wilhelm Schmidt (German austronesisch, based on Latin auster "south wind" and Greek νῆσος "island").[6] The family is aptly named, as the vast majority of Austronesian languages are spoken on islands: only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages, are indigenous to mainland Asia. Many Austronesian languages have very few speakers, but the major Austronesian languages are spoken by tens of millions of people and one Austronesian language, Malay (including both Indonesian and Malaysian variants), is spoken by 250 million people, making it the 8th most spoken language in the world. Approximately twenty Austronesian languages are official in their respective countries (see the list of major and official Austronesian languages).

Different sources count languages differently, but Austronesian and Niger–Congo are the two largest language families in the world by the number of languages they contain, each having roughly one-fifth of the total languages counted in the world. The geographical span of Austronesian was the largest of any language family before the spread of Indo-European in the colonial period, ranging from Madagascar off the southeastern coast of Africa to Easter Island in the eastern Pacific. Hawaiian, Rapa Nui, and Malagasy (spoken on Madagascar) are the geographic outliers of the Austronesian family.

According to Robert Blust (1999), Austronesian is divided in several primary branches, all but one of which are found exclusively on Taiwan. The Formosan languages of Taiwan are grouped into as many as nine first-order subgroups of Austronesian. All Austronesian languages spoken outside Taiwan (including its offshore Yami language) belong to the Malayo-Polynesian branch, sometimes called Extra-Formosan.

Most Austronesian languages lack a long history of written attestation, making the feat of reconstructing earlier stages – up to distant Proto-Austronesian – all the more remarkable. The oldest inscription in the Cham language, the Đông Yên Châu inscription, but with the influence of Indo-European languages, dated to the mid-6th century AD at the latest, is also the first attestation of any Austronesian language.

Austronesian
EthnicityAustronesian peoples
Geographic
distribution
Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and parts of Mainland Southeast Asia, Oceania, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Hainan
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Proto-languageProto-Austronesian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5map
Glottologaust1307[1]
Austroneske jazyky
Distribution of Austronesian languages

Structure

Hawaii Banknote 5 Dollars c 1839
Banknote for 5 dollars, Hawaii, circa 1839, using Hawaiian language

It is difficult to make generalizations about the languages that make up a family as diverse as Austronesian. Very broadly, one can divide the Austronesian languages into three groups: Philippine-type languages, Indonesian-type languages and post-Indonesian type languages (Ross 2002):

  • The first group includes, besides the languages of the Philippines, the Austronesian languages of Taiwan, Sabah, North Sulawesi and Madagascar. It is primarily characterized by the retention of the original system of Philippine-type voice alternations, where typically three or four verb voices determine which semantic role the "subject"/"topic" expresses (it may express either the actor, the patient, the location and the beneficiary, or various other circumstantial roles such as instrument and concomitant). The phenomenon has frequently been referred to as focus (not to be confused with the usual sense of that term in linguistics). Furthermore, the choice of voice is influenced by the definiteness of the participants. The word order has a strong tendency to be verb-initial.
  • In contrast, the more innovative Indonesian-type languages, which are particularly represented in Malaysia and western Indonesia, have reduced the voice system to a contrast between only two voices (actor voice and "undergoer" voice), but these are supplemented by applicative morphological devices (originally two: the more direct *-i and more oblique *-an/-[a]kən), which serve to modify the semantic role of the "undergoer". They are also characterized by the presence of preposed clitic pronouns. Unlike the Philippine type, these languages mostly tend towards verb-second word-orders. A number of languages, such as the Batak languages, Old Javanese, Balinese, Sasak and several Sulawesi languages seem to represent an intermediate stage between these two types.[7][8]
  • Finally, in some languages, which Ross calls "post-Indonesian", the original voice system has broken down completely and the voice-marking affixes no longer preserve their functions.

The Austronesian languages tend to use reduplication (repetition of all or part of a word, as in wiki-wiki or agar-agar). Like many East and Southeast Asian languages, most Austronesian languages have highly restrictive phonotactics, with generally small numbers of phonemes and predominantly consonant–vowel syllables.

Lexicon

The Austronesian language family has been established by the linguistic comparative method on the basis of cognate sets, sets of words similar in sound and meaning which can be shown to be descended from the same ancestral word in Proto-Austronesian according to regular rules. Some cognate sets are very stable. The word for eye in many Austronesian languages is mata (from the most northerly Austronesian languages, Formosan languages such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori). Other words are harder to reconstruct. The word for two is also stable, in that it appears over the entire range of the Austronesian family, but the forms (e.g. Bunun dusa; Amis tusa; Māori rua) require some linguistic expertise to recognise. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database gives word lists (coded for cognateness) for approximately 1000 Austronesian languages.

Classification

The internal structure of the Austronesian languages is complex. The family consists of many similar and closely related languages with large numbers of dialect continua, making it difficult to recognize boundaries between branches. The first major step towards high-order subgrouping was Dempwolff’s recognition of the Oceanic subgroup (called Melanesisch by Dempwolff).[5] The special position of the languages of Taiwan was first recognized by Haudricourt (1965), who divided the Austronesian languages into three subgroups: Northern Austronesian (= Formosan), Eastern Austronesian (= Oceanic), and Western Austronesian (all remaining languages).

In a study that represents the first lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages, Dyen (1965) presented a radically different subgrouping scheme. He posited 40 first-order subgroups, with the highest degree of diversity found in the area of Melanesia. The Oceanic languages are not recognized, but are distributed over more than 30 of his proposed first-order subgroups. Dyen’s classification was widely criticized and for the most part rejected (see e.g. Grace 1966), but several of his lower-order subgroups are still accepted (e.g. the Cordilleran languages, the Bilic languages or the Murutic languages).

Subsequently, the position of the Formosan languages as the most archaic group of Austronesian languages was recognized by Dahl (1973), followed by proposals from other scholars that the Formosan languages actually make up more than one first-order subgroup of Austronesian. The seminal article in the classification of Formosan—and, by extension, the top-level structure of Austronesian—is Blust (1999). Prominent Formosanists (linguists who specialize in Formosan languages) take issue with some of its details, but it remains the point of reference for current linguistic analyses, and is shown below. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are frequently included within Blust's Eastern Formosan branch due to their shared leveling of proto-Austronesian *t, *C to /t/ and *n, *N to /n/, their shift of *S to /h/, and vocabulary such as *lima "five" which are not attested in other Formosan languages.

There appear to have been two great migrations of Austronesian languages that quickly covered large areas, resulting in multiple local groups with little large-scale structure. The first was Malayo-Polynesian, distributed across the Philippines, Indonesia, and Melanesia. The Central Malayo-Polynesian languages are similar to each other not because of close genealogical relationships, but rather because they reflect strong substratum effects from non-Austronesian languages. The second migration was that of the Oceanic languages into Polynesia and Micronesia (Greenhill, Blust & Gray 2008).

In addition to Malayo-Polynesian, thirteen Formosan families are broadly accepted. Debate centers primarily around the relationships between these families. Of the classifications presented here, Blust (1999) links two families into a Western Plains group, two more in a Northwestern Formosan group, and three into an Eastern Formosan group, while Li (2008) also links five families into a Northern Formosan group. Ross (2009) splits Tsouic, and notes that Tsou, Rukai, and Puyuma fall outside of reconstructions of Proto-Austronesian.

Other studies have presented phonological evidence for a reduced Paiwanic family of Paiwanic, Puyuma, Bunun, Amis, and Malayo-Polynesian, but this is not reflected in vocabulary. The Eastern Formosan peoples Basay, Kavalan, and Amis share a homeland motif that has them coming originally from an island called Sinasay or Sanasay (Li 2004). The Amis, in particular, maintain that they came from the east, and were treated by the Puyuma, amongst whom they settled, as a subservient group.[9]

Blust (1999)

Formosan languages en
Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization of Taiwan, per Blust (1999)
Austronesian family
Distribution of the Austronesian languages, per Blust (1999)
Austronesian

(clockwise from the southwest)

  • Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects of Rukai are divergent.

Li (2008)

Formosan languages 2005
Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization, per Li (2008). The three languages in green (Bunun, Puyuma, Paiwan) may form a Southern Formosan branch, but this is uncertain.

This classification retains Blust's East Formosan, and unites the other northern languages. Li (2008) proposes a Proto-Formosan (F0) ancestor and equates it with Proto-Austronesian (PAN), following the model in Starosta (1995).[10] Rukai and Tsouic are seen as highly divergent, although the position of Rukai is highly controversial.[11]

Ross (2009)

In 2009, Malcolm Ross proposed a new classification of the Austronesian language family based on morphological evidence from various Formosan languages.[12] He proposed that the current reconstructions for Proto-Austronesian actually correspond to an intermediate stage, which he terms "Proto-Nuclear Austronesian". Notably, Ross' classification does not support the unity of the Tsouic languages, instead considering the Southern Tsouic languages of Kanakanavu and Saaroa to be a separate branch. This supports Chang's (2006) claim that Tsouic is not a valid group.[13]

Austronesian
  • (Mantauran and Tona–Maga dialects are divergent)

History

Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific (per Bellwood in Chambers, 2008)
Austronesian languages expansion map. Periods are based on archeological studies, though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is disputed.

The protohistory of the Austronesian people can be traced farther back through time than can that of the Proto-Austronesian language. From the standpoint of historical linguistics, the home (in linguistic terminology, Urheimat) of the Austronesian languages is the main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa; on this island the deepest divisions in Austronesian are found, among the families of the native Formosan languages. According to Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten primary branches of the Austronesian language family (Blust 1999). Comrie (2001:28) noted this when he wrote:

... the internal diversity among the... Formosan languages... is greater than that in all the rest of Austronesian put together, so there is a major genetic split within Austronesian between Formosan and the rest... Indeed, the genetic diversity within Formosan is so great that it may well consist of several primary branches of the overall Austronesian family.

At least since Sapir (1968), linguists have generally accepted that the chronology of the dispersal of languages within a given language family can be traced from the area of greatest linguistic variety to that of the least. For example, English in North America has large numbers of speakers, but relatively low dialectal diversity, while English in Great Britain has much higher diversity; such low linguistic variety by Sapir's thesis suggests a more recent origin of English in North America. While some scholars suspect that the number of principal branches among the Formosan languages may be somewhat less than Blust's estimate of nine (e.g. Li 2006), there is little contention among linguists with this analysis and the resulting view of the origin and direction of the migration. For a recent dissenting analysis, see (Peiros 2004). To get an idea of the original homeland of the Austronesian people, scholars can probe evidence from archaeology and genetics. Studies from the science of genetics have produced conflicting outcomes. Some researchers find evidence for a proto-Austronesian homeland on the Asian mainland (e.g., Melton et al. 1998), while others mirror the linguistic research, rejecting an East Asian origin in favor of Taiwan (e.g., Trejaut et al. 2005). Archaeological evidence (e.g., Bellwood 1997) is more consistent, suggesting that the ancestors of the Austronesians spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages (Diamond 2000). It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago (Blust 1999). However, evidence from historical linguistics cannot bridge the gap between those two periods. The view that linguistic evidence connects Austronesian languages to the Sino-Tibetan ones, as proposed for example by Sagart (2002), is a minority one. As Fox (2004:8) states:

Implied in... discussions of subgrouping [of Austronesian languages] is a broad consensus that the homeland of the Austronesians was in Taiwan. This homeland area may have also included the P'eng-hu (Pescadores) islands between Taiwan and China and possibly even sites on the coast of mainland China, especially if one were to view the early Austronesians as a population of related dialect communities living in scattered coastal settlements.

Linguistic analysis of the Proto-Austronesian language stops at the western shores of Taiwan; any related mainland language(s) have not survived. The only exceptions, the Chamic languages, derive from more recent migration to the mainland (Thurgood 1999:225).

Hypothesized relations

Genealogical links have been proposed between Austronesian and various families of East and Southeast Asia.

Austric

A link with the Austroasiatic languages in an 'Austric' phylum is based mostly on typological evidence. However, there is also morphological evidence of a connection between the conservative Nicobarese languages and Austronesian languages of the Philippines.

Austro-Tai

A competing Austro-Tai proposal linking Austronesian and Kra-Dai was first proposed by Paul K. Benedict, and is supported by Weera Ostapirat, Roger Blench, and Laurent Sagart, based on the traditional comparative method. Ostapirat (2005) proposes a series of regular correspondences linking the two families and assumes a primary split, with Kra-Dai speakers being the Austronesians who stayed behind in their Chinese homeland. Blench (2004) suggests that, if the connection is valid, the relationship is unlikely to be one of two sister families. Rather, he suggests that proto-Kra-Dai speakers were Austronesians who migrated to Hainan Island and back to the mainland from the northern Philippines, and that their distinctiveness results from radical restructuring following contact with Hmong–Mien and Sinitic. An extended version of Austro-Tai was hypothesized by Benedict who added the Japonic languages to the proposal as well.[14]

Sino-Austronesian

French linguist and Sinologist Laurent Sagart considers the Austronesian languages to be related to the Sino-Tibetan languages, and also groups the Kra–Dai languages as more closely related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages.[15] He also groups the Austronesian languages in a recursive-like fashion, placing Kra-Dai as a sister branch of Malayo-Polynesian. His methodology has been found to be spurious by his peers.

Japanese

Several linguists have proposed that Japanese is genetically related to the Austronesian family, cf. Benedict (1990), Matsumoto (1975), Miller (1967).

Some other linguists think it is more plausible that Japanese is not genetically related to the Austronesian languages, but instead was influenced by an Austronesian substratum or adstratum. Those who propose this scenario suggest that the Austronesian family once covered the islands to the north as well as to the south. Martine Robbeets (2017)[16] claims that Japanese is genetically related to the "Transeurasian" (= Macro-Altaic) languages, but underwent lexcial influence from "para-Austronesian", a presumed sister language of Proto-Austronesian. The linguist Ann Kumar (2009) proposed that some Austronesians migrated to Japan, possibly an elite-group from Java, and created the Japanese-hierarchical society and identifies 82 plausible cognates between Austronesian and Japanese.[17]

Yoshizu Itabashi (2011) states that he found strong evidence that Japanese and Austronesian are genealogical related. He claims that not only the phonology is similar between them, but also morphology, syntax and common vocabulary. He further states that this evidence may lead to further postulations that there is a strong genealogical connection between Japanese and Austronesian.[18]

Ongan

It has recently been proposed that the Austronesian and the Ongan protolanguage are the descendants of an Austronesian–Ongan protolanguage (Blevins 2007).[19] But this view is not supported by mainstream linguists and remains very controversial. Robert Blust (2014) rejects Blevins' proposal as far-fetched and based solely on chance resemblances and methodologically flawed comparisons.[20]

Writing systems

Pura Puseh 05153
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Manuscript in Toba-Batak language, central Sumatra, early 1800s - Robert C. Williams Paper Museum - DSC00360
Manuscript from early 1800s using Batak alphabet

Most Austronesian languages have Latin-based writing systems today. Some non-Latin-based writing systems are listed below.

Comparison chart

Below is a chart comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Chams or Champa (in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo and Tuvalu.

Comparison chart-numerals

Austronesian List of Numbers 1-10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Proto-Austronesian *əsa
*isa
*duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *ənəm *pitu *walu *Siwa *(sa-)puluq
Formosan languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Atayal qutux sazing cyugal payat magal mtzyu mpitu mspat mqeru mopuw
Seediq kingal daha teru sepac rima mmteru mpitu mmsepac mngari maxal
Truku kingal dha tru spat rima mataru empitu maspat mngari maxal
Thao taha tusha turu shpat tarima katuru pitu kashpat tanathu makthin
Papora tanu nya tul pat lima minum pitu mehal mesi metsi
Babuza nata naroa natura naspat nahop naitu naito natap maitu tsihet
Taokas tatanu rua tool'a lapat hasap tahap yuweto mahalpat tanaso tais'id
Pazeh adang dusa tu'u supat xasep xasebuza xasebidusa xasebitu'u xasebisupat isit
Saisiyat 'aeihae' roSa' to:lo' Sopat haseb SayboSi: SayboSi: 'aeihae' maykaSpat hae'hae' lampez
Tsou coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ
Bunun tasʔa dusa tau paat hima nuum pitu vau siva masʔan
Rukai itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku
Paiwan ita drusa tjelu sepatj lima enem pitju alu siva tapuluq
Puyuma isa zuwa telu pat lima unem pitu walu iwa pulu'
Kavalan usiq uzusa utulu uspat ulima unem upitu uwalu usiwa rabtin
Basay tsa lusa tsu səpat tsjima anəm pitu wasu siwa labatan
Amis cecay tosa tolo spat lima enem pito falo siwa mo^tep
Sakizaya cacay tosa tolo sepat lima enem pito walo siwa cacay a bataan
Siraya sasaat duha turu tapat tu-rima tu-num pitu pipa kuda keteng
Taivoan tsaha' ruha toho paha' hima lom kito' kipa' matuha kaipien
Makatao na-saad ra-ruha ra-ruma ra-sipat ra-lima ra-hurum ra-pito ra-haru ra-siwa ra-kaitian
Yami asa dora atlo apat lima anem pito wao siyam poo
Qauqaut is zus dor sop rim ən pit ar siu tor
Malayo-Polynesian languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa
*isa
*duha *təlu *əpat *lima *ənəm *pitu *walu *siwa *puluq
Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian (MP) languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Acehnese sifar
soh
sa duwa lhee peuet limong nam tujoh lapan sikureueng siploh
Balinesea
Bali 0.png

nul
Bali 1.png

besik
siki
Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png

dua
Bali 3-vowel O.png

telu
Bali 4.png

papat
Bali 5.png

lime
Bali 6-vowel E kara.png

nenem
Bali 7.png

pitu
Bali 8, Pha.png

kutus
Bali 9.png

sia
dasa
Banjar asa dua talu ampat lima anam pitu walu sanga sapuluh
Batak, Toba sada dua tolu opat lima onom pitu ualu sia sampulu
Buginese ceddi dua tellu empa lima enneng pitu arua asera seppulo
Cia-Cia dise
ise
rua
ghua
tolu pa'a lima no'o picu walu
oalu
siua ompulu
Cham sa dua klau pak lima nam tujuh dalapan salapan sapluh
Javanese (Kawi)b[21] sunya Angka 1.png
eka
Angka 2.png
dwi
Angka 3.png
tri
Angka 4.png
catur
Angka 5.png
panca
Angka 6.png
sad
Angka 7.png
sapta
Angka 8.png
asta
Angka 9.png
nawa
dasa
Old Javanese[22] das sa
(sa' / sak)
rwa tĕlu pāt lima nĕm pitu walu sanga sapuluh
Javanese (Krama) nol setunggal kalih tiga sekawan gangsal enem pitu wolu sanga sedasa
Javanese (Ngoko)[23] nol siji from sahiji loro from ka-rwa (ka-ro) telu papat lima enem pitu wolu sanga sepuluh
Kelantan-Pattani kosong so duwo tigo pak limo ne tujoh lape smile spuloh
Madurese nol settong dhuwa' tello' empa' lema' ennem petto' ballu' sanga' sapolo
Makassarese lobbang
nolo'
se're rua tallu appa' lima annang tuju sangantuju salapang sampulo
Standard Malay
(both Indonesian and Malaysian)
kosong
sifar[24]
nol[25]
sa/se
satu
suatu[26]
dua tiga[27][28] empat lima[29] enam tujuh delapan
lapan[30]
sembilan sepuluh
Minangkabau ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah
Moken cha:? thuwa:? teloj
(təlɔy)
pa:t lema:? nam luɟuːk waloj
(walɔy)
chewaj
(cʰɛwaːy / sɛwaːy)
cepoh
Rejang do duai tlau pat lêmo num tujuak dêlapên sêmbilan sêpuluak
Sasak sekek due telo empat lime enam pituk baluk siwak sepulu
Sundanese nol hiji dua tilu opat lima genep tujuh dalapan salapan sapuluh
Terengganu Malay kosong se duwe tige pak lime nang tujoh lapang smilang spuloh
Tetun nol ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu
Tsat (HuiHui)c sa˧ *
ta˩ **
tʰua˩ kiə˧ pa˨˦ ma˧ naːn˧˨ su˥ paːn˧˨ tʰu˩ paːn˧˨ piu˥
There are two forms for numbers 'one' in Tsat (Hui Hui; Hainan Cham) :
^* The word sa˧ is used for serial counting.
^** The word ta˩ is used with hundreds and thousands and before qualifiers.
Borneo–Philippine languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ilocano ibbong
awan
maysa dua tallo uppat lima innem pito walo siam sangapulo
Ibanag awan tadday duwa tallu appa' lima annam pitu walu siyam mafulu
Pangasinan sakey duwa talo apat lima anem pito walo siyam samplo
Kapampangan ala metung/ isa' adua atlu apat lima anam pitu walu siyam apulu
Tagalog walâ isá dalawá tatló apat limá anim pitó waló siyám sampû
Bikol wara sarô duwá tuló apat limá anom pitó waló siyám sampulû
Aklanon uwa isaea
sambilog
daywa tatlo ap-at lima an-om pito waeo siyam napueo
Karay-a wara (i)sara darwa tatlo apat lima anəm pito walo siyam napulo
Onhan isya darwa tatlo upat lima an-om pito walo siyam sampulo
Romblomanon isa duha tuyo upat lima onum pito wayo siyam napuyo
Masbatenyo isad
usad
duwa
duha
tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo
Hiligaynon wala isa duha tatlo apat lima anom pito walo siyam napulo
Cebuano wala usa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo
pulo
Waray waray usa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulò
Tausug sipar isa duwa upat lima unum pitu walu siyam hangpu'
Maranao isa dua telu pat lima nem pitu ualu siau sapulu'
Benuaq (Dayak Benuaq) eray duaq toluu opaat limaq jawatn turu walo sie sepuluh
Lun Bawang/ Lundayeh na luk dih eceh dueh teluh epat limeh enem tudu' waluh liwa' pulu'
Dusun aiso iso duo tolu apat limo onom turu walu siam hopod
Malagasy aotra isa
iray
roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
Sangirese (Sangir-Minahasan) sembau darua tatelu epa lima eneng pitu walu sio mapulo
Oceanic languagesd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Fijian saiva dua rua tolu vaa lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini
Hawaiian 'ole 'e-kahi 'e-lua 'e-kolu 'e-hā 'e-lima 'e-ono 'e-hiku 'e-walu 'e-iwa 'umi
Kiribati akea teuana uoua tenua aua nimaua onoua itua wanua ruaiwa tebwina
Māori kore tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau
ngahuru
Marshallese[31] o̧o juon ruo jilu emān ļalem jiljino jimjuon ralitōk ratimjuon jon̄oul
Motue[32] ta rua toi hani ima tauratoi hitu taurahani taurahani-ta gwauta
Niuean nakai taha ua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu hiva hogofulu
Rapanui tahi rua toru rima ono hitu va'u iva angahuru
Rarotongan Māori kare ta'i rua toru rima ono 'itu varu iva nga'uru
Rotuman ta rua folu hake lima ono hifu vạlu siva saghulu
Sāmoan o tasi lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu
Sāmoan
(K-type)
o kasi lua kolu fa lima ogo fiku valu iva sefulu
Tahitian hō'ē
tahi
piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva hō'ē 'ahuru
Tongan noa taha ua tolu fa nima ono fitu valu hiva hongofulu
taha noa
Trukese eet érúúw één fáán niim woon fúús waan ttiw engoon
Tuvaluan tahi
tasi
lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

Comparison chart-thirteen words

English one two three four person house dog road day new we what fire
Proto-Austronesian *əsa, *isa *duSa *təlu *əpat *Cau *balay, *Rumaq *asu *zalan *qaləjaw, *waRi *baqəRu *kita, *kami *anu, *apa *Sapuy
Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu dalan loron foun ita saida ahi
Amis cecay tosa tolo sepat tamdaw luma wacu lalan cidal faroh kita uman namal
Puyuma sa dua telu pat taw rumah soan dalan wari vekar mi amanai apue,
asi
Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso daan araw bago tayo / kami ano apoy
Bikol sarô duwá tuló apat táwo harong áyam dálan aldaw bâgo kitá anó kalayó
Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam raran aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam,
ido
dalan adlaw bag-o kita anu kalayo
Cebuano usa,
isa
duha tulo upat tawo balay iro dalan adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido dalan adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Aklanon isaea,
sambilog
daywa tatlo ap-at tawo baeay ayam daean adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Kinaray-a (i)sara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam dalan adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' dan adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso lalan gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu dalan aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api
Pangasinan sakey dua,
duara
talo,
talora
apat,
apatira
too abong aso dalan ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso dalan aldaw baro datayo ania apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito rarahan araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu dalan aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Yogad tata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu daddaman agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu dallan aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lan kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Lun Bawang/ Lundayeh eceh dueh teluh epat lemulun/lun ruma' uko' dalan eco beruh teu enun apui
Malay

(Malaysian/Indonesian)

sa/se,
satu,
suatu
dua tiga[33] empat orang rumah,
balai
anjing jalan hari baru kita apa,
anu
api
Old Javanese esa,
eka
rwa,
dwi
tĕlu,
tri
pat,
catur[34]
wwang umah asu dalan dina hañar, añar[35] kami[36] apa,
aparan
apuy,
agni
Javanese siji,
setunggal
loro,
kalih
tĕlu,
tiga[37]
papat,
sekawan
uwong,
tiyang,
priyantun[37]
omah,
griya,
dalem[37]
asu,
sĕgawon
dalan,
gili[37]
dina,
dinten[37]
anyar,
énggal[37]
awaké dhéwé,
kula panjenengan[37]
apa,
punapa[37]
gĕni,
latu,
brama[37]
Sundanese hiji dua tilu opat urang imah anjing jalan poe anyar,
enggal
arurang naon seuneu
Acehnese sa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh,
balè,
seuëng
asèë röt uroë barô (geu)tanyoë peuë apui
Minangkabau ciek duo tigo ampek urang rumah anjiang labuah,
jalan
hari baru awak apo api
Rejang do duai tlau pat tun umêak kuyuk dalên bilai blau itê jano,
gen,
inê
opoi
Lampungese sai khua telu pak jelema lamban kaci ranlaya khani baru kham api apui
Buginese se'di dua tellu eppa' tau bola asu laleng esso baru idi' aga api
Temuan satuk duak tigak empat uwang,
eang
gumah,
umah
anying,
koyok
jalan aik,
haik
bahauk kitak apak apik
Toba Batak sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang dalan ari baru hita aha api
Kelantan-Pattani so duwo tigo pak oghe ghumoh,
dumoh
anjing jale aghi baghu kito gapo api
Chamorro håcha,
maisa
hugua tulu fatfat taotao/tautau guma' ga'lågu[38] chålan ha'åni nuebu[39] hita håfa guåfi
Motu ta,
tamona
rua toi hani tau ruma sisia dala dina matamata ita,
ai
dahaka lahi
Māori tahi rua toru whā tangata whare kurī ara hou tāua, tātou/tātau
māua, mātou/mātau
aha ahi
Tuvaluan tasi lua tolu toko fale kuli ala,
tuu
aso fou tāua a afi
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu kanaka hale 'īlio ala ao hou kākou aha ahi
Banjarese asa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan heko hǎri hanyar kami apa api
Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika lalana andro vaovao isika inona afo
Dusun iso duo tolu apat tulun walai,
lamin
tasu ralan tadau wagu tokou onu/nu tapui
Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat tuhun hamin tasu lahan tadau vagu tokou onu,
nunu
tapui
Rungus iso duvo tolu,
tolzu
apat tulun,
tulzun
valai,
valzai
tasu dalan tadau vagu tokou nunu tapui,
apui
Sungai/Tambanuo ido duo tolu opat lobuw waloi asu ralan runat wagu toko onu apui
Iban satu, sa,
siti, sigi
dua tiga empat orang,
urang
rumah ukui,
uduk
jalai hari baru kitai nama api
Sarawak Malay satu,
sigek
dua tiga empat orang rumah asuk jalan ari baru kita apa api
Terengganuan se duwe tige pak oghang ghumoh,
dumoh
anjing jalang aghi baghu kite mende, ape,
gape, nape
api
Kanayatn sa dua talu ampat urakng rumah asu' jalatn ari baru kami',
diri'
ahe api

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Austronesian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Austronesian Languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  3. ^ Robert Blust (2016). History of the Austronesian Languages. University of Hawaii at Manoa.
  4. ^ Asya Pereltsvaig (2018). Languages of the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-62196-7.
  5. ^ a b Dempwolff, Otto (1934-37). Vergleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes. (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 15;17;19). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. (3 vols.)
  6. ^ John Simpson; Edmund Weiner, eds. (1989). Official Oxford English Dictionary (OED2) (Dictionary). Oxford University Press. p. 22000.
  7. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander and Nikolaus Limmelmann. 2005. The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. P.6-7
  8. ^ Croft, William. 2012 Verbs: Aspect and Causal Structure. P.261
  9. ^ Taylor, G. (1888). "A ramble through southern Formosa". The China Review. 16: 137–161. The Tipuns... are certainly descended from emigrants, and I have not the least doubt but that the Amias are of similar origin; only of later date, and most probably from the Mejaco Simas [that is, Miyako-jima], a group of islands lying 110 miles to the North-east.... By all accounts the old Pilam savages, who merged into the Tipuns, were the first settlers on the plain; then came the Tipuns, and a long time afterwards the Amias. The Tipuns, for some time, acknowledged the Pilam Chief as supreme, but soon absorbed both the chieftainship and the people, in fact the only trace left of them now, is a few words peculiar to the Pilam village, one of which, makan (to eat), is pure Malay. The Amias submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of the Tipuns.
  10. ^ Starosta, S. 1995. "A grammatical subgrouping of Formosan languages." In P. Li, Cheng-hwa Tsang, Ying-kuei Huang, Dah-an Ho, and Chiu-yu Tseng eds. Austronesian Studies Relating to Taiwan, pp. 683–726, Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica.
  11. ^ Li 2008, p. 216: "The position of Rukai is the most controversial: Tsuchida... treats it as more closely related to Tsouic languages, based on lexicostatistic evidence, while Ho... believes it to be one of the Paiwanic languages, i.e. part of my Southern group, as based on a comparison of fourteen grammatical features. In fact, Japanese anthropologists did not distinguish between Rukai, Paiwan and Puyuma in the early stage of their studies"
  12. ^ Ross, Malcolm. 2009. "Proto Austronesian verbal morphology: A reappraisal." In Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley (eds.). Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: a festschrift for Robert Blust. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  13. ^ Chang, Henry Yungli. 2006. "Rethinking the Tsouic Subgroup Hypothesis: A Morphosyntactic Perspective." In Chang, H., Huang, L. M., Ho, D. (eds.). Streams converging into an ocean: Festschrift in honor of Professor Paul Jen-Kuei Li on his 70th birthday. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  14. ^ Solnit, David B. (March 1992). "Japanese/Austro-Tai By Paul K. Benedict (review)". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 687 (1): 188–196. doi:10.1353/lan.1992.0061.
  15. ^ van Driem, George. 2005. Sino-Austronesian vs. Sino-Caucasian, Sino-Bodic vs. Sino-Tibetan, and Tibeto-Burman as default theory. Contemporary Issues in Nepalese Linguistics, pp. 285–338. "新网阻断页" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2010-10-29. (see page 304)
  16. ^ Robbeets, Martine (2017). "Austronesian influence and Transeurasian ancestry in Japanese: A case of farming/language dispersal". Language Dynamics and Change. 7 (2). Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  17. ^ Kumar, Ann (2009). Globalizing the Prehistory of Japan: Language, Genes and Civilization. Oxford: Routledge.
  18. ^ "An examination of a possible correlation between the tone distinction of the word-initial mora of Old-Japanese words and the voicing distinction of the word-initial consonant of the putative matching Austronesian words" - Yoshizo Itabashi -University of Kyushi 2011 http://www.izumi-syuppan.co.jp/web_LLO/pdf/11Itabashi.pdf
  19. ^ Blevins, Juliette (2007), "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands" (PDF), Oceanic Linguistics, 46 (1): 154–198, doi:10.1353/ol.2007.0015, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-11
  20. ^ Robert Blust (2014) "Some Recent Proposals Concerning the Classification of the Austronesian Languages", Oceanic Linguistics 53:2:300–391.
  21. ^ Siman Widyatmanta, Adiparwa. Vol. I dan II. Cetakan Ketiga. Yogyakarta: U.P. "Spring", 1968.
  22. ^ Zoetmulder, P.J., Kamus Jawa Kuno-Indonesia. Vol. I-II. Terjemahan Darusuprapto-Sumarti Suprayitno. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1995.
  23. ^ Javanese alphabet, pronunciation, and language (Aksara Jawa)
  24. ^ from the Arabic صِفْر ṣifr
  25. ^ Predominantly in Indonesia, comes from the Latin nullus
  26. ^ The Sanskrit loanword "Ekasila" : "Eka" means 1, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle" appeared in Sukarno's speech
  27. ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription the numeral tlu ratus appears as three hundred, tlu as three, in http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/ the word telu is referred to as three in Malay, although the use of telu is very rare.
  28. ^ The Sanskrit loanword "Trisila" : "Tri" means 3, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle" appeared in Sukarno's speech
  29. ^ loanword from Sanskrit पञ्चन् páñcan - see Sukarno's Pancasila: "five principles", Pancawarna: "five colours, colourful".
  30. ^ lapan is a known contraction of delapan; predominant in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei.
  31. ^ Cook, Richard (1992). Peace Corps Marshall Islands: Marshallese Language Training Manual (PDF), pg. 22. Accessed August 27, 2007.
  32. ^ Percy Chatterton, (1975). Say It In Motu: An instant introduction to the common language of Papua. Pacific Publications. ISBN 978-0-85807-025-7
  33. ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription appears the numeral Tlu ratus as Three hundred, Tlu as Three, in http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/ the word Telu is referred as Three in Malay and Indonesian Language although the use of Telu is very rare.
  34. ^ s.v. kawan, Old Javanese-English Dictionary, P.J. Zoetmulder and Stuart Robson, 1982
  35. ^ s.v. hañar, Old Javanese-English Dictionary, P.J. Zoetmulder and Stuart Robson, 1982
  36. ^ s.v. kami, this could mean both first person singular and plural, Old Javanese-English Dictionary, P.J. Zoetmulder and Stuart Robson, 1982
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i Javanese English Dictionary, Stuart Robson and Singgih Wibisono, 2002
  38. ^ From Spanish "galgo"
  39. ^ From Spanish "nuevo"

References

Further reading

  • Bengtson, John D., The "Greater Austric" Hypothesis, Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory.
  • Blust, R. A. (1983). Lexical reconstruction and semantic reconstruction: the case of the Austronesian "house" words. Hawaii: R. Blust.
  • Robert Blust (2013). The Austronesian Languages (revised ed.). Australian National University. hdl:1885/10191. ISBN 978-1-922185-07-5.
  • Cohen, E. M. K. (1999). Fundaments of Austronesian roots and etymology. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 0-85883-436-7
  • Marion, P., Liste Swadesh élargie de onze langues austronésiennes, éd. Carré de sucre, 2009
  • Pawley, A., & Ross, M. (1994). Austronesian terminologies: continuity and change. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-424-3
  • Sagart, Laurent, Roger Blench, and Alicia Sanchez-Nazas (Eds.) (2004). The peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-32242-1.
  • Tryon, D. T., & Tsuchida, S. (1995). Comparative Austronesian dictionary: an introduction to Austronesian studies. Trends in linguistics, 10. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3110127296
  • Wittmann, Henri (1972). "Le caractère génétiquement composite des changements phonétiques du malgache." Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 7.807-10. La Haye: Mouton.
  • Wolff, John U., "Comparative Austronesian Dictionary. An Introduction to Austronesian Studies", Language, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 145–56, Mar 1997, ISSN 0097-8507

External links

Amahai language

Amahai is a nearly extinct Austronesian language spoken in the Moluccas in eastern Indonesia. It might actually be two distinct languages.

Aru languages

The Aru languages are a group of a dozen Austronesian languages spoken on the Aru Islands in Indonesia. None are spoken by more than ten thousand people. Although geographically close to Central Maluku languages, they are not part of that group linguistically (Ross 1995).

The languages are: Barakai, Batuley, Dobel, Karey, Koba, Kola, Kompane, Lola, Lorang, Manombai, Mariri, East Tarangan, West Tarangan, Ujir

Bonggi language

Bonggi (Banggi) is an Austronesian language spoken in Sabah, Malaysia.

Bukitan language

Bukitan is a Kajang language of West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Dumpas language

Dumpas is a Dusunic language of Malaysia.

Emplawas language

Emplawas is an Austronesian language spoken in a single village on Babar Island in South Maluku, Indonesia.

Formosan languages

The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which are Austronesian. The Taiwanese aborigines recognized by the government are about 2.3% of the island's population. However, far fewer can still speak their ancestral language because of centuries of language shift. Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another four (perhaps five) are moribund, and several others are to some degree endangered.

The aboriginal languages of Taiwan have significance in historical linguistics since in all likelihood, Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family. According to linguist Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten principal branches of the Austronesian language family, while the one remaining principal branch contains nearly 1,200 Malayo-Polynesian languages found outside Taiwan. Although some other linguists disagree with some details of Blust's analysis, a broad consensus has coalesced around the conclusion that the Austronesian languages originated in Taiwan. The theory has been strengthened by recent studies in human population genetics, supporting also the matrilineal nature of the migration.

Indigenous people of New Guinea

The indigenous peoples of New Guinea, commonly called Papuans, are Melanesians. There is genetic evidence for two major historical lineages in New Guinea and neighboring islands:

a first wave from the Malay archipelago perhaps 50,000 years ago when New Guinea and Australia were a single landmass called Sahul,

and much later a wave of Austronesian people from the north who introduced Austronesian languages and pigs about 3,500 years ago, and who left a small but significant genetic trace in many coastal Papuan peoples (though only a minority of Austronesian-speaking Papuans have detectable Austronesian ancestry).Linguistically, Papuans speak languages from the many families of non-Austronesian languages which are found only on New Guinea and neighboring islands, as well as Austronesian languages along parts of the coast and recently developed creoles such as Tok Pisin and Papuan Malay.

The people of New Guinea also include more recent immigrants, especially on the Indonesian side of the island, where recent migrants comprise up to half of the population.

The term "Papuan" is used in a wider sense in linguistics and anthropology. In linguistics, "Papuan languages" is a cover term for the diverse mutually unrelated non-Austronesian language families spoken in Melanesia, the Torres Strait Islands and parts of Wallacea. In anthropology, "Papuan" is often used to denote the highly diverse populations of Melanesia and Wallacea prior to the advent of Austronesian-speakers, and the dominant genetic traces of these populations in the current ethnic groups of these areas.

Kalabakan language

Kalabakan (Kalabakan Murut) is one of several Sabahan language of Borneo spoken by the Tidong people.

Kohin language

Kohin, also known as (Bahasa) Seruyan, is a Barito language of the central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Lahanan language

Lahanan (Lanun) is a Kajang language of Sarawak.

Lengilu language

Lengilu is a nearly extinct language of Indonesian Borneo.

Minahasan languages

The Minahasan languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages spoken by the Minahasa people in northern Sulawesi. These languages are distinct from the Manado Malay language.

Naka'ela language

Naka'ela is a possibly extinct Austronesian language spoken in Seram, Indonesia. Usage decreased after speakers moved out of the mountains.

Paluan language

Paluan is a language spoken by the Murut people of Borneo. The principal dialects are Paluan (Peluan) itself and Pandewan.

Sekapan language

Sekapan is a Kajang language of Sarawak, Malaysia.

Sian language

Sian (Sihan) is a Kajang language of Brunei and Sarawak.

Sino-Austronesian languages

Sino-Austronesian or Sino-Tibetan-Austronesian is a proposed language family suggested by Laurent Sagart in 1990. Using reconstructions of Old Chinese, Sagart argued that the Austronesian languages are related to the Sinitic languages phonologically, lexically and morphologically. Sagart later accepted the Sino-Tibetan languages as a valid group and extended his proposal to include the rest of Sino-Tibetan. He also placed the Tai–Kadai languages within the Austronesian family as a sister branch of Malayo-Polynesian. The proposal is controversial, but still being debated.

Tring language

Tring is one of the languages of Borneo, in Sarawak.

Austronesian languages
Rukaic
Tsouic
Northern Formosan
East Formosan
Southern Formosan
Malayo-Sumbawan
Northwest Sumatran
Lampungic
Celebic
South Sulawesi
Moklenic
Javanese
Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian
(over 700 languages)
Unclassified
Nuclear
Micronesian
Non-Nuclear
Polynesian
Fijian
Other
Africa
Europe
and Asia
New Guinea
and the Pacific
Australia
North
America
Mesoamerica
South
America
See also

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