Austro-Slavism

Austro-Slavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire.

It was most influential among Czech liberals around the middle of the 19th century. First proposed by Karel Havlíček Borovský in 1846, as an opposition to the concept of pan-Slavism, it was further developed into a complete political program by Czech politician František Palacký.[1] Austroslavism also found some support in other Slavic nations in the Austrian Empire, especially the Poles, Slovenes, Croats and Slovaks.

Austria hungary 1911
"Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary", showing the areas inhabited by Slavic peoples (in the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911)

Program

Austro-Slavism envisioned peaceful cooperation between the smaller Slavic nations of Central Europe within the Habsburg Monarchy not dominated by German-speaking elites. Palacký proposed a federation of eight national regions, with significant self-governance. After the suppression of the Czech revolution in Prague in June 1848, the program became irrelevant.[1] The Austrian Empire transformed into Austria-Hungary (1867), honouring Hungarian, but not Slavic demands as part of the Ausgleich. This further weakened the position of Austro-Slavism.

As a political concept, Austro-Slavism persisted until the fall of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in 1918. The collapse of Austria-Hungary owed a great deal to that nation's failure to recognise Slavic demands. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, later to become the first President of Czechoslovakia, convinced US President Woodrow Wilson during the First World War that the Slavic peoples of Austria need to be liberated, leading to the promulgation of the Fourteen Points, and ultimate dissolution of the former Austrian Empire. Austroslavism appeared in its last iteration around this time, in the form of several proposals, lacking in influence, to federalise Austria-Hungary (such as the abortive United States of Greater Austria plan).

Prominent supporters

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Magcosi, Robert; Pop, Ivan, eds. (2005), "Austro-Slavism", Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p. 21

External links

  • ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Austroslavism at Encyclopedia of history of Ukraine
Croatia during World War I

The Triune Kingdom was part of Austria-Hungary during World War I. Its territory was administratively divided between the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire; Međimurje and Baranja were in the Hungarian part (Transleithania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a separate entity associated with the Hungarian Kingdom, Dalmatia and Istria were in the Austrian part (Cisleithania), while the town of Rijeka had semi-autonomous status.

The unification of Croat-inhabited territories was a fundamental problem that had not been resolved with the creation of Dual Monarchy in 1867. An excess of political problems within Austria-Hungary itself, exacerbated by the earlier Balkan Wars, led to a state of unrest, strikes, and series of assassinations within Croatia at the outbreak of World War I. Croatian policy amounted to either trying to find the best solution whilst staying within the empire (such as Trialism in Austria-Hungary or Austro-Slavism) or unifying with Serbia and Montenegro (namely Yugoslavism), thereby forming a South Slavic state. Political action was extremely limited during the war, with much of the power being held by the Austro-Hungarian military authorities. Calling for the creation of a unified South Slavic state was thus equated with treason.

During World War I, Croats fought mainly on the Serbian Front, the Eastern Front and the Italian Front, against Serbia, Russia, and Italy, respectively. A small number of Croats also fought on other fronts. Some Croats, mostly Croatian Americans or Austro-Hungarian Army deserters, fought on the side of the Allies. Croatia suffered great human and economic losses during the war, which were exacerbated by the outbreak of Spanish flu pandemic in 1918. Croatian military losses likely amounted to 190,000 people, while some sources list about 137,000 military and 109,000 civilian casualties.

With Austria-Hungary's imminent defeat and collapse, on 29 October 1918, the Croatian Parliament declared the country's secession from the empire. Croatia subsequently joined the short-lived State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which was united with Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on 1 December 1918.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic ( (listen); Czech: Česká republika [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka] (listen)), also known by its short-form name, Czechia ( (listen); Czech: Česko [ˈtʃɛsko] (listen)), is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic has a landlocked and hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,866 square kilometers (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents; other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen.

The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advanced, high income social market economy. It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care, and tuition-free university education. It ranks 15th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France. It ranks as the seventh safest and most peaceful country and performs strongly in democratic governance.

The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late ninth century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy; and became the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198, reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Prague was the imperial seat in periods between the 14th and 17th century. The Protestant Bohemian Reformation of the 15th century led to the Hussite Wars, the first of many conflicts with the Catholic Church.

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism, reimposed Catholicism, and adopted a policy of gradual Germanization. This contributed to anti-Habsburg sentiment and resentment of the Catholic Church that continues to this day. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

Czechoslovakia was the only democracy in Central Europe during the interwar period. However, parts of the country were occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became a German puppet state. Czechoslovakia was liberated in 1945 by the Soviet Union and the United States. Most of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état established a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. Increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in 1968 to the reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, which peacefully ended communist rule and reestablished democracy and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union (EU) in 2004. It is also a member of the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (; Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate.

From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy. Its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded Czechoslovakia. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Euro-Slavism

Euro-Slavism (Euroslavism) is a political concept that evolved from Pan-Slavism. It aims to solve problems of Slavic peoples within the European Union. Euroslavists promote cooperation and unity among Slavic peoples, which can be achieved through European integration.It shaped from a branch of a larger and older Pan-Slavism ideology. Euroslavism is considered to be a modern form of the Austro-Slavism and Neo-Slavism movements.

History of Trieste

The history of Trieste began with the formation of a town of modest size in pre-Roman times, which acquired proper urban connotations only after the conquest (second century BC) and colonisation by Rome. After the imperial era the city declined following barbarian invasions, becoming only marginally important in the next millennium. It changed lordships several times and then became a free city, which joined the House of Habsburg in 1382. Between the 18th and 19th centuries Trieste experienced a new period of prosperity thanks to the free port and the development of a thriving shipping business that made it one of the most important cities of the Austrian Empire (since 1867 Austria-Hungary).

The cosmopolitan city, which in the Habsburg period remained Italian-speaking and rose to become a leading Italian and European cultural center, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy in 1918 following the First World War. After the Second World War it was the capital of the Free Territory of Trieste, staying for nine years under Allied military administration. Following the 1954 London Memorandum, Trieste was annexed by Italy. Since 1963 it has been the capital of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867)

The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. There were invasions by the Turks early in the period, and by the Prussians in the next century. The Habsburgs consolidated their rule and under Maria Theresa (1740–1780) adopted enlightened absolutism, with distinct institutions of the Bohemian Kingdom absorbed into centralized structures. After the Napoleonic Wars and the establishment of the Austrian Empire, a Czech National Revival began as a scholarly trend among educated Czechs, led by figures such as František Palacký. Czech nationalism took a more politically active form during the 1848 revolution, and began to come into conflict not only with the Habsburgs but with emerging German nationalism.

List of Czech Republic-related topics

The list should also contain various important Czech topics that are not yet covered.

The list is divided into categories, ordered alphabetically (initially inspired by List of United Kingdom-related topics). Make new categories, rename or update them. Place the entries that don't fit or deserve its own category into the 'Miscellaneous' at the bottom of the list.

List of flags with blue, red and white stripes

Flags of white, red and blue stripes (bands) quite often signals the relationships of some nations with other nations (for instance, the flag of Netherlands and flags of its former colonies).These flags became the flag model which was put forward in the French revolution. These colors later started to spread to other nations, somewhat changing the order and position of stripes (vertical and horizontal).The colors mentioned in most of the sources as Pan-Slavic colors, received such meanings in the age of pan-Slavistic, neopanslavistic and other movements (Austro-Slavism). All lands in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy are given their flags, then came to the fore and primarily white, red and blue colors, as there lived mostly Slavic nations.

Neo-Slavism

Neo-Slavism was a short-lived movement originating in Austria-Hungary around 1908 and influencing nearby Slavic states in the Balkans as well as Russia. Neoslavists promoted cooperation between Slavs on equal terms in order to resist Germanization, pursue modernization as well as liberal reforms, and wanted to create a democratic community of Slavic nations without a dominating influence of Russia.It was a branch of a larger and older Pan-Slavism ideology. Unlike Pan-Slavism, Neo-Slavism did not attach importance to religion and did not discriminate between Catholics and Orthodox believers, did not support the creation of a single Slavic state, and was mostly interested in a non-violent realization of its program.

Pan-Slavism

Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples. Its main impact occurred in the Balkans, where non-Slavic empires had ruled the South Slavs for centuries. These were mainly the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary (both as separate entities for most of the period), the Ottoman Empire, and Venice.

Russia–Serbia relations

Russian–Serbian relations (Russian: российско-сербские отношения, Serbian: руско-српски односи) refer to bilateral foreign relations between Serbia and Russia. The Ottoman Empire′s Principality of Serbia and the Russian Empire established official relations in 1838. After the dissolution of the USSR, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia recognized Russia in December 1991 by the Decision of the Presidency on the recognition of the former republics of the USSR. Serbia has an embassy in Moscow and Russia has an embassy in Belgrade and a liaison office to UNMIK in Pristina. Serbia also announced to later open a consulate-general in Yekaterinburg.

Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the USSR were established on 24 June 1940, and Serbia and the Russian Federation recognize the continuity of all inter-State documents signed between the two countries. There are about 70 bilateral treaties, agreements and protocols signed in the past. Serbia and the Russian Federation have signed and ratified 43 bilateral agreements and treaties in diverse areas of mutual cooperation so far.

According to censuses, there were 3,247 ethnic Russians living in Serbia (2011) and 3,510 Serbs with Russian citizenship (2010).

Serbia and Russia are both predominantly Slavic and Eastern Orthodox countries.

Slavic nationalism

Slavic nationalisms

Pan-Slavism

Slavophile

Neo-Slavism

Austro-Slavism

East Slavic

Russian nationalism/ Greater Russia

Russophilia

Ukrainian nationalism/ Greater Ukraine/ Little Russian identity

West Slavic,

Czech nationalism

Czechoslovakism

Slovak nationalism

Polish nationalism

South Slavic, see rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire

Bosniak nationalism

Croatian nationalism/ Greater Croatia/ Illyrian movement

Macedonian nationalism/ United Macedonia

Montenegrin nationalism

Serbian nationalism/ Greater Serbia

Serbian–Montenegrin unionism

Slovenian nationalism/ United Slovenia/ Venetic theory

Bulgarian nationalism/ Greater Bulgaria

Yugoslavism/ Yugoslav irredentism/ Balkan Federation

Trialism in Austria-Hungary

In the history of the Austria-Hungary trialism was the political movement that aimed to reorganize the bipartite Empire into a tripartite one, creating a Croatian state equal in status to Austria and Hungary. Franz Ferdinand promoted trialism before his assassination in 1914 to prevent the Empire from being ripped apart by Slavic dissent. The Empire would be restructured three ways instead of two, with the Slavic element given representation at the highest levels equivalent to what Austria and Hungary had at the time. Serbians saw this as a threat to their dream of a new state of Yugoslavia. Hungarian leaders had a predominant voice in imperial circles and strongly rejected Trialism because it would liberate many of their minorities from Hungarian rule they considered oppressive.The idea never came close to actual implementation, though it had several notable proponents among the political elites. At the end of World War I, its advocates briefly obtained nominal support for a trialist manifesto, but the monarchy as a whole crumbled shortly thereafter.

Yugoslavism

Yugoslavism (Serbo-Croatian: Југославизам / Jugoslavizam; Slovene: Jugoslavizem) or Yugoslavdom (Serbo-Croatian: Југословенство / Jugoslovenstvo, Slovene: Jugoslovanstvo) refers to the unionism, nationalism or patriotism associated with South Slavs/Yugoslavs and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavism has historically advocated the union of all South Slav populated territories now composing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia (and the disputed region of Kosovo), Slovenia, North Macedonia, and, for some like Ivan Meštrović, Bulgaria. It became a potent political force during World War I with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by the Yugoslavist militant Gavrilo Princip and the subsequent invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary. During the war the Yugoslav Committee composed of South Slav emigres from Austria-Hungary (including twelve Croats, three Serbs, and one Slovene), supported Serbia and vouched for the creation of a Yugoslav state. On 1 December 1918, King Peter of Serbia proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, commonly known as "Yugoslavia". During the Yugoslav period, a Yugoslav identity (the "Yugoslav nation", Jugoslovenska nacija) was propagated.

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