Austrian National Socialism

Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-German movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. The movement took a concrete form on November 15, 1903 when the German Worker's Party (DAP) was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Aussig (now Usti nad Labem in the Czech Republic). It was suppressed under the rule of Engelbert Dollfuss (1932–34), with its political organization, the DNSAP ("German National Socialist Workers' Party") banned in early 1933, but revived and made part of the German Nazi Party after the German annexation of Austria in 1938.

Origins

Franko Stein, of Eger, (Cheb) and an apprentice bookbinder Ludwig Vogel, of Brüx, organised the Deutschnationaler Arbeiterbund (German National Workers' League) in 1893. It was a collection of laborers, apprentices and trade unionists from the railroads, mines and textile industries, who upheld nationalism as a result of their conflicts with the non-German speaking portions of the workforce, especially in the railway systems. In 1899, Stein was able to convene a workers' congress in Eger and promulgated a 25-point program.

Another convention was called in April 1902, under the title of "German-Political Workers' Association for Austria" ("Deutschpolitischer Arbeiterverein für Österreich"), in Saaz. In Aussig, on November 15, 1903, they reorganized with the new name of "Deutsche Arbeiterpartei in Österreich" (DAP), the "German Workers' Party in Austria". At further party congresses, Hans Knirsch proposed to call themselves the "Nationalsozialistische" (National-Socialist) or "Deutsch-soziale" (German-social) Workers' Party. The proposal was blocked by the Bohemian groups, who did not want to copy the name of the Czech National Social Party. An early member of this group is Ferdinand Burschowsky, a printer from Hohenstadt (Moravia), who was active in writing and publishing.

DNSAP

At a party congress in Vienna in May 1918, the DAP changed its name to the Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei (DNSAP) and produced a National Socialist Program, which is thought to have influenced the later German Nazi manifesto.

The Austrian DNSAP split into two factions in 1923, the Deutschsozialen Verein (German-Social Association) led by Dr. Walter Riehl, and the Schulz-Gruppe. After 1930, most former DNSAP members became supporters of the German NSDAP led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, and were one of the chief elements leading the pro-Nazi coup in 1938 that brought about the Anschluss of Austria with Germany.

Leaders of the party, who were dubbed Landesleiter due to the recognition of Hitler as overall Führer, included Alfred Proksch (1931–33), Hermann Neubacher (1935) and Josef Leopold (1936–38), although real power frequently lay with Theodor Habicht, a German sent by Hitler to oversee Nazi activity in Austria.

See also

Bibliography

  • Austrian National Socialism, Andrew Gladding Whiteside, publisher: Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1962.
  • Hitler and the Forgotten Nazis: A History of Austrian National Socialism, Pauley, Bruce F., University of North Carolina Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8078-1456-3
  • Pauley, Bruce F. (1979). "From Splinter Party to Mass Movement: The Austrian Nazi Breakthrough". German Studies Review. German Studies Association. 2 (1): 7–29. doi:10.2307/1428703. JSTOR 1428703.
Anschluss

Anschluss (German: [ˈʔanʃlʊs] (listen) "joining") refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The word's German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was also known as the Anschluss Österreichs (pronunciation , English: Annexation of Austria).

Prior to the Anschluss, there had been strong support from people of all backgrounds – not just Nazis – in both Austria and Germany for a union of the two countries. The desire for a union formed an integral part of the Nazi "Heim ins Reich" movement to bring ethnic Germans outside Nazi Germany into Greater Germany. Earlier, Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party (Austrian Nazi Party) in its bid to seize power from Austria's Fatherland Front government.

The idea of an Anschluss (a united Austria and Germany that would form a "Greater Germany") began after the unification of Germany excluded Austria and the German Austrians from the Prussian-dominated German Empire in 1871. Following the end of World War I with the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in 1918, the newly formed Republic of German-Austria attempted to form a union with Germany, but the Treaty of Saint Germain (10 September 1919) and the Treaty of Versailles (28 June 1919) forbade both the union and the continued use of the name "German-Austria" (Deutschösterreich); and stripped Austria of some of its territories, such as the Sudetenland.

Austrofascism

Austrofascism (German: Austrofaschismus) was the authoritarian system installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934, which ceased with the annexation of the newly founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938. It was based on a ruling party, the Fatherland Front (Vaterländische Front) and the Heimwehr (Home Guard) paramilitary militia. Leaders were Engelbert Dollfuss and, after Dollfuss's assassination, Kurt Schuschnigg, who were previously politicians of the Christian Social Party, which was quickly integrated into the new movement.

Austrofascism, which was Catholic and corporatist and espoused Austrian nationalism, must be contrasted with Austrian National Socialism, which was pan-German and anti-semitic in outlook.

Cheb

Cheb ([ˈxɛp] (listen); German: Eger) is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with about 32,000 inhabitants. It is on the river Ohře, at the foot of the Smrčiny near the border with Germany. Before the 1945 expulsion of the German speaking population, the town was the centre of the German-speaking region known as Egerland, part of the Northern Austro-Bavarian dialect area.

The name of the town was in 1061 recorded as Egire; in 1179 it was known as Egra; from 1322 as Eger and the surrounding territory as Regio Egere and Provincia Egrensis; after the 14th century also as Cheb or Chba. From 1850 it was given the twin official names of Eger and Cheb.

From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland.

The twin towns of Cheb are Hof in Germany, Rheden in the Netherlands, Nizhny Tagil in Russia and Bắc Ninh in Vietnam.

František Ladislav Chleborád

František Ladislav Chleborád (1839–1911) was a Czech economist and early supporter of worker cooperatives to solve the problem of lack of capital amongst Czech entrepreneurs. In the 1860s and '70s, he argued in the Czech newspapers Delnik and Delnicky Listy for nationalist socialism and cooperation between Czech employers and workers.He founded Oul (Czech for 'beehive'), a workers mutual aid society, in Prague in 1868, the same year in which he produced his first major work, The Patriotic Economy. The organization was inspired by the ideas of Herman Schulz-Delitzsch from Germany. The Czech mutual aid, or self-help, movement spread outside of Prague and was also established in the Brno and Liberec areas.

Gilbert von In der Maur

Gilbert Heinrich Carl August von In der Maur auf Strelberg und zu Freifeld (15 August 1887 - 13 September 1959) was a Liechtenstein-born Austrian military officer, journalist and publicist who was a leading member of the Austrian National Socialist Party.

Hans Knirsch

Hans Knirsch (September 14, 1877 – December 6, 1933) was an Austro-German activist from Moravia for Austrian National Socialism. After the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he led the original party in Bohemia, called the Sudeten German National Socialist Party. Together with Rudolf Jung and Hans Krebs, he was one of the original core of National Socialists that remained in the Nazi Party after 1933.

Hartmann Grasser

Hartmann Grasser (23 August 1914 – 2 June 1986) was a World War II Luftwaffe fighter ace. He was credited with shooting down 103 Allied aircraft. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves.

Grasser was born on 23 August 1914 in Graz, Steiermark, Austria. After he received his Abitur he started studying medicine, however, due to political reasons, he was forced to leave Austria. Austrian National Socialism had been suppressed under the rule of Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. He was trained at the Naval School in Neustadt and at the flying sports school at Rossitten, followed by six months at the Johannisthal flying school. Grasser then joined the Luftwaffe with the rank of Fahnenjunker (cadet) on 1 April 1936.

Josef Pfitzner

Josef Pfitzner (24 March 1901 – 6 September 1945) was a politician of Nazi Germany and a writer. He held the rank of Standartenführer in the SA. Pfitzner was publicly executed in Prague after World War II for speaking in favour of the Nazis, taking part in Nazi organisations, and defrauding Prague city in financial deals with the Germans.

List of fascist movements by country A–F

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

National Socialism (disambiguation)

National Socialism most often refers to Nazism, the ideology of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party, NSDAP) which existed in Germany between 1920 and 1945 and ruled the country from 1933 to 1945. The term "National Socialism" was used by a number of unrelated groups before the Nazis, but since their rise to prominence it has become associated almost exclusively with their ideas.

National Socialism may also refer to:

Ethnic German movements related to Nazism:

Austrian National Socialism, an early influence on the NSDAP

German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia) (Sudeten German, anti-Semitic)

Sudeten German Party (Sudeten German, pro-annexation-by-Germany, successor of the above)

Strasserism, a breakaway movement from German Nazism

Non-German groups drawing inspiration from Nazism and existing in the same historical period:

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party

Canadian National Socialist Unity Party (pro-Anglo-Canadian/French-Canadian)

National Socialist Movement of Chile (1930s)

National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)

Greek National Socialist Party (Italian-style fascist, pro-Hitler)

Hungarian National Socialist Party (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (1920s–1930s; favoured German annexation of the Netherlands)

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (1930s–1940s; unlike the above, it nominally supported an independent Netherlands)

National Socialist Workers' Party of Norway (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)

Nasjonal Samling (Norway) (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic, anti-Masonic)

National Socialist Party (Romania) (German-style Nazi)

Swedish National Socialist Freedom League (pro-Hitler, founded in 1924)

Swedish National Socialist Party (founded in 1930 through a merger of Nazi and fascist groups)

National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) (split from the above in 1933, became more Strasserite and independently Swedish before declining during World War II)

South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (1930s–1940s; pro-apartheid, white, anti-Semitic)

Neo-Nazism, a label for groups and ideologies after 1945 that are considered to be based on Nazism:

National Socialist Movement of Denmark (contemporary)

Iranian National Socialist Party, created in 1952 (pro-Hitler, anti-Semitic, anti-Arab, anti-Turk)

National Socialist Party of New Zealand (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)

National Socialist Movement of Norway (contemporary)

Russian National Socialist Party (Russian nationalist, fascist, anti-immigrant, promoting Orthodox Christian theocracy)

Colin Jordan's National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962) of the United Kingdom

National Socialist Action Party (British, founded in 1982)

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom) (contemporary)

National Socialist League (United States) (gay, "Aryan", pro-Hitler)

National Socialist Party of America (white, anti-Semitic, anti-black)

National Socialist Movement (United States) (contemporary)

Other unrelated ideologies and organizations, some of which were founded before the NSDAP and thus before "National Socialism" became associated with Nazism, while others exist in non-European contexts where Nazism is not widely known:

Ba'ath Party, an Arab national-socialist party in Iraq and Syria

Czech National Social Party, founded in Austria-Hungary in 1898 as a center-left party advocating Czech independence

National-Social Association, a small center-left Christian liberal party in Germany, founded by Friedrich Naumann in 1896

National Socialist Party (UK), a breakaway group from the British Socialist Party formed in 1916; historically Marxist, it reverted to a previous name as the Social Democratic Federation in 1919 and then merged with the Labour Party

Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (National Socialist Party), a small socialist party in Bangladesh

National Socialist Council of Nagaland, a Maoist insurgent group in India

National Socialist Party of Tripura, a party advocating Tripuri self-determination in India

National Socialist Party

National Socialist Party or Nazi Party may refer to:

National Socialist German Workers' Party, more commonly known as the Nazi Party

National liberalism

National liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal policies and issues with elements of nationalism and/or a term used to describe a series of European political parties that have been especially active in the 19th century in several national contexts such as Central Europe, the Nordic countries and Southeast Europe.

Nazism

National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism (), is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party—officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP)—in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but also incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed. Its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, and it was strongly influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence" which was "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to pseudo-scientific theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community (Volksgemeinschaft). The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in historically German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races.

The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, and sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization.The Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party—to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats (SPD) and the Communists (KPD)—and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization. The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"; 1924–1925), Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion.The Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, and a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.

The Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Schutzstaffel (SS) functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more socially and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was effectively the dictator of Nazi Germany, which was also known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were eventually exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced. It is widely regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism.

Ramón Serrano Suñer

Ramón Serrano Suñer (12 September 1901 – 1 September 2003), was a Spanish politician during the first stages of General Francisco Franco's Spanish State, between 1938 and 1942, when he held the posts of President of the Spanish Falange caucus (1936), and then Interior Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister. Serrano Suñer was known for his pro-Third Reich stance during World War II, when he supported the sending of the Blue Division to fight along with the Wehrmacht on the Russian front. He was also the brother-in-law of the Spanish caudillo General Franco, for which he was nicknamed Cuñadísimo. (Franco himself was, officially, the generalísimo.)

Serrano Suñer was the founder of the 67,000-strong Spanish blind people's organization ONCE on 13 December 1938, as well as of the EFE press-agency, in 1939. Serrano Suñer also founded the Radio Intercontinental radio network in 1950.

Sudeten German Party

The Sudeten German Party (German: Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Czech: Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on 1 October 1933, some months after the First Czechoslovak Republic had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP). In April 1935, the party was renamed Sudetendeutsche Partei following a mandatory demand of the Czechoslovak government. The name was officially changed to Sudeten German and Carpathian German Party (Sudetendeutsche und Karpatendeutsche Partei) in November 1935.

With the rising power of Nazi Party in Germany, the Sudeten German Party became a major pro-Nazi force in Czechoslovakia with explicit official aim of breaking the country up and joining it to the Third Reich. By June 1938, the party had over 1.3 million members, i.e. 40.6% of ethnic-German citizens of Czechoslovakia. During last free democratic elections before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the May 1938 communal elections, the party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes, taking over control of most municipal authorities in the Czech borderland. The country's mass membership made it one of the largest fascist parties in Europe at the time.

Walter Riehl

Dr. Walter Riehl (8 November 1881 – 6 September 1955) was an Austrian lawyer and politician who was an early exponent of Austrian National Socialism. Belonging to the wing of that ideology that favoured links between Germany and an independent Austria, he lost influence as the drive for Anschluss grew within both Austrian National Socialism and German Nazism.

Ústí nad Labem

Ústí nad Labem (Czech pronunciation: [ˈuːsciː ˈnad labɛm] (listen)), formerly known by its German name Aussig, is the 7th-most populous city of the Czech Republic. It is the capital of its eponymous region and district. Ústí is situated in a mountainous district at the confluence of the Bílina and Elbe rivers. It is a major industrial center and, besides being an active river port, is an important railway junction.

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